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New Series, Vol. XIX 










Missouri Botanical 
Garden Library 

d s 





(New Series) 



No. 1 (Biological No.) pp. 1- 42 Feb , 1924. 

2 (Official No,) ,, i-cviii March, 

3 (Anthropological No.) t , 43- 74 June, 

4 (Biological No.) ,, 75-152 July, 

5 (Historical No.) ,, 153-236 Aug , 

6 (Numismatic No.) ,,N.l-8f 

7 (Islamic Studies No.) ,, 237-310 Sept., 

8 (Philological No.) ,, 311-380 ,, 

9 (Zoological No. -Yunnan Expedition) ,, 381-464 Oct., 
10 (Ethnological No.) ,,465-560 ,, 

(Volume complete in 10 issues.) 


The pages of the Journal should immediately follow the 
Title, List of Contents, and these directions, in the following 
sequence: 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Then follow the Pro- 
ceedings contained in the Official Number (No. 2), with sepa- 
rate page-numbering in Roman numerals. The separate title 
page and list of contents for these Proceedings should be 
prefixed to it. Next follows the Numismatic Supplement for 
1923, No. XXXVII (No. 6), with separate title-page and page- 
numbering marked with the letter N (Numismatics). 

Plates i-ix to follow page 42 
Plate x ,, ,, „ 80 

xi : 86 

5> "" J> >» >> 

., xii ,, face „ 151 

xiii ,, ,.. „ 207 

xiv „ „ „ 345 

xv „ „ „ 349 

xvi „ „ „ 397 


xvii ,, follow ,, 422 
xviii M ,, ,, 446 

,, *x , ,»* ,, ,, i} 

Three plates in the Numismatic No. are separately num- 
bered ; these should be inserted at the end of the number. 

The Index to be bound at the end of the volume. 



Article II. Stamp. Contents 
,, 14. Dutta. Contents 

• • 


A • , --HI 

Articles 35-41. Zoological Results, etc. Contents . , . 38! 

Official No. 

Contents, in frontof the number 
Numismatic No. 

Contents, in front of the number 

• • 

• I 


[journal and proceedings] 
' Abdu'l Walt 

Hinduism according to Muslim Sufis . . . . . . 237 

Life and Letters of Malik 'Aynu'1-Mulk Mahru, and Side-lights 

on Firiiz Shah's Expeditions to Lakhnauti and Jajnagar 253 

Annandale, N. 

Aquatic Gastropod Molluscs 
Land Molluscs 

• • • • * * 

• • •• •• • « ,. 


and S[under] L[al] Hora 
Fish, Recent and Fossil 

Bartja, B. M. 


Identification of Four Jatakas at Bharaut . . . . 349 

Notes on Five Bharaut Epithets . . . . . . 357 

Bhattasali, N. K. 

Notes on the Coinage of Tipper a . . . . . . N. 47 

Notes on the Gupta and Later Gupta Coinage . . . . N. 54 

Brown, J. Cogoin 

On the Occurrence of Ostrea gryphoides Schlotheim . . 75 

Chattopadhyay, K. P. 

An Essay on the History of Newar Culture . . . . 465 

Das-Gupta, Hem Chab 

On the Fossil Peotinidse from Hathab, Bhavanagar State 


Notes on a Type of Sedentary Game prevalent in many parts 

of Tndia 

DayaIi, Prayag 

Two Gold Gupta Coins 

Divajia, N. B. 



N. 82 

The Nose-ring as an Indian Ornament . . . . . . 67 


Douglas, R. O. 

On Some Malava Coins 


. N. 42 

Dtttta, Sat Kori 

On a Peculiar Disposition of the Liver and the Kidney in the 

Fish Genera Clarias and Saccobranchus . . . . HI 

Fraser, F. C 


• ♦ 

• • 


Ghatak, Jyotis Chandra 

The Conception of the Indian Astronomers Concerning the 
Precession of the Equinoxes 


Gregory, J. W. and C J. 

Zoological Results, etc. Introduction . . . . . . 383 

Gudger, E. W. 

The Sources of the Material for Hamilton Buchanan's Fishes 
of the Ganges, the Fate of his Collections. Drawings and 
Notes, and the Use made of his Data . . . . 121 

Gupta, Kihori Mohan 

Daudig Copper Plate Inscription of KaSaeati, Sakabda, 1725 
(A^D. 1803) . . 


Gupta, K[ishori] M[ohan] 


Jaintipur Copper Plate Inscription of Badagosayi . . 331 

Hodivala, S. H. 

N. 75 

The Mint Gobindpur 

The Mint Name Kanan (Bajanan) . . . . . . N. 76 

The Mint Name SItpur (Surat) . . . . . . N. 72 

The Mint Panjnagar (Bhujnagar) .. .. . . N. 77 

Persian Couplets on the Mughal and Subsequent Coinage . . N. 64 

Hora, Sunder Lal 

The Adhesive Apparatus on the Toes of certain Geckos and 

Tree-frogs . . . . . . . . 137 

On Certain Local Names of the Fishes of the Genus Oarra . . 105 

See Annandale, N., and S[under] L[al] Hora. 

Horwood, T. B. 

An Unidentified Coin of Gujarat . . . . . . N. 40 

An Unpublished Copper Coin of Jahangir of Ojain . . N. 42 

Hosten, Rev. H. 

St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore . . . . . . 15." 

Ivanow, W. 

Imam Ismail 

• • • • - « 


More on the Sources of Jami's Naf aha t. . .. .. 299 

Note on an Early Persian Work on Ethics . . . . 295 

A ' Witch-case ' in Mediaeval India . . . . . . 43 


• • • • . . - . 

Kemp, Stanley 

Decapod Crustacea 

Law, Satya Churn 

Observations on the Breeding of some Common Birds in the 
Vicinity of Calcutta 



• • • • - - 


Lord, Leslie See Stamp, L. Dudley and Leslie Lord. 
Majumdar, N. G. 

An Inscribed Copper Ladle from Hazara . . . . 34;"> 

Sanchi Inscription of &rldharavarman . . . . . . 337 

— r. a 

The Date of the Khadga Dynasty of Bengal . . . . 376 

Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji 
The Owl in Folklore 

Paruck, Furdoonjee, D. J. 

• • - • . « 


Some Rare and Unpublished Snganian Coins . . . . N. 1 

Unpublished Mughal Coins . 

Prashad, Baini 

Bivalve Molluscs 

Rau, L. Rama 


. N. 17 


On the Age of the Utatur Marine Transgression . . . . 87 

Ray, H. C. 

Allusions to Vasudeva Krishna DevakTputra in the Vedic 

• • •• . - ■ • . . 

Why Did Not Alexander Cross the Beas . . . . 365 

Seth, Mesrovb 

A Manuscript Koran in Classical Armenian . . . . 291 

Singh, Hem 

On the Anatomy and Bionomics of the Red Cott n Bug, 

Dyadercus cingulatus (Fabr.) .. .. .. 15 

Stamp, L. Dudley, and Leslie Lord 

A Preliminary Note on the Ecology of Part of the Riverine 

Tract of Burma . . . . . . 91 

. . N. 83 

Taraporevala. D. V. 
Two Mughal Muhars 

Tattersall, W. M. 

Amphipod Crustacea 

Thapar, Gobind Singh 

On the Arterial System of the Lizard Varanus bengalensts 

(Dmid.), with Notes on Uromasiix and H «*nidaetylus .. I 

• « • . 




Some Variations in the Customs and Manners of the Telugus 
and Tamils of the Godavari and Tinnevelli Districts 



Whittell, H. M. 

The Coins of the BahmanT Kings of Kulbarga 

9 V 

. . N. 22 

Zoological Results of the Percy Sladen 

Trust Expedition to Yunnan under the Leadership of 'Prof 
J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. (1922) . . . . " . . 




See Official Number, Content*, in front 




New Series. 

Vol. XIX.— 1923. 


i. On the Arterial System of the Lizard Varan as 

bengatensis (Daud.)t with Notes on 
Uromastix and Heinldactylas. 

By Gobind Singh Thapab, M.8c m F.R.M.S., 
Zoological Department, The University, Lucknow. 

The present paper is a continuation of ray work on the 
vascular system of Varanus bengalensi*. the account of the 
venous system having appeared in the "Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London" for 1921. 

The foundation of our knowledge of the arterial system 
of Lacertilia was laid by Corti in 1S47, in his work "De 
Systemate Yasorum Psammosauri grisea." I have not seen 
his work in original but it has been referred to by several 
subsequent workers. Rathke (12) described the aortic root- 

of about 55 species of Lacertilia, including some of the genu 

Varanus ; and the same author (13) and also Hochstetter 
(7) have described the main arteries of the gut in a number 
of species. Most of these observation- are reproduced in 
"Bronn'sThierreich" by Hoffmann, in his account of the Rept ilia 
(vol. YL Abt. ii, pp. 990, 991). Beddard (1, 3, 4) has also 
made comparative studies of the vascular system of a number 
of Lacertilia. 

These descriptions, however, do not completely apply 
to the present species, Varanus bengalensis, in which there 
are some very conspicuous features not ho farde bribed in an\ 
other lizard. There is, therefore, justification for the fol- 
lowing record of the results of my investigation. 

Be- ides the ordinary dissections and injections, I have 

2 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

tried the plan of causing engorgement of some portions of 

the arterial system by ligaturing other outlets from the heart 
while the heart was still beating ; in this way the course 
of the vessels could easily be followed. Dissections of fresh 
specimens of Uromastix and Hemidactylus flaviviridis were also 
made for comparison, and I have added brief notes on these 
also. My grateful acknowledgments are due to my professor. 
Colonel J. Stephenson, D.Sc, now at the University of 
Edinburgh, for his kind suggestions and also for correcting 
the manuscript of my paper. 

1. The Arterial Arches. (Fig. 1.) 

There are three arterial trunks arising from the ventricle. 
The cavity of the latter is incompletely divided by a ridge-like 
partition, which runs obliquely from the left latero-ventral 
wall and tends to divide the ventricle at the time of its 
contraction into two unequal chambers : of these the right 
is the larger, and more dorsal in position. 

Arising from the left side of the ridge is the Pulmonary 


arch, ventral in position and curving over to divide into two 
branches, the pulmonary arteries, one for each lung. 

The right chamber gives origin to two vessels, the right 

and left roots of the aorta. These roots, the systemic arches, 
cross each other at their origin, so that the left systemic arch 
arises from the heart on the right side of the right arch. 
Both these arches arise dorsally to the pulmonary arch and 
twist round to become ventral to it ; thev then curve round 
the oesophagus, thus becoming dorsal in position, and finally 
run backwards to unite with each other below the vertebral 
column and behind the level of the heart. 

I. The Right Systemic, or better the Systemico carotid 
arch. Before this arch curves round to occupy the dorsal 
position it sends off a branch, the Innominate (c. c). 

(A) The Innominate artery (carotis primaria of Rathke) 
immediately after its origin gives off a narrow branch, the 
common epigastric (ep. c), which runs backwards just 
ventral to the heart. The innominate itself, of some length, 
runs forwards towards the head, and about half an inch in 
front of the bifurcation of the trachea divides into the 
right and left carotid arteries, each of which follows its usual 
course forwards along the neck. 

The Common Epigastric artery, the origin of which is 
described above, divides into two near the base of the auricles : 
these, the right and left Epigastric arteries, are very fine 
vessels, and in order to see their exact course I had to use 
freshly killed specimens in which the heart was still beating 
vigorously ; the right systemic arch was then ligatured a little 
beyond the origin of the innominate artery, and the 
innominate also was ligatured near the bifurcation of the 

1923.] The Arterial System of Varanns bengalemis ( Daud ). 


Fig. I. 

„„j i i . , , . , — ' """galensis. Au. 1 and 2, r. 

,*?<! V *r C l eB : br ;. J b f achia ^ o, and c„ r. and I. carotids ; c. c, inno^i- 

;« Zr i . Vk ?V T, ,C arch : 9 -' 8ubc,a vian fdividin- into 

r. s. and Is., the r. and 1 subclavian); so., subscapular; sp]., spleen 

v., ventricle; ve., vertebral; x., 1^-ament. 

4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

trachea, so that most of the blood which entered the right 
systemic arch was forced into the epigastrics : these arteries 
were thus distended and made conspicuous throughout their 
course. In this wav the exact distribution of these vessels 
was traced. It is interesting to note that the two epigastric 
arteries are not symmetrical in their distribution. 

(a) The Rigid Epigastric artery (Fig. 2, ep. a. 1). This 
vessel, on reaching the posterior border of the last sternal 
rib. divides into two. One of these branches (p.) runs forwards 
across the ribs to supply the inner sheet of the pectoral 
muscles in the ventral region. The other branch runs back- 
wards along the outer (ventral) side of the epigastric vein, 
and ramifies over the body-wall ; it also sends a branch to the 
fat body, over which it ramifies, probably anastomosing there 

with the posterior epigastric artery. 

(b) The Left Epigastric artery (ep. a. 2) has the same 
course as has been described for the right, but it gives off an 
additional branch about an inch beyond its origin from the 
common vessel. This branch of the left epigastric divides 
into two: — (i) a muscular artery (m. o.), distributed to the 
body-wall ; (ii) the hepatic artery (he.), which enters the liver 
at the anterior end of the median sulcus. 

I may mention here that I have not been able to trace 
any vessel corresponding to the epigastric of Varanus in Uro- 
mastix and H emidactylus . In vertebrates the epigastric is 
generally described as originating from the subclavian ; the 
origin of an epigastric artery, supplying the liver, fat body, 
and body- wall, from the root of the common carotid is very 
peculiar ; it is not found in any of the Lacertilia, and I am 
not aware of any similar vessel in any other vertebrate. 
Without going into the significance of this vessel, I may point 
out that it carries to the liver and body- wall a part of the 
pure blood meant for the supply of the brain. 

Each carotid artery gives off the following branches in 
the neck : 

(i) The Thyroid artery, for the thyroid gland. 

(ii) The Oesophageal artery (oe.) arising about an inch 
above the bifurcation and curving round to be distributed on 
the oesophagus. 

(iii) The Hyoidean artery (h ) arises a little in front of the 
oesophageal, and runs to the muscles of the hyoid. 

(iv) The Lingual artery (1.) goes to the tongue. 

At the base of the skull each carotid artery divides into 
the usual cerebral and palatine branches. One notable feature 
in this part of the system is the entire absence of the Ductus 
caroticus (O'Donoghue, 10) ; this is present, however, in the 
other two lizards which I have investigated. 

(B) The Subclavian artery (Fig. 1, s.) also arises from 
the right systemic arch, but after the latter has curved over 

1D23.] The Arterial System of Varanus bengalensis {Baud.). 5 


cc. v 

Fio. 2. 

The Innominate and its branches in Varanus bengalensis. Ca, caudal ; 
e. c., external carotid ; ep. a. 1, ep. a. 2, right and left epigastrics ; ep. v.,' 
epigastric vein ; h., hyoidean ; he., hepatic; i. c, internal carotid (cere- 
bral): il., iliac ; is., ischiadic; 1., lingual; ra. c, muscular; oe., oesopha- 
geal ; p , artery to inner sheet of pectoral mtiscl.s; p. e., posterior 
epigastric; tr., trachea. Other letters as in Pig. 1. 

6 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX 

to assume the dorsal position. This common subclavian artery 
divides into right and left subclavian* (r. s., 1. b.) which run 
on either side of the vertebral column. In Hemidactylus there 
are two independent subclavian arteries arising from" the right 
systemic aorta. Near the base of the arm each subclavian 
divides into two, the vertebral and brachial arteries. 

(i) The Vertebral artery (ve ) runs forwards along the ver- 

tebral column and in its course gives off branches from each 

side alternately which enter the vertebral canal. 

(ii) The Brachial artery (br.) goes to the arm, first giving 
off a branch, the Subscapular (sc), to the scapula. The 
brachial has the usual course in the arm. 

(C) The Intercostal arteries (in. c). Three pairs of these 
arise from the right systemic arch ; they supply the body-wall. 

After giving off the subclavian artery, the right systemic 

arch is enclosed by a ligament of connective tissue (x.) 
arising by several elastic strands from the hypapophysis of the 
last cervical vertebra and centra of the first three thoracic 
vertebrae. This ligament first runs along the subclavian 
artery ; then, after surrounding the right systemic arch, it 
crosses the middle line to enclose the left svstemic similarlv : 
finally, it runs towards the alimentary canal along the mesen- 
teric artery, partly enclosing it, and ramifying in the same 
manner as the artery itself. The ligament is composed of 
very strong fibres of connective tissue, and may perhaps serve 
the purpose of keeping the aorta and intestine in position 
within the body-cavity during the active contortions of 
the body in rapid movement. 

II. The Left Systemic Arch (Fig. 1,1. a.) becomes dorsal 
like the right, and runs along the inner ventral border of the 
left lung ; but before its union with the right arch to form 
the dorsal aorta it gives off the following branches : — 

(A) The Mesenteric artery (m.) arises from the left sys- 
temic arch about half an inch before the latter unites with the 
right arch ; it is a fairly large vessel, and the left arch is 
noticeably diminished behind its origin. The mesenteric 
divides into two branches, which run side by side, enclosed by 
the longitudinal ligament described above, till they reach the 
gut ; the two branches then separate, and distribute their 
blood to the different parts of the intestine. The ultimate 
distribution of the branches is indicated in fig. 3. along with 
the ramifications of the ligament. 

(B) The Left Gastric artery (g'.) arises about midway 
between the origin of the mesenteric and the junction of the 
right and left arches. It is a small narrow vessel, running to 
the left of the stomach, over which it is distributed. This 
vessel was however absent in two cases ; in one case it arose 
very close to the union of the two systemic arches. Wieder- 
sheim (16) gives an instructive sketch to show the heart and 

l»23.] The Arterial System of Varanus bengalensis (Daud.). 7 

the arrangement of the several vessels in Varanus, but he does 
not indicate these visceral arteries, and, so far as I have been 
able to ascertain, they are not elsewhere described in Varanu* 
in this way. 

Fn the origin of the mesenteric artery from the left sys- 


Fig. 3. 

The Origin (p. o.) and Distribution of the Ligament and Mesenteric 
Artery in Varanus bengalensis. C. v., last cervical vertebra: g'. f gastric : 
int., intestine: th. v., thoracic vertebrae. Other letters as in Figs, i, 2. 

teniic artery, we find in Varanu & condition winch resembles 
that of the higher Rep t ilia, and which differs from that of 


the visceral arteries arise from the 

Hemidactylus, where all 

dorsal aorta after the union of the two systemics. 

8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.8., XIX, 

2. Thb Dorsal Aorta. 

The Dorsal Aorta throws off a generous supply of 
offshoots to the body-wall and viscera. 

I. There are fourteen pairs of Dorso-lumbar arteries 
arising from the dorsal aorta throughout its course as far a- 
its termination in the tail as the caudal artery. 

II. The Coeliac artery (Fig. I, coe.) arises beyond the 
origin of the third pair of dorso-lumbars ; after running for 
some distance in the mesentery it divides up into : — 

(i) The Splenic artery (spl.), for the spleen. 

(ii) The Pancreatic (p.). for the pancreas. 

(iii) The right Gastric (g.), for the right side of the stomach. 

(iv) Hepatic artery (h.), for the liver. 

It would thus appear that the original Coeliaco-inesenteric 
of Amphibia is split up in Varanus into three branches, two 
of which, the mesenteric and the left gastric, retain their 
connection with the left systemic arch, while the third, the 
coeliac, comes off directly from the dorsal aorta. In Helo- 
derma, Uromastix, and Hemidactijlus a further splitting apart 
of the branches of the coeliaco-mesenteric takes place, so that 
we find in each of these genera as many as five independent 
visceral branches arising from the dorsal aorta to supply the 
different regions of the alimentary canal. Further, in Varanus 
the liver receives its arterial supply from two sources, the 
left epigastric and, as usual, the coeliac. 

III. The Ischiadic artery (Fig. 2, is). The last pair of 
segmental arteries are enlarged, and are called by Bronn the 
arteriae ischiadicae. Each arises a little in front of the iliac ; 
each sends a branch to the bod v- wall, and itself runs forwards 
as the posterior Epigastric (p. e.) to the fat body, in which it 
appears to anastomose with the branches of the anterior 
epigastric. This anastomosis takes place also in Sphenodon . 
the only difference being that the anterior epigastric arises in 
the latter as a branch, not of the common carotid, but of the 

IV. The Genital and Renal arteries exhibit no peculiarities, 
and always arise in connection with the paired dorso-lumbars. 
The genitals are one pair only, the left arising in front of the 
right. The renals are three to five pairs. 

V. The Iliac arteries (Fig. 2, il.) arise beyond the origin 
of the arteriae ischiadicae, and have the usual course In one 
case the two iliacs arose from the dorsal aorta at different 
levels, the left a little in front of the right, and just at the 
origin of the left iliac arose the left ischiadic. In another case 
the left posterior epigastric arose directly from the left iliac, 
thus indicating the probable fusion of the ischiadic of this 
side with the iliac. The latter condition seems to be similar to 
what is found in the Urodeles. 


1923. J The Arterial System of Varanus bengalensis (Daud.). 9 

The dorsal aorta, after giving off the iliac arteries. runs 
as the caudal artery (c.) in the tail. The first pair of it- 
branches goes to the pelvis, succeeding ones to the muscle of 
the tail. 

I have no observation on the existence of retia mirabilia 
in the caudal region of this lizard, but it is not likeJv that thi 
thick-tailed lizard often parts with that extremity of its body. 
I have not met with any specimen in which the tail wa 
regenerated to a greater extent than its minute tip. 

The chief peculiarities of the arterial system of Varanus 
bengalensis are thus : 

(1) The origin of the epigastric arteri* s from the innom- 
inate ; and their anastomosis with the posterior epigastrics, 
as in Sphenodo?i. 

(2) The origin of a single subclavian of the dorsal type 
from the right systemic only, 

(3) The independent origin of the mesenteric and the left 
gastric arteries from the left systemic arch, as in higher 
reptilia, before its union with the right. 

(4) The double arterial supply to the liver, by means of 
the left epigastric and coeliac arteries. 

(5) The enclosure of both systemic arches by a ligament 
which is attached behind to the alimentary canal along the 
ramifications of the mesenteric artery. 

3. Notes on the Arterial System of 

Uromastix hardwickii (Gray) and Hemidactylus 

flaviviridis Riippel. 

The arterial system of Uromastix hardwickii (Fig. 4) is 
found to present certain remarkable differences from that of 

A ductus caroticus connects each carotid with the sys- 
temic arch of its side. A single subclavian is the only vessel 
which arises from the systemic arches before their union (s.. 
Fig. 4). At the point where the coeliaco-mesenteric artery is 
usually given off (between (he third and fourth dorso-Jumbars) 
arises the gastric artery (g.). which ramifies over the right >id<- 
of the stomach. The next two arteries for the alimentary 
canal arise one behind the other between the seventh and 
eighth pairs ; the anterior of these two, the posterior mesen- 
teric (p. m.), runs backwards to supply the colon and rectum : 
the other, the coeliac (coe.), divides into three branches . 

(a) The splenic, for the spleen (spL). 

(b) The gastric, for the left side of the atom ch (g.). 

(c) The pancreo -hepatic, which runs along the pancreas 
(pa.), sending branches to thi- organ as it proceeds, and 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

curving over the stomach to supply the liver as the hepatic 
artery (he.). 

The next set of arteries for the alimentary canal, the 
duodenal and intestinal, arise betweeen the eighth and ninth 






Ae - 


.. L.S 

Fig. 4. 

The main Arteries in the body region of Uromastix harduickii with 
the Alimentary Canal pushed over to the left (visceral organs represented 
by dotted lines). C, colon; d., duodenal; d. I., \ dorso-lumbar ; 
g., gastric; in., intestinal; pa., pancreas; p. rn , posterior mesenteric; 
r., rectal; re., renal; st., stomach. Other letters as in Figs. 1-3. 

dorso-lumbars. These (d. and in., Fig. 4) are the branches, 
here independent, of what in Hemidactylus is the anterior 
mesenteric arterv. 

Thus in Uromastix hardwickii all the main branches 
supplying the alimentary canal arise independently of one 

1923.] The Arterial System of Varanus bengalenaia (Daud.). 11 

another, there being no such combination as is found in Varanus 

The ischiadic arteries (is.) arise from the aorta behind the 
fifteenth pair of dorso-lumbars ; each gives off a branch, the 
posterior epigastric (p. e.) ? which runs fdrwards to the bodv- 
waJJ, ultimately terminating in the fat body. 

* &. --- - 


Pig. 5 

The Arterial System of Hemidactylua flaviviridis. D. c, ductus caro 
ticug ; a. m., anterior mesenteric artery. Other letters as in Figs. 1-4. 

The renal arteries arise as three to four pairs behind the 
ischiadies; the dorsal aorta then runs back in the tail as tin- 
can dal artery. 

The condition in Hemidartylue flaviririJis (Fig. 5) is largely 

12 Journal oj the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N-8. s 

similar to that of Uromastix, so that it will suffice to enu- 
merate the chief points of difference. They are : 

(1) The origin of the subclavians as two independent art- 
eries from the right systemic arch, and not, as in Varanus and 
Uromastix, as a single vessel. 

(2) The anterior and posterior mesenteric arteries arise 
close together, the posterior in front of the anterior, between 
the ninth and tenth pairs of dorso-lumbars. We have seen 
that in Uromastix the posterior mesenteric artery arises from 
the aorta further forwards, between the seventh and eighth 
pairs of dorso-lumbars. 

(3) The presence of an independent rectal artery, in 
addition to the usual branch of the posterior mesenteric. 

References to Literature. 

1. Beddard, F. E. Contributions to the Anatomv of the 

Lacertilia. — On some points in the Vascular 
System of Chamaeleon and other Lizards. 
Proc Zool. Soc , 1904 ; vol. II. 

2. „ Notes upon the Anatomy of certain 

Snakes of the family Boidae. Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1904, vol. II 

3. „ Some contributions to the knowledge of 

the Anatomy, principally of the Vascular Sys- 
tem, of Hatteria, Crocodiles, and certain 
Lizards. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1905, vol. II. 

4. ,, On the Vascular System of Heloderma, 

with notes on that of the Monitors and Croco- 
diles. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1906, vol. II. 

5. ,, The Vascular System of Hatteria. Proc 

Zool. Soc, 1905, vol. II. 

6. Gegenbaur, C. Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere 

Leipzig, 1898-1901. 

7. Hochstetter, F. Uber die Arterien des Darmcanals der 

Saurier. Morph. Jahrb. Bd., XXVI, 1898. 

8. Mackay, J. Y. The Arterial System of the Chamaeleon. 

Mem. and Memoranda in Anatomy, vol. I. 
Edinburgh, 1889. 

9. O'Donoghue, C. H. The Circulatory System of the Com- 

mon Grass Snake. Proc Zool. Soc , 1912. 

10. ,, A Note on the Ductus Caroticus and Ductus 

Arteriosus and their distribution in the Reptilia, 
Jonm. Anal., vol. LI, 1917. 

11. „ The Blood Vascular System of the Tua- 

tara, Sphenodon punctatus. Phil. Trans. Roy. 
Soc, 1920. 

12. Rathke, H. Untersuchung uber die Aortawurzeln und 

die von ihnen ausgehenden Arterien der Saurier 

1923] The Arterial System of Varanus bengalensis {Dand.). 13 

Denkschr. Kais. Akad. Wiss.. WiVn, Bd. XIII 

13 Rathke. H. I'ntersuchungen fiber die Arterien der 

Verdauungswerkzeuge derSaurier Abh Akad. 
Wiss. Munchen, Math. Phys. KL. Bd. IX, 1863 

14. Shufeldt, R. W. Contributions to the study of Helo- 

denna suspectum.— Arterial System. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1890. 


15. Thapar, G. S. On the Venous System of the Lizard, 

Varanus; bengalensis. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1921, 
vol. II. 

16. Vogt and Jung. Lehrbuch der practischen vergleiehenden 

Anatomie. Bd. 2, 1889-1894. 

17. Wiedersheim, R. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

(Trans by W. N. Parker.) London, 1907. 

18. Woodland, W. N. F. Some observations on Caudal 

Autotomy and Regeneration in the Gecko, 
with Notts on the Tails of Sphenodon and 
Pygopus. Quart. Journ. Micros. Sci , vol. 
LXV, 1921. 

> • v r\ <•**» ■* v ^^ *""\ - -* s' ■ * 

2* On the Anatomy and Bionomics of the Red Cotton 

Bug*, Dijsflercus cingulatus (Fabr.). 

By Hem Singh, M.Sc. (Punjab), Assistant Professor of 
Entomology , Punjab Agricultural College, Ly all pur. 

Co NT 7^ NTS. 

* • 


Habits and General Account 

I . A na tomy-External 


Thorax . . 

II. Anatomy-Internal 

Digestive System 

Saliva^ glands 

• « 

• • 

• • • • • - 

• • 

• • 







Tentorium or the Endoskeleton . . . . . . 31 

Reproductive System 
Nervous S3 r stem 
Respiratory System . . 
Stink Glands 

• * 

* * • 9 ■ • 



Circulatory System 
III. Reproduction and Life-History 

Literature referred to in the text . . . . 36 

List of terms employed in the paper and their explana- 

• • • • 


Lettering employed in the diagrams . . . . 40 


The material for study was collected at Lahore and Pusa 
during the months of March to August of 1919 and 1920. Speci- 
mens were chloroformed or killed by immersing in 90% alcohol. 

For studj'ing the external features, 70% alcohol was used 
as a preservative. It had no effect on the red pigment of th< 
individual, nor was there much crumbling and disfiguring of 
the different sclerites. Organs and tissues were cleared b^ 
treatment with 5% KOH for 24-30 hours. Boiling in 10% KOH 
for a few minutes as suggested by some investigators* was no? 
found to be satisfactory, since this process produced artificial 
lines and sutures on the tissues. Glacial acetic acid was em- 
ployed to get rid of the excess of the KOH. Then the organ 
was either mounted in weak glycerine or a permanent prepara- 
tion of this was made in Canada balsam. If the sclerites had 
been made too transparent, a small quantity of picric acid was 
added to clove oil, to give a yellow stain. The fore wings had 
to be dechiorified in order to show their veins distinctly. 

To get satisfactory sections, of the head capsule, Awati 
procedure (1), with some modification was adopted : 

16 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.8., XIX, 

The head of the living insect was cut off and allowed to 
remain for 30 hours in the fixative of Carnoy and Lebrun. 

(I) Bouin's fluid 

fixed for three days and washed in 90% alcohol and 
preserved in 75% Alcohol. 

(2) Picro-acetic acid — ■ 

fixed for 24 hours, washed with 70% alcohol to 
which carbonate of lithium had been added ; 
preserved in 75% alcohol. 

(3) Picro-nitric acid — 

fixed for 15 hours, washed and preserved as in No. 2. 

(4) Formaldehyde 40% 10 vols. 

Alcohol 90% 90 vols. 

In the case of the digestive system, formol-alcohol 
_;-ave as good results as any of the first three. But for the 
study of the reproductive organs, Bouin's fluid and picro- 
acetic acid were found to be more suitable. 

The investigation of the respiratory system presented 
many difficulties. The tracheae, being of the same pale colour 
as the surrounding fat tissues, could not be easily distin- 
guished. To make them conspicuous the following method 
of injection was employed : — 

The insect was placed in a tube containing a solution of 
Indian ink, which was kept in a flask whose mouth was connected 
to an aspirator. When the air contents of the flask and tube 
and ultimately of the tracheae were exhausted, the ink was 
forced into the empty tracheae. The insect was then treated 
with 5% KOH for 24 hours; this treatment dissolved out all 
the soft tissues, leaving the chitinoas (black) tracheae in situ 

The habits recorded here are mainly from my observations 
in the experimental cotton fields at Pusa. 

The insect is bisexual and the male, which is comparatively 
smaller than the female, is chosen for description. 

The measurements given in the text are the average of 
the organs of at least 10 freshly killed specimens. 

Then the head was put in 90% alcohol for 5 to 6 days. In 
absolute alcohol, a few hours' 4 hours) immersion was found 
sufficient to dehydrate it completely. Then taking it through I 

a mixture of absolute alcohol and chloroform it was placed in 
pure chloroform for 48 hours. Thence it was heated in molten 
paraffin for 4 hours. Sections of 6 u to 8 n thickness were cut 
and stained on slide, with Heidenhain's iron haematoxylin. 
Delafield - haematoxylin and eosin in 90% alcohol were also 

For the internal organs — digestive, nervous and reproduc- 
tive — besides alcohol, various other fixatives and preservatives, 
anion g them the folio wing, were tried :— 

1023.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. 17 

Habits and General Account. 

The red cotton bug often termed as one of the cotton 
stainers, is known by various vernacular names in different 
parts of India; Chainpa (Punjab), Bania (Saharanpur), Behna 
(Cawnpur), Kappa Poka (Orissa), Tola Poka (Dacca). Lai 
Chingum (Central Provinces), etc., etc- 

It is general!}' met with in summer, in winter it hides in 
crevices of the earth. In those parts of India where there is 
no severe winter, it can be found throughout the year. In 
the Punjab it is seen from the end of February to the middle 
of November, sometimes even later. 

As the name implies, it is one of the specific pests of 
cotton ; it sucks the juice from the green bolls, and when the\ 
open, it attacks the young oily seeds, making the lint dirty 
. with its yellow excreta. It prefers \*oung pods of ; Bhindi ' 
Hibiscus esculenlus (Lady's finger) to cotton bolls, hence the 
former is used as a trap-crop in cotton fields. In a cage con- 
taining equal number of bolls and pods (both green) the number 
of insects gathered on the pods and bolls was in the ratio of 
20 : 12. It does not restrict its activities to cotton and 
' Bhindi ' only, but attacks other Malvaceous plants also which 
have juicy, succulent and oily seeds, e.g., silk-cotton tree, etc. 

The insect is of a deep red colour, with ochraeeous wings. 
Head, rostrum, anterior transverse pronotal callosity, the first 
joint of the antennae and the abdomen are sanguineous. The 
apex of rostrum, scutellum and the spot of corium, membrane 
of the hemelytra, the second wing, the tibia and tarsi of the 
legs and the eyes are black. The anterior collar of the prono- 
tum, the anterior margin of the prosternum, posterior margins 
of the sternal and abdominal segment? and the spots at the 
bases of the legs are creamy white. The pronotum and the 
corium are ochraceous. 

The habits of the nymphs are similar to those of the 
adults. They feed gregariously and expose themselves freely 
on their food plants forming conspicuous red clusters. 

The adult insect, though provided with two pairs of well 
developed wings, scarcely flies. It runs freely and travels from 
plant to plant by this mode rather than by flying. In move- 
ments the first pair of legs points forwards, the second outwards 
and the third backward^. 

Dysdercus cingulatas can live without food and air for a 
considerable length of time, for example, of three individuals 
of each sex kept in an empty pill bo* (6 5 cm. high and 
75 cm. in diameter) one male and female remained alive for 84 


During spring and summer, when food is plentiful, copu- 
lation takes place; in this process the heads of the pair are 
turned towards opposite sides. Copulation may last bb long 

18 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

as 60 hours, during which, their normal activities of life, i.e 
taking in of food, and general movements, are not suspended. 
They remain moving from place to place, the female generally 

leading the wav. 

Anatomy — External. 

The body is covered all over with chit in which is thickened 
at certain places to form definite plates or selerites. 

The Head (Figs. 1, 2. 3b and 4b) is triangular, its ventral 
surface is flat whilst the dorsal surface is depressed anteriorly. 

The great development of the ventral or gular region prevent- 

the deflection of the head. The latter is deep red with the 
exception of the eyes and the antennae, which are black. 
The ventral lip or labium, is much longer than the dorsal lip 
or labrum and is generally carried deflected on the ventral 
surface, where there is a shallow groove to receive it. Ocelli are 


Although the different sclerites composing the head are too 

intimate! v fused, the following regions (beginning from the 

posterior end) can be distinguished : 

Occiput (OC. Fig. 3b) is the collar-like region forming the 
boundary of the occiput foramen ; during life it is scarcely 
visible being telescoped under the anterior region of the 
pro thorax. 

Epicranium (EP. Figs. 1, 3b) is a flat plate lying anterior 
to the occiput and bears a pair of conspicuous black eyes. It 
has a median longitudinal furrow reaching the base of the 
clypeus. Tower (27) applies the terms " Cranium" and 
" Frons" to the anterior and the posterior parts of the epi- 
cranium of the squash bug (Anasa tristis). But in D. cingulatus 
there is no suture or even an impressed line to warrant the 
division of epicranium into two regions. 

Clypeus (C1Y. Figs. 1, 3b, 7a, 7b) which is a broad plate in 
mandibulate insects, is comparatively long and narrow in D. 
cingulatus and forms the anterior median portion of the head. 
Laterally it is enclosed by the two fulcra (FR ). At its base 
where it is attached to the edge of the epicranium. the 
clypeus is flat and narrow, but anteriorly it depresses down and 
at the same time widens to form a base for the attachment of 
the labram Its dorsal surface has irregularly scattered fine 
setae which are probably sensory ; and the sides are sunk down 
into the head to form the clypeal folds (C1Y. Figs. 8e, 8f). 

Fulcra or the two triangular pieces on the sides of the cly- 
peus (FR. Figs. 1 and 3b), are confluent at their base with the 
edge of the epicranium. They probably correspond to the 
frontal ridges of Muir and Kershaw (14). In the Potato capsid 
k u £ {Lygus pabulinus) Awati (1) makes no mention of fulcra but 
terms the corresponding region maxilla sclerite (text-figure 17), 
and shows it to be the base of the mandibular protractors. In 

1928.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. 19 

his figures 10-15, lie applies the same name to a ventrolateral 
part (maxilla lamina) forming the bases of the maxilla protract- 
ors. Obviously the same name can not be used for two 
different sclerites. Probably the piece termed maxilla sclerite 

in Fig. 17, is homologous to the fulcra of D. cingnlatus. 

Genae. These sclerites beginning from below and behind 
the eyes and extending downwards to include the base of the 
antennae form the lateral walls of the head in the region of the 
epicranium. Ventralh these come in contact with the gulae. 

Maxillary Laminae (Mx. La. Fig. 4B), termed ' Lovae ' 
(Parsheley) fc Maxilla plates ' (Muir and Kershaw), ' Maxilla scle- 
rite 9 ( Beymons), are two triangular plates, which begin from the 
base of the antennae and extend to the tip of the head, thu> 
forming the ventrolateral boundary of the mouth. Their dorsal 
edges come in contact with the Ventral edges of the fulcra, 
while ventrally they enclose the membranous base of the ros- 
trum. These sclerites, as above stated, form the base for the 
attachment of the maxillary protractors. Heymons considers 
these to be part of the embryonic maxilla. 

The postero-ventral portion of the head is supported by 
flat plates called gulae (Gu. Fig. 2). They extend backward- 
to the occipital foramen. Antero-laterally they are continued 
with the maxillary lamina while their median region forms the 
base for the attachment of the rostrum (Fig. 2). 

Buccale (Bu. Fig. 4B), described as chitinized plates on 
the head of Anasa tristis by Tower are merely folded portions 
of the membranous base of the rostrum, protuding between 
the latter and the maxillary laminae. 

The head possesses one pair of feelers or antennae (Ant. 
Fig. 1, 3b). They are black, 8*5 mm. long, free and capable of 
movement in all directions. They consist of 4 segments with 
an antennal tubercle at the base. Segment I is the longest 
(3 mm.) of all. Its proximal end has three stout inwardly 
pointed spines. Segments II and 111 are 2 25 mm. and I mm. 
long. The fourth is club shaped, 2*5 mm. long, entirely 
covered by fine setae, which are probably sensory. 

Mouth parts : In the order Rhynchota, the mouth parts 
being modified for piercing and sucking purposes, have di- 
verged widely from the mandibulate type. They consist of a 
labrum, a labium and two pairs of stylets (an external and an 
internal pair). Awati has given a summary of the views 
concerning the homology of these organs. The generally 
accepted view is that in the mouth parts of Rhynchota the 
first maxillae are represented by the internal stylets, the man- 
dibles by the external stylets and labium by the rostrum. 
Maxillary palps are absent. Heymons and several others 
regard the labial palps as absent although Savigny {Memoirs 
sur Us Animaux sans Vertebres, 1816), and Leon (Beitrage zur 
Kenntniss der Muadtheile der Hemipteren, Jena, 1887) found 

20 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

these in a few forms. According to Heymona the so-called labial 
palps are secondary structures formed from the 3rd segment of 
the proboscis, whilst Leon maintains that it is not possible for 
secondary structures to grow where there were primary ones 
before and perform the same function as the latter. The 
argument of Leon does not appear to be convincing, since it 
is highly probable that these secondary structures of Heymons 
are not sensory and do not perform the function of the original 
palps ; the sensory activity of the labium having been trans- 
ferred to the tip of the rostrum. 

Morphology of the mouth parts : Labrum (LR. Figs. 3b, 4b, 
7b), is an unpaired flap hinged to the anterior margin of the cly- 
peus. It is tapering towards its free end and 2 mm. long, extend- 
ing as far as the first segment of the labium. It has a broad base 
and semilobate margin. • The dorsal surface is covered with 
small (sensory) hairs or papillae. On the ventral surface runs 

a shallow groove which, in the proximal regions, is sufficiently 

deep to hold the stylets in place and to prevent their lateral 


Rostrum or labium (LB. Figs. 6a, 3b) is the segmented 
lower lip. It is sub-cylindrical in cross section, with a longi- 
tudinal groove running clown its dorsal surface. In the region 

of the 1st segment the groove is very shallow as mentioned 

above, but beyond the apex of the labrum it deepens and 
forms a trough in which the stylets lie (Fig. 6c). Two tra- 
cheae, two nerve cords and several muscle bands run through- 
out its length (Fig. 6c). Of the four segments constituting the 
labium the first is broader and shorter, the joint between 
this and the next is swollen and acts as a hinge upon which 
the whole of the labium is bent and doubled when the animal 
is sucking plant juice. This bending and shortening of the 
proboscis facilitates mechanically the penetration of the 
stylets in the deeper tissues of the plant. The 2nd. 3rd and 
4th segments are narrow and long, and the proboscis gradually 
tapers towards the extremity which is black and bifid. Each 
lobe of the bifid tip bears six small papillae as well as four 
long curved pointed bristles (Fig. 61). 

There are two pairs of stylets, internal (maxillary) and 
external (mandibular). The lateral edges of the clypeus to- 
wards its tip are bent under so as to form a pair of narrow 
supporting lobes, which enclose a passage for the stylets to pass 
inside the head (Fig. 7b). On entering the head, the two pairs 
of stylets diverge apart (Fig. 6a), one member of each pair lying 
on each side of the pharynx, the mandibular (external) being 
more superficial. 

The base of the maxillary stylet is much swollen and, in 
transverse section (Mx, B. Figs. 8a, b) 5 presents the appearance 
of a glandular tissue surrounded by a thin layer of chitin. As 
the sections are traced forwards, the stvlet becomes hollow and 

1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Bed Cotton Bug. 21 

circular in outline (Fig. 8c); a little before it leaves the head 
capsule two grooves appear on it and make the stylets appear 
2 shaped in cross section (Fig. 8). The grooves are on the 
side facing the pharynx and are continued to the apex of the 
stylets. Beyond the head capsule the grooves form two canals 
by the approximation of the stylets. Into the upper or suction 
canal opens the tip of the pharynx, whilst the lower canal 
receives the efferent salivary duct (S.C. and E.G. Fig. 6b). At 
the base of the maxillary stylet is a curved chitinous rod 
(Mx.L. Fig. 6d) which starting from the maxillary base is at first 
directed towards the pharynx for a little distance, then turned 
back below the base and is finally attached to the head wall 
by a delicate articulation. The apex of the maxillary stylet 
is smooth and lancet shaped (Fig. 6f) without hooks or any 
other ornamentation. This stylet is controlled by two series of 
stout powerful muscles, both of which are directly attached to 
its base (Fig. 8), one set, the protractors, run anteriorly and are 
attached to the maxillary lamina, the other, the retractors, are 
directed backwards and joined to the occipital wall. 

Mandibular Stylets (MN. Fig. 6a, 6b and 6g) : They arise 
in the region of the antennae and lie close to the outer sides 
of the maxillary or internal stylets, without any definite arti- 
culation. This stylet also has a swollen base which narrows 
posteriorly ; the mandibular protractors being attached to its 
hind end. The mandibular protractors, at one end are attached 
to the inner side of the epicranium and the fulcra, and at the 
other end they are connected to a triangular chitinous piece, the 
mandibular lever (MN. L. Fig. 6a). The latter is connected to 
the base of the mandible by means of a slender chitinous rod. 
The apex of the stylet is acute and pointed. It is ornamented 
with six backwardly directed hooks. 

The measurements of the different parts of the head of a 
male individual are as follows : 

Length of head to the base of the labrum = 187 mm. 
Breadth of the head in the region of the eyes = I 05 mm. 
Length of the antennae (Seg. I, 3 mm.. II, 2*25 mm., HI 

1 mm., IV, 2-5 mm.) =8-75 mm. 
Length of the rostrum *=6*4 mm. 
The total length of the male = 13 mm. 

N.B. — The Individuals were chloroformed and their organs 
measured within 20 minutes after their death. 

The Thorax.— Audouin, as early as 1824, showed that the 
thorax is composed of three similar segments, pro- meso- and 
metathorax. Each segment is composed of four regions: 
the dorsal tergum or notum, the two lateral pleura and tin 
ventral sternum. Each pleuron is composed of two plates, the 
anterior being termed the episternum and the posterior the 
epimeron, a narrow strip along the anterior margin of the 

22 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

episternurn called the parapleuron and lastly the peritreme, 
which is a small plate containing the spiracles The notura is 
composed of the prescutum. the scutum the ^utellum and the 
post-scutellum forming a linear row. 

The thorax in Dysdercus cingulatus is well marked, 
jointed to the head by a soft neck, which is completely over- 
lapped by the prothorax. Its dorsal surface is large and 
convex, while the ventral is short and flat. 

Prothorax (Fig. 4b) is large, closely attached to the posterior 
part of the head and overlapping the anterior region of the 

meso thorax. 

The pronotutn (PR.N.) is trapezoid in shape, 204 mm. 
broad in front and 3*2 mm. at the hind end, convex in the 
middle ; its deep red lateral margins being somewhat dilated 
and reflexed. It is a single undifferentiated piece, and accord- 
ing to Martin (15) corresponds to the scuto-scutellum only, the 
pronotum being devoid of post-scutellum owing to the absence 
of wings in this segment. 

The anterior margin of the notum is white (1*3 x 23 mm. ) 
which, with similar portions on the pleuron and sternum, forms 
the apical structure (A P. ST.). Behind the latter is the deep 
red pronotal callosity. The rest of the notum is chrome yellow 
and leathery in texture. 

The pleuron (PI. 1) is broad above (2*09 mm.) and narrows 
down to meet the sternum. The ventral margin of the pleuron 
is white and overlaps the base of the coxa with the coxal cleft 
(Cox. CL.l) in the middle. In the middle the pleuron bulges 
out to accommodate on its inner wall the expanding muscles of 
the first leg. The posterior margin of the pleuron is white and 
overlaps the anterior margin of the mesopleuron and the 1st 
thoracic spiracle. 

Presternum (Fig. 2, St.l) is a flat almost rectangular plate 
1 mm. long. It is comparatively narrow in the posterior region, 
where it lodges the coxae. 

Mesothorax is the best developed of the three thoracic 
segments owing to the attachment of the first pair of wings. 
It is comparatively longer dorsally, overlapping a part of the 
metanotum and is delicately connected to tho prothorax. 

The mesonotum (Fig. 3c) is a conspicuous piece whose an- 
terior half— greatly deflected and covered by the pronotum — is 
rectangular in shape, with a deep median furrow, and is com- 
posed of the prescutum and scutum. Behind the scuto-scutel- 
lum and separated from it by a wide shallow groove, is the pro- 
minent triangular scutellum (SL). The latter is deep red with 
black margins and is supported laterally by stout chitinous 
ridges — the frenum — which reach the base of the wings. The 
post scutellum (P. SL.2) is a stout, transverse, curved sclerite 
slightlv visible externally, being covered bv the scutellum and 

1923,] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. 23 

the metanotum. Its two ends, forming the post alares, meet 
the lateral edges of thorax just behind the base of the forewings. 

Mesopleuron is a more or le^ rectangular plate with 
no pleural suture, but divisible into two rectangular areas, one 
behind the other, a red broad anterior and a white narrow 
posterior. Their line of demarcation is continued at the ven- 
tral margin, into the coxal cleft (cf propleuron). When the me- 
sopleuron is made transparent, these two areas are seen to be 
connected with each other by transverse chitinous strands, hence 
probably representing the episternum and epimeron (EPS2. 
and EPM2.). This condition, viz., the presence of the coxa] 
cleft and the absence of the pleural suture, has been observed in 
only a few other Heteroptera (Taylor— 29). 

A triangular piece is differentiated from the anterior end 
of the episternum, just below the origin of the forewing and is 
termed anterior basalare (A B.) At the posterior corner of the 
anterior basalare is located a somewhat triangular apedome 
the position of which is externally indicated by a concavity. 
From the lower corner of the same sclerite (i.e. anterior basalare) 
begins a chitinous piece (prealare bridge— P.A.) which connects 
the pleuron with the deflected part of the scutum. Under the 
base of the wing, the slender subalare can also be distinguished. 
At the anterior margin of the pleuron is situated the first 
thoracic spiracle surrounded by its peritreme. 

Metathorax is invisible externally, being overlapped by 
the meso-scutellum and the fore wings. It bears the 2nd pair 
of wings. 

The Metanotum is differentiated into the scutoscutellum 
Fig. 3c) and postscutellum (P.S1.3), which are regarded 
as the two incipient sclerites of a thoracic segment (Snodgrass, 
Entomological News, 1909) . Jn other words the anterior sclerite, 
which in the mesonotum breaks up into the preseutum, scutum 
and postscutellum, remains a single undifferentiated piece in 
the metanotum. This condition is met with only in a few 
other Heteroptera (some Aphidae and Coridae). 

Metapleuron is comparatively narrow dorsally. The deli- 
cate intersegmental membrane connecting it to the mesopleuron 
lodges the second thoracic spiracle surrounded by its peritreme. 
As is the case in the mesopleuron. there are two rectangular 
plates one behind the other, which in the living animal are 
differently coloured, viz... red and white. These probably 
represent the episternum and epimeron. It may. however, be 
pointed out that the lin^ separating the two plates is not conti- 
nuous with the coxal cleft, as is the case in the mesopleuron. 

Near the dorsal margin of the pleuron there is a grooved 
longitudinal area called eenchrus, the upper edge of which 
touches the postalare. In the anterior ventral region of the 
pleuron, just behind the second coxae is a .silt -like opening of 
the stink glands. 

24 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Thoracic appendages : legs — The usual three pairs of legs 
are long and of considerable strength consisting of the coxa, 
trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. The animal can walk very 
swiftly on its tarsal joints on ground and even on a smooth 
surface like glass. 

The bases of the coxae of the two sides (COX.) are closely 
approximated, between which lies the rostrum (Fig. 2). Tro- 
ohantin (TROCH.) is a more or less triangular sclerite situated 
at the base of the coxa. Trochanter (TRO.) is a short and rather 
slender joint articulated to the femur by a ginglymous joint. 
Femur is the strongest segment of the leg having near its 
distal end (in the first leg) 6 spines arranged in two rows of 
three each. 

Tibia (TB.) is longer than the femur and is connected to 
the latter by a ginglymous joint whi^h is raised up especially 
in the third leg. The distal half of the tibia is ornamented 
with thick, black bristles, besides a few strong spines called 
calcaria (CAL.). 

Tarsus (TR.) is short and slender, consisting of three 
joints, the basal being the longest. All the three tarsal seg- 
ments are black and have closely set small spines. The tarsus 
ends in a pair of black claws which are supported beneath by 
stalked pads known as pul villus. West (Transactions Linn. 
Soc. London, XXIII, 1851) regarded the pul villus as homolo- 
gous to an additional tarsal segment, the claws in that case 
being regarded as modified setae. According to other authors 
the stalked pads are modified glandular setae swollen at the 

Wings. The fore wings, known as hemelytra (Fig. 5a). 
are attached to the lateral margins of the mesoscutum bv small 
chitinous plates the auxiliaries or ossi ula (Audouin). Each 

forewing is 7*8 mm. long and 37 mm. broad being partly 

coriaceous and partly membranous. The coriaceous part is 
ochreous in colour, with a black discal spot, and is marked 
off by means of two longitudinal sutures (suture clavi and 
median suture) into three areas, the clavus, corium and 
embolium. The clavus lies between the inner margin of the 
wing and the suture clavis, and next to the mesoscutellum 
when the wings are in repose. The corium (CR.) lies next to 
the clavus, between the two sutures. The embolium or costal 
area (EMR.) lies next, ending d is tally in the costal margin of 
the wing. This is the longest of the three areas. The cuneus 
(Comstockp. 125, Fig. 141) is absent. The membranous region 
is dark brown in colour. When the wings are in repose the 
membrane of one side crosses over to the other, the right cover- 
ing the left. 

The following chief veins can be recognized in the fore- 
wins : 

1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of lied t otton Bug. 25 

(i) Costa (COS.) is a prominent vein running parallel to the 

costal margin. 

(ii) Subeosta (S. COS.) runs below and parallel to the above, 
(iii) Radius (RA.) a conspicuous vein lying just below the 

subeosta; the proximal portions of the two vein- 

(iv) Median vein (Me.) runs just above and parallel to the 

suture clavis with its distal end curved up. 

(v) Cubitus (CD.) lies below and parallel to the suture 


(vi) The Anal (ANA.) is a narrow vein running along the 

inner or the proximal margin of the wing. 

The medio -cubitus and radio-median of Comstock are 

There are two cells (areas surrounded by veins on all sides) 
in the membrane region (M.c.l, M.c.2) in the majority of the in- 
dividuals examined, but in a few there were three. The 
number of veins also varies from 6-8 and their branching may 
be different in the right and left wings of the same individual. 

o ~ © 

Hind wings like the forewings are attached to the thorax 
by the chitinous ossiculae. These wings are wholly membran- 
ous except at their costal margins which are very thick. The 
following veins which are named after Fieber (Ent. Hemipt. 1861 a 
p. 13) can be recognized : 

Costa primaria (COS. P.) running parallel to the distal mar- 
gin of the wing. Costa subtensa (COS- 8.) lying parallel to the 
costa primaria, the two being connected to each other by a trans- 
verse vein, the costa connectus (COS C). Costa apicalis (COS. 
A.) starting from the junction of the costa connectus and costa 
primaria. Below the costa apicalis runs another vein (unnamed 
by Fieber) starting from the costa connectus. This vein is 

present in Anasa tristis (Tower, 27). Costa decurrens (COS. D ) 
begins from the junction of the costa subtensa and cost 
connectus, and costa lineata runs parallel, along its proximal 
region, to the costa subtensa. Lying below costa subtensa are 
two veins, the costa radiantus (COS R.) 

Below are given the measurements (average of 10 speci- 
mens) of some of the more important regions of the Thorax 

A. Prothorax. 

Length of notuni . . . . - 04 mm. 

. . 3 2 mm. 



131 x 5 m m 

Lower margin .. •• 131mm 

Sternum length . . •• H) mm. 

Upper margin . . 2*09 mm. 

B. Mesothorax. 

Length of scutoscutellurn . . 1*28 mm. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Breadth in widest region 

1-7 mm. 

Scutum (length and breadth the same) 1*6 
Pleuron upper margin 

» * 


Pleuron lower margin 


Fore wing 

Me ta thorax 

Pleuron, upper margin 
Pleuron, lower margin 

• * 

1 34 


10 x 



5 J 



• • 

• • 

* • 

• • 

9 2 nini. 

1-0 ., 
1-08 „ 
78 x 37 mm 


Femur I 
Femur III 
Tiba I 
Tiba III 
Tarsus I 
Tarsus III 

• • 

• • 

• « 

• • 

3- 16 mm 

4 25 „ 

3 -16 „ 





J J 


The Abdomen. — The abdomen in the Rhvnchota has at- 


tracted the attention of a few authors. The study of the 


having disappeared, whilst 

into prominence and various workers 
(Newell, Sharp, etc.) have attempted to discuss the homologies 
of the different abdominal segments with their appendages : but 
so far no definite conclusion seems to have been arrived at. 
David Sharp (22) invented a special nomenclature with reference 
to the terminal segment in some male Hetniptera. According to 
Verhoeff. the typical number of abdominal segments in the 
Hemiptera is eleven. In five out of six hemipterous forms that 
Newell (17) studied, 10 segments were present, the eleventh 

in the sixth — Anasa tristis — the 
female had 11 segments and the male 10. According to Tower 
(27) the female Anasa has 10 and male 9 segments. In 
Dysdercus cingulatus 10 segments are found in both sexes. Fur- 
ther study is required to determine whether the number 10 is 
a primitive feature or secondary (the 1 1th having been aborted) 
as believed bv Verhoeff, etc. 

The abdomen is connected to the thorax by a broad base. 
Its simple, distinct and annular segments are loosely knitted 
together, allowing the abdomen to undergo expansion and con- 
traction, especially in the female. In both sexes (Figs. 2, 3, 4) 
the first six segments are seen to be made up of flat notum. 
red membranous pleuron and sternal area with white patches 
on the posterior margin. 

A pair of spiracles is present in the anterior dorsal corner 

Each spiracle (Fig. 4a) is 
a small round opening with somewhat thickened brown mar- 

of each of the first eight segments. 


Three transversely elliptical openings of the stink glands 


1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of lied Cotton Bug. 27 

are seen in the mid -dorsal line of the abdomen. Thcv are in the 
intersegmental membrane of segments 3/4, 4/5 ; 5/6.' 

In both sexes, the anterior half of the notum of segment 
I (Fig. 3) is thickly beset with long hairs, and the posterior 
margin of V is produced backwards into a lobe to fit in a notch 
on the anterior margin of the notum of segment VI. The sub- 
sequent segments have deviated from the simple form above 
described, being modified differently in the two sexes. To make 
this clear a separate description of the male and the female 
is given below : — 

Male (Figs. 3a, 4a, 10a).— Segment VI I is the hindermost 
of the visible segments. Its notum is produced backwards 
into a large blunt lobe covering the posterior chamber of the 
terminal segment. Segments VI1I-X are telescoped into one 
another to form a pear-shaped organ, the major portion of 
which remains retracted in VII. Segment VIII appears dor- 
sally as a transverse band, which widens down laterally to 
meet the broad trough-shaped ventral part. Segment IX re- 
sembles a hollow pear-shaped body whose upper suiface has 
sunk down to meet the ventral suiface in front and behind, 
leaving between a narrow transverse band. Consequently 
this segment is divided into two chambers, the small anterior 
and the spoon-shaped posterior or terminal (Sharp), separated 
by downwardly deflected double wall, called the diaphragm. 
The rectum and genital duct pass through this diaphragm to 
open externally in the terminal chamber. Segment X is mall, 
nnglike and surrounds the anus in the terminal chamber, 

Anal cerci are absent. The genital duct terminates in 
a chitinous copulating organ termed oedeagus (Sharp) situated 
in the terminal chamber. The oedeagus usually remains con- 
cealed under the rectum. It is surrounded by a thick chitin- 
ous coat termed theca. and its wall is strengthened by four 
thick chitinous pieces, two of which are pointed and curved at 
their ends (OF. S. Fig. lOd), Lateral to the oedeagus lie two 
long pieces, one on each side and called the laterals (Sharp) (L). 
The diaphragm is supported by vertical pieces ( lied the 
superior laterals (S.L. Fig, 10c)." Below and covered by the 
laterals, lie two processes attached to the ventral floor of the 
terminal chamber; they are probably the homologues of the 
inferiors of Sharp (22). * At the base of the oedeagus is a thick 
chitinous piece which is horse shoe shaped. 

In the female, the abdomen is wider and longer than in 
the male, the width depending upon the number and condition 
of the eggs within. VII is the last visible segment ; its notum 
is deeply concave posteriorlv, the concavity being covered by 
the notum of VIII. The latter segment (Figs. Ill and lib) 
consists above of a narrow transverse band to which are 
attached broad ventral plates (due to the fission of the sternal 
portion) which are thickly covered with bristles and enclose 

28 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., 

the remaining posterior segments. The tergum of segment IX 
is narrow and almost encloses that of X (Fig. lla) ; whilst 
its sternum (A9 Figs, lib, lie) consists of two flat plates, 
the inner margins of which are thickened and hardened From 
the tergum and sternum of IX, hang down two pairs of thin 
curved processes. Segment X surrounds the anus. Dorsally 
and laterally it is enclosed by IX. An ovipositor is absent, 
since the animal lays its eggs in soft places between crevices of 
the soil. 


Length of abdomen in male . . 7 mm. 


* • 

4 mm. 

Length of abdomen in female . . 8* 25 mm. 

Breadth .... variable in female. . 4*5 — 5*5 mm. 

Anatomy — Internal. 

Digestive system — The mouth leads into the suctorial 
pharynx which is of special importance in the Rhynchota. 
The pharynx is a long chitinous tube with a narrow lumen. 
Its ventral wall is strongly chitinized, whilst the dorsal, termed 
operculum, is flexible and elastic. There is a double row of 
pharyngeal muscles arising from the under surface of the dorsal 
wall of the head and inserted on the operculum, where they 
split up into a number of strands (Ph.M. Figs. 8b-8f). When 
these muscles contract, the operculum is pulled upwards so as to 
widen the pharynx, and the plant-juice is sucked up through 
the rostrum. 

The minute anatomy of the pharynx (Fig. 8) varies in the 

different parts of the head capsule. In the epicranial region, 

where it is surrounded on all sides by the cerebral nervous 

ganglia (Fig. 8a), the pharynx is thin-walled and almost 

circular in transverse section. On emerging from this mass. 

the pharynx enters the clypeal region where its ventral wall 

becomes comparatively thicker than the dorsal (Fig. 8c) ; 

beyond this region the difference in thickness increases, and the 

ventral wall is drawn down so as to appear V-shaped in 

transverse section (Fig, 8d). The ' V ' is wedged in between 

two chitinous plates of the tentorium (T) to be described later. 

In the anterior region of the clypeus, the ends of the operculum 

and the arms of the 'V are drawn up towards the dorsal 

wall of the head, to meet the clypeal folds (Fig. 8e). From 

the level of the anterior end of the salivary chamber, the 

ventral wall of pharynx is continued as a delicate spoon-shaped 

structure, the pharyngeal duct, along the middle line and enters 

the suction canal formed by the maxillary stylets. The latter 

enter the head and diverge apart to receive the tip of the 

In the region of the pharyngeal duct, the operculum be- 

1923.1 Anatomy and Bionomics of Bed Cotton Bug. 29 

comes separated from the ventral wall and lines the upper 
wall of the head capsule This pharyngeal lining of the clypeo- 
labrum forms the membranous roof of the mouth and is termed 
the epi pharynx ; a pendent epipharynx is absent. Tnder a 
high power of the microscope, ten transparent spots are seen in 
the membranous epipharynx arranged in two rows, six in the 
right rows and four in the left (Fig. 7a). Behind there is a 
curved ridge which encloses an additional group of spots. 
Tower (28) regarded similar structures in Anaaa trust is as gland s 
which secrete an oily substance to lubricate the diverging 
stylets lying below. Packard considered these as taste organs. 
Awati (1), in capsid bug, termed this region of the epipharynx 
as cribriform plate, and the clear spots would be the openings 
by which nerve fibers from the gustatory organs communi- 
cated with the lumen of the pharynx. Murray (16), in bed bug 
{Acanthia hcttdaria), observed a row of 10 delicate spines in 
this region. 

The pharynx after passing through the oesophageal nerve - 
ring, is continued as oesophagus. The latter is also lined by 
chitin and runs as a fine tube up to the region of the mesothorax 
where it dilates to form the crop. The oesophagus is con- 
tinued into the crop for a length of 1 mm., thus forming a 
valve to prevent the fluid from flowing back (Fig. 12a). 

The crop (Fig. 12) begins usually from the mesothoracic 
region and ends in the middle of the abdomen. Powerful 
muscle fibres occur on its upper surface in the metathoraeic 
region, while a salivary gland is present on each side. There 
is no pro ventrical us. 

The midgut or the chylifio stomach (Chyl.) is compar- 
atively narrow and thrown into three coils, which lie under the 
crop. When the coils are unravelled the midgut is found to 
be the longest (21 mm.) portion of the alimentary canal. 

No csecal appendages are present. Four malpighian tu- 
bules open into the alimentary canal at the junction of the 
midgut and hindgut. These tubules are whitish caecal exten- 
ions of the latter, each being 5 mm. long and irregularly coiled. 

The hindgut consists of a rectum which is a pear-shaped 
brown organ with chitinous lining. 

Salivary glands .—There are two such glands in the region 
of the metathorax, the right lying behind the left. Each 
gland (Fig. 13) consists of four lobes, labelled A, B, C, and 
D, in the diagram. A and B have glandular constitution (large 
glandular cells with conspicuous nuclei) while C and 1) have 
transparent walls: C seems to take the place of the salivary 
receptacles of the cockroach, while D i^ the small reservoir 
from which the saliva flows out through the salivary duct (SIX) 
and the receptacle duct (R.D.) The receptacle duel is thin at 
its origin, subsequently becoming thick. After entering the 
head capsule it turns back and opens into the salivary re- 

30 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XIX, 

ceptaole C. The receptacle duct seems to conduct the extra 
saliva from D to the receptacle 0, from which the saliva can 
flow back if necessary. The salivary duct proper (S.D.) or 
afferent salivary duct (A.S.D., Figs. 9 and LH) .starts from 
the reservoir (C) and passes forwards as a white thick walled 
tube, and enters the head region running parallel to its fellow 
of the opposite side. Ultimately both these tubes converge 
and discharge their contents through a common opening into 
the salivary pump chamber. This opening situated in the 
antero-ventral region of the salivary pump chamber seems to be 
guarded by a valve which opens inwards into the cavity of the 
chamber, thus preventing the saliva from flowing back. The 

ducts do not appear to unite to form a common afferent sals - 
varv duct. 

The salivary duct has a thick chitinous lining, external to 
which lies a distinctly nucleated cellular layer. Both the 
reservoir and salivary ducts are surrounded by spiral threads, 
so as to keep them distended. 

The salivary pump (Figs. 9 and 13) is a minute cylindri- 

cal organ lying under the pharyngeal duct, where the diverging 

stylets enter the head capsule. It is supported laterally by the 
arms of the tentorium (Figs. 6 and 8). The pump chamber prop- 
er (P.C.) is chitinous and almost rectangular in shape. The 
afferent salivary ducts enter it by an opening in the antero ven- 
tral region, whilst the efferent salivary duct (E.S.D.) leaves it 
by an opening situated in the upper region of the anterior wall. 
The posterior wall of the rectangular chamber is thin and flexi- 
ble except in the centre where it is highly thickened and 
chitinized to form the head of the piston (Pi), which is produced 
backwards into a stout bar-the piston-handle-connected to the 
occipital wall of the head by means of two series of powerful 
muscles (Pi.M.). When the latter contract, the piston is drawn 
back, increasing the size of the chamber with the result that 
saliva flows in from the afferent ducts. When the piston re- 
turns, the saliva, owing to the increasing pressure, flows out by 
the efferent duct. This duct is supported by a grooved pro- 
longation of the anterior wall of the pump chamber, known a* 
the pump stem (P.S.) The latter supports below the afferent 
duct and above the pharyngeal duct, carrying these, one over 
the other, to the ejection and suction canals respectively. 
Thus the saliva does not pass to any part of the alimentary 
canal, but is conducted by the ejection canal directly into the 
plant tissue. 

As to what is the real hypopharynx. seems to be a debat- 
able point. Muir and Kershaw ( 13) regarded the terminal por- 
tion of the pharynx as the hypopharynx, and the ventral wall of 
the pharynx as continued forward to form the spoon-shaped end 
of the hypopharynx. Tower (28) held a similar view. Awati (1), 
on the other hand, considered the anterior region of the pump 


1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton ling. ;{] 

stem as the hypopharynx. According to this author the pump 
stem does not reach the ejection canal ; where the latter ends, the 
hypopharynx begins and supports the efferent salivary duct 
and the pharyngeal duct. This view is supported by th» 
diagrams of Cragg (2) and in Dysdercus cingulatits there seem- 
to be a single individual piece. The pump stem extends from the 
anterior end of the pump chamber to the point of entrance of 
the efferent duct into the ejection canal. According to Sharp (23) 
the "Hypopharynx or the tongue is a membranous lobe in the 
anterior of the mouth on its ventral surface, a very conspicuous 
structure in the Orthoptera." Such an organ does not appear to 
be present in Dysdercus cingulatits, unless the whole salivary 
pump be regarded as its homologue. Davidson (23), in regard 
to aphis Schizoneura lanigera, remarks that " situated beneath 
the mouth is the small hypopharynx which supports the 
chitinous salivary pump and is continuous with the labium. ' 
here the author seems to be referring to a part of the ten- 

Tentorium or the Endoskeleton (T. in Figs. 6a, 7b and 8a- 
8e). — The internal soft parts of the head capsule are supported 
by chitinous plates, collectively termed the tentorium. ' Two 
of these plates (Figs. 8c, 8d) support the ventral wall of the 
pharynx, and in transverse section appear crescent-shaped, 
in which the 'V of the pharynx rests. In the region of the 
salivary pump, the plates send down processes which meet in 
the median line so as to form a broad plate extending to 
the base of the labium (Fig. 8a-8f). Opposite the anterior 
end of the salivary pump, the outer margin of the plates are 
rolled upwards to form two dark heavily chitinized horn-like 
structures, the tentorial horns (T. Ho in Fig. 6a). These horns 
approximate to the clypeal lobes to forma pas-age for the di 
verging stylets which enter the head at this level. Internal to 
each compound eye (Fig. 8c) is situated a delicate chitinous 
piece which serves as a support for the eye structure. 

Reproductive System. — Male (Fig. 14) : The essential male 
organs are: — (i) a pair of testes, (ii) 2 vasa deferentia, (iii) 
2 accessory glands, (iv) single ejaculatory duct, (v) penis 

(oedeagus) or the copulatory organ. 

(i) Testes. — Whilst in the cockroach the testes are follicular 
and difficult to distinguish from the surrounding fatty tissue, 
in Dysdercus cingulatus each testis is a compact mass, which 
can be easily discerned when the animal's dorsum is removed 
and the alimentary canal turned aside. The testes are red in 
colour, cigar-shaped, about 2 mm. long and lie in the V 
abdominal segment (TE Fig. 14). Dysdercus cingulatti s appears 
to be unique in that its testes lie ventral and not dor ai to the 
alimentary canal. The follicular nature of the testes becomes 
evident in transverse sections. Each testis is composed of 8 
chambers containing sperm mother cells and sperms. 

32 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

The accessory glands (A.G. Fig. 14) constitute a pair of 
white almost round organs, separated from each other in the 
mid-ventral line by a small space through which the ejaculatory 
duct passes. These glands are in contact with the ejaculatory 
duct for a distance of 3 mm. When rendered transparent each 
gland presents a honeycomb appearance, the wall of the comb 
appearing darker than the rest. In sections large cells are 
visible with distinct nuclei and granular cytoplasm. Nothing 
is known at present regarding the function of these glands. 

The testis on each side opens into the corresponding vas 
deferens (V.D.) which is white and swollen at its origin where 
it partly covers the base of the testis, and runs as a narrow 
tube along the front border of the accessory gland towards the 
median line of the body. Subsequently the vas deferens 
curves at a right angle and after passing backwards for about 
a millimetre, the ducts of the two sides meet and continue as 
the single ejaculatory duct along the mid-ventral line between 
the accessory glands where the duct is thick walled with a red 
streak. Beyond the accessory glands, the duct narrows again, 
traverses segments VI and VII and enters the base of the penis 
in segment IX. 

The oedeagus or penis (OE. Fig. 14) is a globular brown- 
ish powerful organ lying below the rectum. Its walls are 
strengthened by chitinous pieces, as described in connection 
with the external genitalia. Two of these pieces project be- 
yond the opening of the penis and are curved at their ends, 
which with two others, the ' laterals ' (L ), are probably used for 
dilating the vagina. 

Female Organs (Fig. 15) : consist of ovaries, oviducts and 
accessory glands. 

The ovaries (Fig. 15, OV.) are white flat masses lying below 
the alimentary canal, one on each side. Their size depends on 
the stage of ripening of the eggs. When the latter are fully 
developed, they fill up the whole abdominal cavity, sometimes 
extending into the thorax as well. Each ovary consists of 
seven tubules (Fig. 15 OV. TB.), not eight, as is usual among 
the Orthoptera (cf . Cockroach, Miall and Denny) ; the tubules are 
held together by fat tissue and tracheae so as to form a flat 
plate. Each tubule is about 4 mm. long and presents a beaded 
appearance owing to the contained eggs which distend its 
elastic wall. It tapers in front, then suddenly narrows con- 
siderably (terminal chamber) and unites with the extremities 
of other tubes to form a slender, solid filament, which passes 
forwards in the thoracic region and becomes lost in the fat 
body. High up in the tubule, the narrow lumen is occupied by 
clear protoplasm. Farther below, where it is wide, large round- 
ed masses of protoplasm appear, which gradually take up the 
torm of eggs. These arrange themselves in a single row of 12 
or 13 and give the characteristic beaded appearance. The 



1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Co/ton Buy WW 

eggs in a tubule increase in size from top downwards, the low- 
est being the largest It is pale yellow in colour and has a 
smooth surface. The ovarian tubules on each side open into 
the oviduct, which is 2 mm long. The two oviducts unite near 
the hinder border of the V segment and form the wide uterus 
which traverses the posterior abdominal segments and opens be- 
tween the sclerites of segment IX (Fig. lib). There are no 
external genitalia or any other ornamentation of the vagina, 
since the insect lays its eggs in the crevices of the soil and 

not on hard plant tissues, etc., which would necessitate piercing 

Lying over the upper surface of the uterus is a peculiar bell - 
shaped accessory gland which is continued as a thick-walled 
chitinized duct coloured red. This duct becomes coiled and 
opens into the uterus (61. Ut.l, Fig. 15). Similar to this is an- 
other tube, which communicates with the uterus (Fig. 15) by 
means of a common opening. Probably this duct serves as a 
spermatheca for the extra spermatozoa. Near the terminus 
of the uterus and opening into the latter is another pair of 
lobulated glands (Gl. Ut.3). The incubation period of the eggs 
is 3-4 days depending upon the temperature and hygroscopical 
conditions of the atmosphere. 

Nervous System (Fig. 16): — consists of (a) cerebral ganglia, 
and the nerves originating from them, (6) the ventral nerve 
cord with two ganglia in the thoracic region. 

Since the supra- and sub- oesophageal ganglia are con- 
nected to each other by wide band-like commissures the exact 
limits of the two are not discernible. In transverse section they 
appear as a thick nervous mass pierced by the pharynx (Fig. 8). 
The supra-oesophagealsare two pear-shaped ganglia superficially 
separated from each other, especially in the posterior region. 
The ganglia are continued forwards as the thick optic nerves 
which pass laterally to the eyes (Fig. lfi, O.P.N.). The antenna! 
nerves originate from the commissure, and cross the optic at 
its under side to supply the base of the antennae (ANT. X.). 
From below the origin of the antennal nerve arise two small fine 
nerves which end at the base of the maxilla and mandible of 
each side. 

The ventral nerve cord (V.N.C.) runs from the tab oeso- 
phageal ganglia to the posterior end of the abdomen. In the 
thorax the nerve cord is thick and flat and its double nature is 
evident, whilst in the abdomen it become- narrow giving one 
branch in segment V, and two or three branches in the seg- 
ments behind. 

The first thoracic ganglion lies on the floor of the prothorax, 
being small and giving one nerve on each side to the first pair of 

The second thoracic ganglion lies in the meaothorax It 
is larger than the first and gives origin to the nerves to the second 

34 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

pair of legs, to the third pair of legs, and four small fine nerves 
to the first four abdominal segments. 

Respiratory System. — This differs in several important 
points from the usual type found in insects. In both sexes there 
are ten pairs of functional spiracles in the pleura of the body 
segments — two in the thorax and eight on the first eight abdo- 
minal segments. But in the female there is. in addition, one 
degenerate spiracle on the ninth segment which has lost its con- 
nection with a trachea and whose opening has been obliterated. 
Thus, in both male and the female, the ultimate and the penulti- 
mate abdominal segments are devoid of spiracles due to teles- 
coping of these segments. 

The thoracic spiracles are comparatively large oval open- 
ings with their rims highly chitinized and thickened. They are 
situated between the prothorax and mesothorax. and between 
the latter and metathorax. The second spiracle is regarded as 

belonging to the metathorax, the first is believed to be protho- 

racic by some authors, e.g ., Davidson (5) and Grove (7) and 

mesothoracic by others, like Murray (16), Savage (21). etc. 
In D. cingulatits the second spiracle is situated near the anterior 
margin of the mesopleuron and is covered by the overlapping 

An abdominal spiracle is present in the antero-dorsal corner 
of each segment, as a small circular opening with thick black 
rims. Unlike a thoracic spiracle it has no valve or any other 
closing apparatus. 

A short swollen trachea arises directly from each thoracic 
spiracle in the abdomen ; the trachea commences from a diver- 
ticulum at the base of the spiracle (Fig. 17b). According to 
Murray, this diverticulum compensates for the absence of a 
closing apparatus since it renders difficult the passage of foreign 
bodies inside. 

A trachea, after its origin, divides into a dorsal and a ven- 
tral branch which give rise to well defined dorsal and ventral 

The dorsal tracheal system (Fig. 17a, right side of the dia- 
gram) : The branches of the dorsal tracheal arm bifurcate after 
passing some distance inwards. In the prothorax this division 
occurs at the very base and thus two dorsal branches are seen 
to arise from the spiracle. The dorsal branches unite to form 
a continuous longitudinal trunk lying on each side of the dorsal 
median line from the first thoracic to the eighth abdominal seg- 
ment. From these trunks several small branches are given off 
to the neighbouring organs. The minor branches of one 
tracheal trunk are not connected with those of the other, except 
in the last abdominal segment where a transverse connective 
is formed by the union of the posterior branches of the eighth 
pair of dorsal tracheae. 

While the ramifications of the dorsal trunk in the abdo- 

1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. :}."> 

men are small, in the thorax just opposite the metathoracic 
spiracle it gives off a branch wider than the main dorsal 

longitudinal trunk. 


muscles lying below the scutellum of the mesonotum. 

Of the two branches from the first thoracic spiracle the 
posterior joins the longitudinal trunk, whilst the anterior 
extends obliquely towards the median line of the head, giving 
small branches along its course and finally entering the base of 
the antennae. 

In Dysdercus cingulatus the ventral branches, unlike the 
condition in several other bugs (7, 21, 5), do not unite to form 
a ventral tracheal trunk. 

The ventral branch (Fig. 17a) of the first thoracic spiracle, 
at its base, gives off two branches — one large and the other 
small — to the first leg, a small branch to the second leg, and 
a stout branch which passes towards the median line and unites 
with a similar branch from the opposite spiracle. Subsequently, 
the main branch divides into several minor branches which, 
along with the oesophagus, pass through the circum- oesopha- 
geal commissure to supply the soft parts of the head capsule, 
two of them passing through the rostrum to its apex. The 
ventral branch of the second thoracic spiracle gives one branch 
anteriorly to the second leg, and two branches (one large and 
the other small) to the third leg. It then runs across to unite 
with its fellow of the opposite side. 

The tracheae are supported internally by chitinous rings, 
although the diverticulum connecting the tracheae with spir- 
acles are devoid of such rings. 

Stink Glands (Fig. 18). — These form a pair of small sac-like 
organs lying on the floor of the metasternum. They are red in 
colour and communicate with each other by a transverse tube 
which is bent backwards. Each sac communicates with the 
exterior by a slit-like opening in the anterior ventral part of 

the metathoracic pleuron. 

Circulatory System.— This system of the cotton bug is 

shown in Fig. 1!>. 

Reproduction and Life -History. 

Some 40 hours after copulation the female becomes inac 
fcive, the abdomen getting greatly distended with eggs. The 
eggs are laid in crevices of the soil usually in two lots the 
first containing some 90 to 105 eggs and the second (following 
5-8 hours after the first) 50-70 eggs. A single egg is about 
1-25 mm. long (the long axis of the egg agreeing with the future 
long axis of the larva), pale yellow in colour, soft when newly 
laid, subsequently becoming somewhat hard (Fig. 20a). 

If the required condition- of moisture and temperature are 
maintained, the egg, which is pale yellow at the time of laying, 

36 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XlX, 

turns chrome yellow in the course of two or three days with 
three red spots, two near the a.nterior and one near the poste- 
rior end. On the fourth day the young one hatches out, and 
immediately begins to move about. It differs from the adult 
in being smaller in size and wingless. The nymph after five 
successive moults becomes the adult. 

The body of the newly hatched nymph (20b) is yellow in 
colour, about 1'5 mm. long and more than '5 mm. broad, with 
transparent legs, antennae and rostrum. It is so delicate at 
this time that disturbance with a brush may kill it. After some 
12 hours, when the body has turned red and the legs, etc. have 
become opaque, it can be safely transferred for further study to 
a second jar. The antennae are four jointed, the proximal 
joint being the longest. The proboscis is also four jointed, 
extending to the middle of the abdomen, the tarsi are two 

After the first, moult, which takes place usually 4 days 
after hatching, the lateral margins of the nymph (Fig. 20c) 
become somewhat turned up, the terminal antennal joint be- 
comes swollen, whilst the proboscis, which at first stretches be- 
yond the apex of the abdomen, becomes covered over by the 
growing abdomen. 

The second moult (Fig. 20d) occurs some 10 days after the 
first when wing pads appear on the mesothorax and three trans- 
versely elliptical dark patches on the dorsal surface of the 
abdomen which are the openings of the stink glands (Sharp). 

On the third moult (6 days after the second) the nymph at- 
tains to a length of 5 mm., the wing pads being '75 mm. long 
(Fig. 20e). The female nymph is larger than the male. White 
patches appear on the ventral surface of the abdomen. 

On the fourth moult (7 days after the third) the individual 
attains to a length of 9-10 mm., and a white collar appears be- 
hind the head. 

The final moult takes place 15-17 days after the fourth and 
the adult appears with two pairs of fully developed wings. The 
rate at which development takes place depends largely on food, 
temperature and moisture. 

The above account of the life-history is based on obser- 
vations taken during the months from June to August (1919) 
at Pusa (Bihar). 


(1) Awati (P. R.), Mechanism of suction in the potato capsid 

bug, Lygus pabulinus Proc. ZooL 8oc, London, 1914. 

(2) Cragg (F. W.), The alimentary canal in Cimeoc. Indian 

Journal Med. Res., Calcutta, 1914. 

(3) Crampton (G. O.), Comparative study of the thoracic scle- 

rites of insects. Academy of Natural Science. Vol. LXI, 

1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton liny. 37 

(4) Comstock (J. H.) and Comstock(A. B.) ; A manual of the 

study of insects. Comstock Publishing Company, 1013. 
A J. M.S. Vol. 58 ' 

(5) Davidson (J.), Structure and biology of Schizoneura lani- 

gera. Q.J. M.S. Vol. 58, 1913. 

(6) Davidson (J.), Mouth parts and mechanism of suction in 

Schizoneura lanigera. J own. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) London, 
307-330, 1914. 

(7) Grove (A. J.), Anatomy of Siphonophora rosarum. Para 

etiology, Vol. IT, 1909". 

(8) Harison (L.), Preliminary account of the Mouth parts of 

the body louse. Camb. Phil. Soc, 1916. 

(9) Kershaw (J. C), Alimentary canal in a Cercopid Psyche. 

Vol. 21, 1914. 

(10) Korschelt (E.) and Heider (K.) Text-book of Invertebrate 

embryology. • 

(11) Marlatt (C. L.), The Hemipterous Mouth. Proc. Ent. Soc, 


lock roach 

(13) Muir (F.), and Kershaw ( J. C), Salivary glands and Syringe 

of two species of Hemiptera. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgi</ue, 

(14) .... Ditto, , Homologies and Mechanism of 

mouth parts of Hemiptera and their development. 
Pschye, Vols. 18 and 19, Nos. 1-3, 1914. 

(15) Martin (F. J.), The Thoracic and Cervical Sclerites in in- 

sects. Ann. Ent. Soc, America, 191 •». 

(16) Murray (C. H.). Anatomy of the Bed Bug. Parasitology 

Camb., 1914. 

(17) Newall (A. J.), Morphology of genitalia. Ami. Ent. 8oe., 

America, Vol. 11, 1918. 

(18) Parsheley (H. M.), External anatomy of Alphocoris rapid ns. 

Ent. News. XXVI, 208-213. 

(19) Packard (A. 8.), Text-book of Entomology, 1898. 

(20) Purser (G. L.), Preliminary note- on some problems con- 

nected with respiration in insects. Proc Camb. Phil. 

Soc, 1915. 

(21) Savage (R. E.), Respiratory system in MonophUbUS stebigi, 

Bull. Ent. Research, London, 1914. 

(22) Sharp (David), Structure of terminal segment in som. male 

Hemiptera. Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1890. 

(23) Sharp (D.), Insect Vol. Cambridge Natural History. 

(24) Sedgwick (A.), Textbook of Zoology. 

(25) Smith (L. B.) Structure of Hemipterous mouth. Science, 

America, 1892 

(26) Thomson (W.W.), Splitting of insect tracheae Ent Ne» 

p. 422, 1912. 

(27) Tower (D. G.), Anatomy f Squash Bug Anasa tn4u 

Ann. Ent. S( . America, Vol. VI 1913. 

38 Journal of the Asiatic Society oj Bengal [N.S-, XLV 

(28) Tower (D. G.), Mouth Parts in Squash Bug. Psyche, 

Boston, 1914. 

(29) Taylor (H.), The Thoracic scle rites of Hemiptera. Ann. 

Ent. Soc., America. 1918. 

(30) Woodworth (C. W.) 9 The wing veins of insects. Univ. 

Calif. Pub., Tech. Bull. Agric. Exp. Station, 1906. 



Anterior basalare. A triangular sclerite at the base of the forewing, in 
the antero-dorsal corner of the raesopleuron. 

Anal vein. A vein parallel to the proximal margin of the forewing. 

Apedome. A depressed groove along the dorsal margin of the mesopleu- 



Apical stricture. The white collar at the anterior end of the prothorax. 
Afferent Salivary ducts. Ducts which carry saliva from the salivary gland 

to the pump chamber. - I 

Buccale. A membranous sclerite at the base of the labium, protruding I 

out between the latter and the maxillary lamina. 
Calcaria. Chitinous bristles at the distal end of the tibia 
Chylific Stomach. The portion of the alimentary canal between the crop 

and the malpighian tubules. 
Clypeus fold. The lateral margin of the clypeus. 

Clavus. The proximal of the three areas into which the forewing is di- 
Cenchrus. The shallow space at the dorsal margin of the metapleuron. 
Coxa. The first segment of a leg. 

Coxal cleft. The cleft at the lower end of the meso- or metapleuron. 
Costal vein. A vein parallel to the costal margin of the forewing. 
Costal apicalis. The vein No. 3 from the outer margin of the hind wing. 
Costal connectus A vein of the hind wing, connecting costal primavia 

and costal subtensa. H 

Costal decurrens. A vein of the hind wing running from the costal con- H 

nectus to the posterior end. 
Costal lineata. A vein of the hind wing lying on the inner side of the 

costal subtensa. 
Costal primaria. A vein of the hind wing in its distal margin. t 

Costal recurrence. Two veins in the proximal portion of the hind wing. 
Corium. The middle of the three areas of the forewing. 

Corium spot. A black somewhat rectangular spot lying in the corium 

area of the forewing. 
Cubitus. A vein in the clavus area of the forewing. 

Diaphragm. A longitudinal downgrowth of the tergum of the IX ab- 
dominal segment of the male. 

Epicranium. The main sclerite of the dorsal surface of the head, bearing 
the pair of compound eyes. 

Ejaculatory duct. A small thin duct carrying seminal fluid from the tes- 
tes to the penis or oedeagus. 

Epipharynx. The membranous lining of the clypeus and the Jabrum. 

Epimeron. The posterior portion of the pleuron in the meso- and meta- 

Episternum. The anterior portion of the pleuron of the meso- and meta- 

Efferent salivary duct. The duct which carries saliva from tlie pump 

chamber to the ejection canal. 
Femur. The second segment of the leg. 

Fulcra. A sclerite on the side of the scutellum of mesothorax. 
Gala. A sclerite forming the ventral wall of the bead capsule. 


1923.] Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. 39 

Oenae. A sclerite forming the lateral wall of the head capsule between 
the epicranium and the gula. 

Inferiors. Two pieces below the oedeagus. 

Labium. The part of the 2nd maxilla, which forms the rostrum. 

Laterals. A long sclerite on the side of oedeagus. 

Membrane. The membranous black part of the forewing. 

Membrane cell. An area surrounded by veins on all sides. 

Mandible lever. A small triangular sclerite connecting the mandible base 
to the side of the head capsule. 

Mandible protractors. Bundles of muscles connecting the base of man- 
dible to the occipital region of the head. 

Maxilla lever. A small curved sclerite, attached to the base of maxilla. 

Maxilla lamina. A small sclerite between the fulcra and the base of 
the labium, to the internal face of which the maxillary protractors are 

Maxilla protractors. Bundles of muscles attached at the base of the max- 
illary stylet on one side and the face of the maxilla lamina on the other, 
used for projecting the maxilla outwards. 

Maxilla retractors. Bundles of muscles connecting the maxilla base to 
the occiput region of the head. 

Maxilla strut. An infolding of the maxilla lamina. 

Occiput. The collar like sclerite at the base of the head capsule. 

Oedeagus. The copulating organ of the male. 

Operculum. The thin dorsal wall of the pharynx. 

Pleuron. The lateral region of a thoracic or abdominal segment 

Preatare. A small triangular sclerite in front of the base of the forewing. 

Postalare. A small sclerite behind the base of the forewing. 

Pump chamber. The chamber of the salivary pump, in which the saliva 
is poured in by the afferent salivary ducts and from which it is taken 
awaj' by the efferent salivary ducts. 

Pharyngeal duct. The terminal spoon-shaped tip of the pharynx reaching 
the base of the suction canal. 

Piston. Piston-like calcareous piece of pump chamber. 

Pronotum. The notum or tergal (dorsal) sclerite of the prothorax. 

Periireme. An annluar chitinou3 piece surrounding the spiracle. 

Pump-stem. An anterior prolongation of the anterior wall of the pump 

Prescuteum. The first of the four sclerites composing the mesonotum 

Scutum. The second do. do. do. 

Scutellum. The third do. do. do. 

Post- scutellum The fourth do. do. do. 

Pre-scuto-scutelliun. The fused prescutum, scutum, scutellum of the 

Radius. A vein in the forewing, behind the costa subtensa. 
Subbasalare. A thin sclerite just below the base of forewing and above 

the apedome. 
Suction canal. The dorsal of the two canal- rmed by the opposition 

of the two maxillae. 

Superior laterale. A longitudinal chitinous piece strengthening the dia- 

Tentorium. A chitinous sclerite inside the head capsule, .supporting the 

ventral wall of the pharynx 
Theca. The chitinous root of the oedeagus. 
Tentorium horn. A rolled up portion of the tentorium at the t.p of the 

head, forming a passage for the stylets. 
Trochantin. A small thin chitinous piece at the base of the coxa. 
Trochanter. The second segment of the ieg, between the coxa and the 



Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [X.S., XIX, 


A. abdomen. 

Al A 10. Abdominal segments. 

A. B. Anterior basalare. 

A. G. Accessory gland. 

An. Anus. 

ANA. Anal vein. 

ANT. Antennae. 

ANT. N. Antennal nerve. 

A. P. Pleuron of abdomen. 

AP. Apedome. 

AP. ST. Apical stricture. 

A. SD. Afferent salivary duct. 

Bu. Buccale. 

CAL. Calcaria. 

Chyl. Chylific stomach. 

CLY. Clypeus. 

CLV. Clavus. 

CN. Cenchrus. 

Cox. CI. 1-3. Coxal cleft 1-3. 

COS. Costal vein of the forewing. 

COS. A. Costal apicalis. 

COS. C. Costal connectus. 

COS. D. Costal decurrens. 

COS. L. Costal lineata. 

COS. P. Costal primaria. 

COS. S. Costal subtensa. 

COS. R. Costal recurrence. 

COS. 1-3. Coxae of the three legs. 

Cr. S. Corium spot. 

CU. Cubitus. 

D. Diaphragm. 

D. M. Dorsal muscles. 

E. Eye. 

Emb. Embolium. 

Ep. Epicranium. 

E. D. Ejaculatory duct. 

EPH. Epipharynx. 

EPM. Epimeron 2-3. 

EPS. Episternum 2-3. 

E. S. D. Efferent salivary duct. 

E. C. Ejection canal. 

FE. Femur. 

FR. Fulcra. 

Fre. Frenum. 

Gu. Gula. 

Gl. Ut. Gland of the uterus. 

GN. Genae. 

Infs. Inferiors. 

L. Laterals. 

LB. A. Apex of the labium. 

LB. B. Labium base. 

LB. G. Labium groove. 

LR. Labrum. 

M. Membrane of the forewing. 

Malpi. Malpighian tubules. 

M.C. 1-2. Cells of the membrane. 

Me. Median vein. 

Med. n. Nerve of mesothorax. 

Mn. Mandible. 

Mn. B. Base of the mandible. 

Mn. A P. Apex of the mandible. 

Mn. L. Mandible lever. 

Mn. P. Mandible protractors. 

Mn. R. Mandible retractors. 

Mx. B. Maxilla Base. 

Mx. L. Maxilla lever. 

Mx. LA. Maxilla lamina. 

Mx. P. Maxilla protractors. 

Mx. R. Maxilla retractors. 

Mx. St. Maxilla stylets. 

Mx. SR. Maxilla strut. 

Meta. Th. N. Nerve supplying the 
leg of the metathorax. 

Ne. L. Nerve of the labium. 

Oc. Occiput. 

OE. Oedeagus. 

Oe. S. Setae of the Oedeagus. 

Oes. Oesophagus. 

Op. Operculum. 

Op. N. Optic nerve. 

OV. TB. Ovarian tubules. 

P. A. Prealare. 

P. B. Post basalare. 

P. C. Pump chamber. 

Ph. M. Muscles of the pharynx. 

PH D. Pharyngeal duct. 

Ph. V. Ventral wall of \ the 

Pi. Piston. 

Pi. H. Handle of Piston. 

Pi. M. Muscles of Piston 1-3. 

PI. Pleuron of the thoracic seg- 
ments 2-3 

Po. Post-alare 2-3. 

PR. Prothorax. 

PR. C. Pronotal callosity. 
PR.N. Prothorax notum. 
P. S. Pump stem. 

P. SC. Prescutellum of meso- 

P. S. Cox. Posterior subcoxale 2-3. 

P. SLQ. Post scutellum of meso- 

P. SSL. Fused preseutum, scu- 
tum, and scutellum of meta- 

P. Th N. Notum of the prothorax. 
P. W. C. Posterior wall of the 

pump chamber. 
RA. Radius vein of the forewing. 
Rec. Rectum. 

Ros. Rostrum. 

Ros. Gr. Rostrum groove. 

R. D. Reservoir duct. 

S. B. Sub-basalare. 

S. C. Suction canal. 

S. cos. Subcostal. 

Sc. Scutum of mesothorax. 


Anatomy and Bionomics of Red Cotton Bug. 



S. D. Salivary duct 

S. G. Salivary gland. 

SL. Scutellum of mesothorax 

S, L. Superior laterale. 

S. M. Suture membrane. 

S Oea. G. 

SP. Spiracles, one to ninth. 
St. Sternum. 
Sty. Stylets. 
S. Sub. Oes. G. Supra- and sub- 

oesophageal ganglia fused. 
Sut. Sutures. 
T. Tentorium. 

Tb. Tibia. 

Te. Testes. 
Th. Theca. 
Th. Sp. 1st and 2nd thoracic spi 

T. HO. Tentorium horn. 
T. Tendon. 
TR. Tarsus. 

TR. AN. Tracheae to the 
TRa. Trachea. 
TROCH. Trochantin. 
TRO. Trochanter. 
V. D. Vas deferens. 
V. N. C. Ventral nerve cord. 
W. 1-2. Fore-and hindwing. 
W. B. Wing base. 

an ten 


Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — Dorsal view of the entire insect </ 




Plate II. 

2. —ventral view of entire insect. 

3a.— Dorsal view of the thorax and abdomen. 

36. — Dorsal view of the head only. 

3c— Dorsal view of the thorax only. 

4a. — Lateral view of the abdomen and thorax 

46.— Lateral view of the head and prothorax. 





Plate III. 

5a.— The entire fore- wing. 

56— The entire hind-wing. 

5c. — The entire fore leg. 

fa.— Head dissected out— much magnified. 

G6._T.S. of the labium in the distal region. 

Gc— T.S. of the stylets in situ. 

Gd.— Dorsal view of the base of the maxilla. 

Ge.— Ventral view of the base of the maxilla. 

6/.— Apex of the maxilla. 

Ga.— Base of the mandible. 

G/i.— Apex of the mandible. 

6A\— Lever of the mandible. 

Gl— Apex of the labium. 








Plate IV. 

Ventral view of the clvpeo-labrum showing epipharynx. 
Lateral view of the clypeo labrum and tentorium. 
Trans. Sec. of the head in the region of the brain. 
Trans Sec. of the head just in front of the brain. 
Trans. Sec. of the head just where mandible begins 

of the head just where pump chamber begins, 
of the head in the region of the Hypeal folds 
Trans. Sec. of the head m tho region where efferent salivary 
duct leaves the pump chamber. 

Trans. Sec 
Trans. Sec. 

42 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, [N.S., XIX, 1923.; 

Plate V. 
Fig. 9. — Salivary pump. 
Fig. 10a. — Dorsal view of 6-10 abdominal segments. 

106. — Ventral view of 5-10 abdominal segments. 

10c. — 8th and 9th abdominal segments. 

\0d. — Oedeagus. 

Fig. 11a. — Caudal view of the 6-10 abdominal segments, Female. 

U 6 -— » » » 7-10 

He- ,, „ „ 8-10 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 12. — Alimentary canal. 

12a. — Figure showing the valve between the oesophagus and the crop. 
Fig. 13. — Salivary gland3 and pump apparatus. 
Fig. 14. — Male reproductive organs. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 15. — Female genital organs. 
Fig. 16. — Nervous system. 

16a. — Lateral view of the central nervous mass 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 17a. — Entire Insect, right side of the diagram showing the dorsal tra- 
cheal system; left side showing the ventral tracheal system. 
176. — Division of a main trachea rising from an abdominal spiracle. 
Fig. 18.— Stink glands. * 

Plate IX. 
Fig. 10. — Circulatory system. 
Fig. 20a.-Egg. 

20&.— Nymph 12 hours old. 
20c. — After second moult. 
20d.— After third moult. 
20c. — After fourth moult. 

Mr. Hem Singh carried out the greater part of this work in the 
Zoological Laboratory of the Government College, Lahore. It was com- 
menced in 1919 and the results were embodied in a dissertation which 
was submitted for the BI.Sc. Degree of the Punjab University in 1920. 
Tho work was continued, with some intermission, at the Punjab Agri- 
cultural College, Lyallpur, where Mr. Hern Singh received valuable help 
and criticism from Mr. M. A. Hussain, Entomologist to Government, 
Punjab. In connexion with this research Mr. Hem Singh has had the 
advantage also of spending some months in the Laboratory of the Im- 
perial Entomologist at Piisa (Bihar).— George Matthai, Professor of 
Zoology 9 Government College, Lahore. 

i i 

J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923 

Plate I. 



H. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 



J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923. 

Plate II 









P. Sc * 
,SC Z . 

~*..-* SL * 

:jS^..-pssl' 3 . 



PRO C._ 


nos. STY. COX'. APST 

i z~ii- /r^^ ; EPS* 

A3.SP* A ->A>^ EpM 3 L 


H. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 


J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923. 

Plate III. 


EMB. j 


COS, / 

S.COS. H * 



COS.F ,' 

Cos. c. 


CUM *As. 


t i 

S.M. ur 2 







'I. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 

J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923. 

Plate IV. 

LR.-— . 


£W<^ CLY ~- 



^-,<;z.v. r. 



fl ;5.D. 






Mw - B - vx.-A ,*-— oS 




MxJ f ...,.\-- l 


H. Singh del 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 




J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XTX, 1923 

Plate V. 





.A 7 ..— - 



H. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 





J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923. 

Plate VI 



\ Cf<OP 

• ••■% 


— Chyl. 

• — A/vi/a 

H. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 



J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923 

Plate VII 













J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923- 

Plate VIII. 














. J 





J. A. S. B. (N. S.) XIX, 1923. 

Plate IX 







-.—,.... Crop 

Ma trv Cirac lector y 






H. Singh del. 

Anatomy of the Red Cotton Bug. 




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part of the Members have responded to last year's request for 
corrections, it is presumed that mistakes still occur. Kindly 
indicate any such if observed on the form given over-leaf. Cor- 
rectness and completeness of our entries are of considerable im- 
portance for our administration, as well as, occasionally, for the 
Members themselves. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

I, Park Street, 

February, 1924. 


General Secretary. 


N.B. — Only Corrections need to re notified 

Family name, 

for alphabetical 

Baptismal or other 
personal names, 
to follow. 


Address in full 

Kind of ordinary 

Absent, Life-member 
Foreign Member. 

Date of Election. 

Special Membership 
or Fellowship. 

Honorary Fellow. 
Ordinary Fellow. 

Associate Member. 



Elliott medal. 
Barclay medal 






Proceedings, Asiatic Society 






1. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, 1923 
Annual Report for 1 922 
Annual Address for 1922 . . 

• • 

Abstract Statement of Receipts and Disbursements, 1922 

List of Officers, Council Members, Members, Fellows an 
. Medallists, 1922 

Officers and Members of Council, 1022 

Officers and Members of Council, 1923 

Ordinary Members 

Special Honorary Centenary Members 

Honorary Fellows 


Associate Members 

Members absent from India 
Loss of Members. . 

• • 

Elliott Gold Medal 
Barclay Memorial Medal . . 

4. Proceedings, Ordinary Monthly Meet 

5. Proceedings, Medical Section Me tings, 1922 

ng*, 1922 
























Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1923. 

The Annual Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was 
held on Wednesday, the 7th February, 1923, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt., 
C.S.I., D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B., President, in the chair. 

Members present : 

Abdul Ali,Mr. A. F. M. 
Abdul Latif, Sved. 
Abdul Wali, Moulvi. 
Agarkar, Prof. S. P. 
Annandale, Dr. N. 
Bose, Prof. S. R. 
Brown, Mr. J. Coggin 
Brown, Mr. Percv. 
Bruhl, Dr. P. J. 
Chanda, Mr. R. 
Christie, Dr. W. A. K. 
Cleghorn, Miss M. L. 
Das-Gupta, Prof. H. C. 
Dikshit, Mr K. N. 
Francotte, Rev. E. 
Ghatak. Prof. J. C. 

Hannah, Dr. Bruce. 
Insch, Mr. J. 

Iyer, Prof. L. K. A. 

Jain, Mr. C. L. 

Kemp, Dr S. W. 

Khuda Baksh, Mr. S. 

Majumdar, Prof. N. G. 

Manen, Mr. J. van. 

Moreno, Dr. H. W. B. 

Mukherjee, The Hon. Justice Sir 


Mukherjee, Babu Rama Prasad. 

Raman, Prof. C. V. 

Ray, Prof. H. C. 

Tipper, Mr. G. H. 

And others. 

Allen, Mr. and Mrs. G. T. 
Biswas, Babu Kalipada. 
Carsa, Mr. A. F. W. da. 
Dutta, Babu Atul Chandra 

Visitors present : 

Flemming, Mr. H. 
Sundarlingam, Mr. P. V. 
And others. 

The President ordered the distribution of the voting papers 
for the election of Officers and Members of Council for 1923, 
and appointed Dr. B. Hannah and Dr. H. W. B. Moreno to be 

The President also ordered the distribution of the voting 
papers for the election of Fellows of the Society and appointed 

X * — ^_ ^_* -m a • 

Dr. B 


The President announced that three papers had been 

Prize for Scientific 


received in competition for the Elliott 
Research for the year 1922. One of these was disqualified 
not being in accordance with the terms of the Gazette 

The Prize was awarded to Mr. Abani Bhusan 
Datta, M.A., Ph.D. 

The President announced that notification of the award 
of the Barclay Memorial Medal for 1923 would be made later. 

The Annual Report was then presented. 


The CounciJ of the Asiatic Society of Bengal has the 
honour to submit the following report on the state of the 
Society's affairs during the year ending 31st December. 1922. 

Member List. 

The number of Ordinary Members at the close of 1922 was 
369 as against 359 at the close of 1921. The number of 
Ordinary Members elected during 1922 was 28, of whom 9 have 
not yet paid their entrance fees, the number of Ordinary 
Members added is, therefore, 19. In addition 3 members 
elected in 1921 have paid their entrance fees during the year, 
making a total of 22 Ordinary Members added ; on the other 
hand 8 withdrew. 1 died, and the name of one member was 
transferred from the Ordinary Member list to the list of 

Associate Member 

The names of two members were trans- 

ferred from the Ordinary Member list to the list of Honorary 

The number of Ordinary Members in the past six years 
were as follows : 




a a 






1917 . 

1918 . 

1919 . 

1920 . 

1921 . 

1922 . 

























































The following member died during the course of the 

year : 

Mr. Mansel Longworth Dames, I.C.S. (Retd.). 

There were two deaths among the Honorary Fellows, 
viz. :— Mr. Charles H. Tawney, M.A., CLE. and Sir Patrick 
Manson, G.C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. iii 

The number of Special Honorary Centenary Members 
remained unchanged, viz., 2. There was only one Associate 
F Member elected, viz. Prof. Ananta Krishna Shastri. The 

number now stands at 13. 

Fellows of the Society. 
During the vear we have elected Sir Thomas Henrv Holland, 

K.CJ9.L, K CLE., D.So., ARCS, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.A.S.B.; 
Lt.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., CJ.E.. M.D., B.Sc, F.R.O.P., 
F.R.C.S, F.A.S.B., F.R.S., I. M.S. ; Professor W. H. Perkin, 
Ph.D.. Sc.D. , LL.D., and Professor Arthur Anthony MacdonelL 
M.A., Ph.D., D.O.L.. as Honorary Fellows. The number of 
Honorary Fellows is now 30. 

At the annual meeting held on the 1st February, 1922. 
Babu Ramaprasad Ohanda, B.A., and E. H. Pascoe, Esq., M.A., 
D.Sc, F G S., were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Two members who were formerly fellows were elected 
Honorary Fellows during the year under review . 

Sir Thomas Holland, F.R.S. and Lt.-Col. Sir Leonard 

Rogers, F.R.S. 

The list of Fellows, now stands at 39. 

Office Bearers. 

During the year Dr. S. W. Kemp officiated as Honorary 
Secretary in place of Dr. W. A. K. Christie, on leave in Europe. 
For some weeks Dr. Kemp was in Southern India and during this 
period Mr. A. H. Harley carried on the duties of the Honorary 
Secretary. In the absence of Mr. Harley for a short period 
Dr. E. P. Harrison took charge of the office. 

There have been no other changes among the officers of the 
Society since last annual election. 


At the beginning of the year Mr. J. H. Elliott fell ill and 
was allowed leave for six months on full pay from 1 5th Feb- 
ruary. On the 19th March he died after a career of honour- 
able service to the Society extending over a period of forty 
years. The office and the Library were closed on the follow 
ing day out of respect to his memory. The Council appointed 
Mr. C. "Dover as Assistant Secretary on probation. ^ Mr. Dover 
after serving for a few months, submitted his resignation and 
Mr. J. C. Hvrapiet was appointed on probation in his place. 

The Council allowed Mrs. Elliott to draw Rs. 312-8-0 per 
month up to loth August and at the conclusion of the period 

made her a gratuity of Rs. 3,750 

There have been no other changes among the staff of the 


iv Proceedings of the 

Society's Premises and Property. 

It had been hoped that by the time this report came to 
be written the Council would have been able to announce their 
approval of a scheme for rebuilding the Society's premises, but 
although the Building Committee has been busily engaged 
throughout the year no final decision lias yet been reached. 
Plans for a new building in everv way suited to the Society's 
requirements were prepared by Messrs. Sudlow and Ballardie, 
but after protracted enquiry it was found that the scheme was 
too ambitious and that it was impossible to make the necessary 
financial arrangements. New proposals are, therefore, now 
under consideration. It is hoped that the Government of 
India will be able to provide accommodation in one of the 
Government of India buildings in Calcutta during the period of 


Indian Museum. 

No presentations were made to the Indian Museum. 

The Director of the Zoological Survey of India was granted 
permission to send to the Victoria Museum, Karachi, certain 
duplicate specimens from the ethnological collections belong- 
ing to the Society. 

During the year there has been no change in the Society's 

Trusteeship, the Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhvaya, 
Kt., C.S.I. , D.Sc., F.R.A.S., F.R.S E., F.A.S.B., continuing to 
be the Society's representative on the Board of Trustees under 
the Indian Museum Act X of 1910. 

Indian Science Congress. 

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the Indian Science Congress 
was held in the Medical College, Madras, from January 30th to 
February 1th, 1922, under the patronage of His Excellency 
the Rt. Honourable Baron Willingdon of Ratton, G. C.S.I . 
G.C.I.E., G.B.E., Governor of Madras. Mr. C. S. Middlemiss, 
CLE., F.R.S. 5 was President. The abstracts of the scientific 
papers communicated to the Congress are in the press and 
copies will shortly be sent to the members. 

It was arranged that the Tenth Annual Meeting of the 
Congress should be held in the Medical College, Lucknow, on 
January 8th to 13th, 1923. His Excellency Sir William 
Marris, K.C.S.I , K C.I E ., Governor of the United Provinces, 
consented to be Patron. Sir M. Visvesvaraya. K.C.I.E., 
M.Inst., C.E., D.Sc, was appointed President, and Dr. J. L# 
Simonsen, PhD., F.I.C., F.A.S.B., and Professor C. V. 
Raman, M.A.. D.Sc, Honorary General Secretaries. Profes- 
sor P. S. MacMahon, M.Sc, and Dr. Wali Muhammad, M.A., 
Ph.D., of the Lucknow University, were appointed Local 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. v 

Secretaries, and the Hon'ble Mr. C. Y. Chintamani, Minister of 
Education, Chairman of the Local Committee. 


The General Meetings of the Society were held regular- 
ly every month with the exception of the month of January 
when those present did not form a quorum As the result of a 
ballot of members resident in Calcutta it was decided to alter 
the time of the General Meetings from 9-15 p.m. to 6-15 p.m. 
and there has been a marked increase in attendance since this 
change was introduced. No meeting was held in October, 
this being a recess month. 


The Society received a communication from the Perma- 
nent Secretary of L'Academie Royale de Belgique, announcing 
the celebration of its 150th Anniversary on the 24th May, 
1922. The Council appointed Dr. E. H. Pascoe, Sir Leonard 
Rogers, and Sir Thomas Holland as its representatives. 

On an invitation from the President of the Societe Asia- 
tique de Paris, Dr. W. A. K. Christie represented the Society 
at the centenary celebrations held in July. 

Dr. Christie also represented the Society at the Interna- 
tional Convention in connection with the International Cata- 
logue of Scientific Literature, held at Brussels in July* 

The Sociefcv also received invitations from the University 


of Padua and the Hungarian Geographical Society and ex- 
pressed its regret at not being able to send delegates. 

The Society nominated Dr. E. H. Pascoe to represent it 
at the XTIIth session of the International Geological Congress. 


Messrs. Luzac & Co., and Mr. Paul Geuthner have continued 
as the Society's Agents in Europe. The Controller, Local 
Clearing Office^ Enemy Debts), Simla, having realised from Mr. 
Harrassowitz on behalf of the Society a claim totalling Rs. 
2,442-14-1 Mr. Harrasso wit z was re-appointed one of the 
Society's Continental agents. 

Barclay Memorial Medal 
(No award for 1922.) 

Elliott Prize for Scientific Research. 

The subject selected for the Elliott Prize for Scientific Re- 
search for the vear 1922. was Mathematics, and the notification 

vi Proceedings of the 

appeared in the Calcutta Gazette, in January 1922. Papers 
were received from three competitors, one of whom was dis- 
qualified as his thesis was not in accordance with the terms of 
the Gazette notification. The Prize is awarded to Mr. Abaiii 

Bhusan Datta, M.A., Ph.D. 

The subject selected for the Prize for the year 1923, is 
Chemistry. The notification will shortly be published in the 
Calcutta Gazette. 


The appendix contains the usual statements showing the 
accounts for the year 1922. In this year's account there is an 
additional statement under the head " Catalogue of Scientific 
Serial Publications, Calcutta. " Statement No. 20 shows the 
Balance Sheet of the Society and of the different funds 
administered through it. 

The credit balance at the close of the year is Rs. 2,13,868- 
4-2 against Rs, 2,14,171-0-4 on the 31st December, 1921. Of 
this amount Rs. 1,72,300 belongs to the Permanent Reserve, the 
working balance, exclusive of funds administered for Govern- 
ment, being Rs. 41,568 as against Rs. 42,571 at the end of 1921. 

The Society has received the usual sanctioned grants of 
Rs. 18,800 and Rs. 5,000 from the Government of Bengal and 
India respectively as under : 

From Government of Bengal— Rs. Vide Statement 

Anthropological Fund . . 2,000 No. 1 

Oriental Publication Fund, No. I 9,000 „ 10 

1 Do No. 2 1,000 ,, 11 
Sanskrit MSS. Fund for printing, 

cataloguing and preservation 

of MSS. .. .. 3,200 \ r > 

Bureau of Information .. 3.600 

Total .. 18,800 

From Government of India— Rs. Vide Statement. 

Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund. . 5,000 No. 13 

Statement No. 14 contains an account of the Society's 
investments in Government Securities which are held in de- 
posit by the Imperial Bank of India. We hold 3| Govern- 
ment Promissory Notes of the face value of Rs. 273,700 
The actual cost of the security was Rs. 262,606-3-10, but as 
the value of this security has considerably decreased during 
recent years, owing to the issue of more favourable loans, it 

1 An application ha3 been made for a fresh grant of Rs. 3,000 to 
the Government of Bengal for another five years, the grant havin~ 
expired on the 3lst March, 1922. 





Asiatic Society of Bengal. vii 

has been thought desirable to write the Book Value down to 
the rates ruling at the close of the year and this has been done 
showing a loss of Rs. 103,860-3-10. We also hold 4% Govern- 
ment Terminable Loan 1915/16 of Rs. 10,100 purchased at par 
and the written value shows a loss of Rs. 202. In addition we 


Notes of Rs. 500 belong- 

ing to the Barclay Memorial Fund and this paper also has 
been revalued. 

Statements Nos. 15 and 16 show how the current Funds 
are temporarily invested in War Bonds and Treasury Bills. 

Statement No. 17 gives an account of the amounts due to 

and from the Society by way of subscriptions, publications and 
contingent charges. 

In Statement No. 18 is shown the sum reserved, with 
interest thereon, and kept in deposit with the Chartered Bank 
' of India, Australia and China, London, for printing the Kash- 

\' miri Dictionary in London. 

The Budget estimates for the vear 1922 were : — Receipts 
Rs. 26,264, Expenditure Rs. 24,271. The actual receipts are 

Rs. 25,602-2-2, including the "admission fees," and the actual 

Expenditure Rs. 27,902-6-0, including "Publications" and 

"Gratuity" which were not provided for in the Budget 

During the vear we have received Rs. 672 from Admission 

fees, and as usual the Permanent Reserve has been increased 

& by Rs. 700 (face value) transferred from the Temporary Reserve. 

y The Permanent Reserve now stands at Rs 1,72,300 (face 

[ value). 

The Budget estimate of probable Receipts and Expendi- 

f ture for the year 1923 is as follows : 



• - 

• • 

Its. 20.489 
„ 23.340 



1022. 1922. 1923. 

Estimate. Actuals-. Estimate 

Rs. Ks. Rs. 

Members' Subscriptions . . 9,000 6,883 9,000 

Subscriptions for the So- 
ciety's Journal and Pro- 
ceedings and Memoir* 1,944 672 3,162 

Sale of Publications .. 1,700 1,615 1,700 

Interest on Investments . . 10,870 12.027 12,927 


( arried ov. ,- .. 23,514 22,007 2«. 789 

* * * 


Proceedings of the 

Brought forward 
Rent of Room 
Government Allowance 
for publication of papers 

in Journal 


Admission fees 

• • 





Estimate. Actuals Estimate. 






• ■ 













Commission . 



Light and Fan 




Contingencies . 



Journal and Proceeding 

and Memoirs 

Printing (Circulars, etc ) . 
Author's f ee . . 
Petty repairs . . 

Publications . . 
Winter clothing 






• * 

» » 



1 .495 






• • 






♦ • 






We therefore anticipate a saving of nearly Rs. 6,150. 
Any expenditure for which provision has not been made might 
be met from the above surplus. 



The total number of volumes and parts of magazines added 

purchased and 1,795 were presented or received in exchange. 






Asiatic Society of Bengal. ix 

On an application to the Department of Education the 
library of the Society received two valuable presentations, viz. 
(1) A. Stein's "The Thousand Buddhas"; and (2) A. Stein's 
" Serindia " in 5 volumes. 

Efforts are being made to procure missing parts or vol- 
umes of periodical publications existing in the Society's library. 


s There were published four numbers of the Journal and 

Proceedings (Vol. XVII, Nos. 3 and 4, 1921, and Vol. XVIII, 
Nos. 1 and 2, 1922) during the year containing 487 pages 
and 10 plates in all. 
f Of the Memoirs three numbers were published (Vol. VI. 

Pfc. 8, Vol. VII, No. 4, and Vol. VIII, No. 1), containing 164 
pages and 9 plates in all. 
* The Proceedings of the Eighth Indian Science Congress is 

contained in the Society's Proceedings, Vol. XVII, No. 4, 1921. 

Indexes to the completed volumes of the Society's Journal 
and Proceedings, and Memoirs are in active preparation, and 
will be published shortly. 

On the recommendation of Dr. S. W. Kemp, Honorary 
Secretary, the Council decided that the price of the Journal be 
increased from Rs. 2 to Rs. 3, and that the price to non- 
members be Rs. 4; for the Memoirs the same increase, i.e. 50° o 
p extra for members and 100% extra for non members. 

Exchange of Publications. 

' During the year the Council accepted five applications for 

exchange of publications, viz. from ( I) The Siam Society, Bangkok 
the Society's Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs for their 

a ^ m _ v » r m « *—. — _» ^ _ _ _ . __ _ _ 

The Military Geographical Institute of Florence 
s Journal and Proceedings for their UUni- 

Journal ; (2) 

the Society 
verso; (3) the German Entomological Museum, Berlin — the 
Society's Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs for their MU~ 
teilungen ; (4) The School of Oriental Studies, London— the 
Society's Journal and Proceedings for their Bulletin : and (5) The 
Scientific and Industrial Research Department, London — the 
Society's Journal and I J roceedings and Memoir* for their 
publications (for one year only). 


Mr. A. H. Haiiey has contributed a paper entitled 
" Dihyah-al Kalbi." The paper deals with the life-history of 
1 Dihyah il-Kalbi 1 which begins from the date of his conver- 
sion!!) 2 A.M. It contains various traditions according to which 

Habriel is said to have impersonated him. There is a description 

x Proceedings of the 

of his civil and military commissions with some conflict- 
ing traditions as to his transmission of the Prophet's letter 
calling upon the Emperor He radius to accept Islam. In it is 
also shown his domestic relation with the Prophet. Four tradi- 
tions have been cited in it about the place of his tomb. It ends 
with two Hadith which were ascribed to him. 

Another paper by Mr. Harley entitled " Umar bin Abdi 1- 
aziz and his Musnad collected by Al-Baghandi" deals with the 
the life-history of ' Umar II and his Musnad as collected by 
Al-Baghandi. It is based on a rate MS belonging to the 

Government Collection. 

In a paper entitled :: The Sources of Jami's Nafahat," 
Mr. W- Ivanow traces the sources of ;{ Jami's Nafahat," which 
is one of the most important historical works in Persian, and 
has exercised a great influence on Persian Sufic Literature. The 
work is based on some ramMSS. in the Society's possession. 
*' An Old Gypsy Jargon '' bv the same author contains a note 
on a fragmentary MS., dealing with an artificial and conven- 
tional secret code of a darwish community. 

A number of papers dealing with varied aspects of philo- 
logy were read by the members of the Society. Most of these 
have been or will be published in the Journal. So far as 
archaeology is concerned papers relating to Bharhut Sculptures 
contributed by Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda and Dr. M. M. Barua. 
are important. There can be no doubt that most of the iden- 
tifications of these sculptures with the Buddhist Jatakas will 
be accepted by scholars. Very little attention has been de- 
voted to the study of Kharosthi Inscriptions and the publica- 
tion of a paper on two epigraphs by Mr. N. G. Mazumdar is 
therefore welcome. Dr. Rovchowdhury's article on " the Maha- 
bharata and the Besnagar Inscription of Heliodoros" will be 
found instructive. 

The linguistic side of Philology was not neglected this year, 
and in " Lakhimpuri : A Dialect ." Baburam Saksena has made 
a valuable contribution to our knowledge. Father H. Hosten's 
article on St. Thomas also deserves notice as it throws interest- 
ing light on Pre-Portuguese Christianity of India. Tibetan 
studies were not forgotten and Mr. Johan van Manen's article 
entitled "A contribution to the Bibliography ot Tibet " cannot 
fail to be of great use to Tibetan scholars. 


Four papers of Anthropological interest have appeared in 
the Journal and Proceedings of 1922 In a paper entitled 
"The Origin of the Catholic Christians of Eastern Bengal" 
(Contributions to the History and Ethnology of North Eastern 
India— III) Mr. E A. Stapleton discusses the names of 60 Chris- 

tian children in the school attached to the Portuguese Church 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. xi 

f > 

at Hussamabad (Hashnabad) in the Nawabganj Thana of 

Daoca District and from the occurrence of Bengali daknnms 
or customary names of address and also of names of father's 
bari [homestead) instead of surnames arrives at the conclusion 
"that in the great majority of instances the Christians of Hash- 
es nabad are not descended from Portuguese at all but are merely 

converts from Hinduism and [slam.*' Dr. James Wise's valu- 
able historical account of " Portuguese in Eastern Bengal " is 
printed as an appendix (II) to the paper with additional notes 
bringing the history up to date. 7n his paper on < : The Svastika 
and the Omkara " Mr Harit Krishna Deb endeavours to show 
that there are indications enabling us to identify the symbol 
{syastika) with the syllable orii. In the paper entitled '<< Pre- 
J historic writing in India and Europe 7 ' Mr. Panehanan Mitra 

1 traces the Indian Bra h ml alphabet to Archaic {Proto-Egypto- 

Greco- Indie) writing. The most interesting anthropological 
paper of the year is Mr. Johan van Manen's article entitled 
" Concerning a Bon Image " which he recognises as the Bon-po 
deity Gsang-ba allied to Rta-mgrin and connected with the 

k Garuda. 






Eight papers on zoology have been published in the 
Journal and one in the the Memoirs, as well as a number of 
abstracts in the report of the Eighth Indian Science Congress 
published in the Proceedings. 

The paper in the Memoirs deals with the Amphipod Crust- 
acea collected by Dr. N. Annandale in the Far East in 1915-191A 
and is by Dr. W M. Tattersail, late Keeper of the Manchester 
Museum. It contains descriptions of several new species 
some of which are of great geographical interest. 

Of the papers published in the Journal b\ far the longest 
and the most important is that on the ' : Renal Portal" 
System and Kidney Excretion in Vei tebrata by Dr. W. N. F. 

| Woodland, late Professor of Zoology, Muir Central College, 

Allahabad. This paper occupies over 100 pages and embodies 

Zf the result of most careful and detailed work undertaken 

mainly in the Muir Central College. Allahabad. 

Most, if not all. of the other papers in the Journal were 
originally read at a meeting ot the Indian Science Congress and 
are of the nature of preliminary not* or short abstracts of 
longer memoirs published elsewhere. 

. Mr. Cedric Dover's ' Resume of Recent Progress in our 

Knowledge of the Indian Wasps and Bees" is a useful corn- 


Botany and Palaeontology. 

No papers dealing exclusively with botanical or pa i aeon 

tological subjects have been published but Dr, N\ Annamtaie s 

xn Proceedings of the 

" Introduction to the Study of the Fauna of an Island in the 
Ohilka Lake" in the Memoirs consists mainly of an account 
of the vegetation, palaeontology and geology of the island. 
Mr. V. Narayanaswami and Dr. H. (i. Carter contribute a list of 
plants as an appendix to this memoir. 

Physical Science. 
No papers on Physical Science were published during the 

vear under review. 

Medical Section. 

4 i 

Eleven meetings of the Medical Section were held during 
1922, and were very well attended, the average attendance 
being 9 members and 29 visitors. 

In January Major R. Knowles, I.M.S.. read a paper on 
The Problems of Kala Azar," fully illustrated by lantern 
slides and dealing especially with the unsolved problem of the 
transmission of the disease. In February, Lt. -Colonel F. P. 
Connor, D.S.O., I.M.S., read a paper on ci Malignant Growths 
of the Retained or Imperfectly Descended Testis," Rai Dr. U. 
N. Bramachari Bahadur, F.A.S.B., one on c< A New Form of 
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis — Dermal Leishmanoid," and Dr. J. J. 
Campos one on " Biochemical Aspects of Cholesterin.' ' Dr. 
Bramachari's discovery of a new and verv remarkable disease 
— a universalised and cutaneous infection of the whole skin ol 
the body by Leishmania donovani, with lesions resembling 
those of nodular leprosy in clinical type, — has led to renewed 
research work upon kala azar transmission. In March, Major 
H. W. Acton, I. MS. read a paper u On the Isomeric Relation- 
ships of the Cinchona Alkaloids and their relative Therapeutic 
Values," in which he summarised five years of remarkable 
research work upon the malaria problem by himself and his 
collaborators ; and Dr. Bramachari one " On the Influence of 
the Acidic and Basic Radicles of an Antimony! Compound upon 

the Toxicity of its Antimony Content," with special reference 
to the introduction of new compounds in the treatment of kala 
azar. In May, Dr. C. A. Bentley read a paper " On the Eco- 
nomics of Bengal Malaria," fully illustrated by lantern slides. 
In June, Dr. E. Muir read a paper on '' Recent Advances in our 
Knowledge of and Treatment of Leprosy," illustrated by lantern 
slides. In July, Major J. A. Shorten, I. M.S., read a paper on 
" Diathermy, its History and Use in Medicine and Surgery." 
Major Shorten^ paper was illustrated by exhibits of apparatus 
and experiments. 

At the August meeting Major A. D. Stewart, I.M.S.. read 
a paper on "Tube Wells in Bengal." Major Stewart's paper 
has led to correspondence with the Madras Government, who 
are desirous of testing such methods, A paper was also read by 




Asiatic Society of Bengal. xiii 

Major H. \V. Acton, I. M.S., on "The Causation of the Epide- 
mic Dropsy of Bengal " ; and the interest taken in Major 
Acton's recent discoveries of amine-forming micro-organisms 
in the infected rice which is concerned in the production of the 
disease was shewn by an attendance of 45 Calcutta practition- 
ers and a lively discussion. In September. Dr. Bramachari 
read a paper on ''Further Biochemical Researches in Kala Azar 
and a new Globulin Test/' Major R. N. Chopra, I. M.S. and 
Major H. W. Acton, I.M.S. ; a joint paper on "The Nature, 
Production and Action of the Toxin of the Cholera Vibrio/' 
and Major W. L. Harnett, F.R.C.S.. I M.S., one on " A Case of 
Traumatic Aneurism of the Spleen." The isolation by Majors 
Acton and Chopra from cultures of the cholera vibrio of the 
cholera amine in a state of purity has been followed by the 
experimental production of every symptom and lesion of 
cholera in experimental animals by injections of the purified 
amine, freed from all bacteria. In October, Lt. -Colonel F. A. F. 
Barnardo. C.I E., C.B.E., I.M S. ? read a paper on " The Manage- 
ment of Typhoid Cases with a note on the Causation of 
Haemorrhage in the Enteric Fevers. 35 In November, Major 
H.W.Acton,! M.S , read a paper on "The Mode of Action of 
Selective Drugs. " In December, Major R. N. Chopra, I.M.S., 
and Dr. Birendranath Ghosh, M.Sc, read a paper on "The 
Field for Research into Indian Indigenous Drugs," and Dr. 
Bramachari one on " Some New Amino-Antimonvl Tartrates and 
their Therapeutic Value." The meeting was attended by many 
of the leading kabirajs of Calcutta and the paper by Major 
Chopra and Dr. Ghosh was followed by an interesting discussion. 

The Section, as now constituted, affords a common meet- 
ing ground for workers at the Calcutta School of Tropical 
Medicine and Institute of Hygiene, the Calcutta Medical College, 
the Presidency General Hospital, and the general body of medi- 
cal practitioners in the city. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. 

Of this Catalogue which is being prepared by Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, C .I.E., a considerable amount 
of material has already been printed off and it is hoped that 
the first volume will be issued in a few months' time. 

Arabic and Persian Manuscripts, Search and Catalogue. 

During the year 1922, fifteen Arabic and Persian MSS. 
were purchased on behalf of Government. 

The preparation of the Catalogue of the MSS. in the 
Government Collection on the lines of the Catalogue of two 
Collections of Arabic and Persian MSS. preserved in the India 
Office Library by Sir E. Denison Boss and Professor K. G. 

xiv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Browne is in progress. The Acting first and second Travelling 
Maulawis were engaged in this work throughout the year. 
Besides this they prepared notes on the MSS. offered for 
sale, and prepared a Hand -list of the MSS. purchased during 
the years 1916-21. The first Additional Travelling Maulawi 
was engaged in foliating the Persian MSS. of the Society's 
Collection. He resigned in the month of December. The se- 
cond additional Travelling Maulawi was engaged in preparing 
the Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. of the Societv' s Collection. 

Bibliotheea Indica. 

Sanskrit Series. During the year the Societv published. 

(1) Baudhayana Srauta Sutram Vol. Ill, Fasc. 4; (2) 
Prithviraja Vijaya, Fasc, 3; (3) Kritya Ratnakara, Fasc. 2: 
(4) Advaitachinta Kaustubha, Fasc. 4; and (5) Tattva Chinta- 
mani Didhiti Vivriti, Vol ..3, Fasc. 2. 

Arabic and Persian Series. In this series two parts were 
published: (1) Muntakhabu'l-Tawarlkh (English translation), 
Vol. Ill, Fasc. 4; and (2) Tayyibat-i-Sa'di, Fasc. 3. 


No papers on Numismatics were published during the year 
under review. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee. Kt., 
C.S.I. , D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E.. FJR.A.S., F.A.S.B., President, 
delivered an address. 



It has been my privilege to address the Society, at its 
annual gathering, so often during the last seventeen years, 
that my silence on the present occasion would not have been 
liable to be misinterpreted as disrespect to our distinguished 
members. I felt, however, that if the term of office of the 
President were brought to a close without an address, however 
brief, it might create an unwelcome precedent. I shall conse- 
quently ask your indulgence while I refer to one or two subjects 
of interest to all well-wishers of the Society and supporters of 
its activities. 

It is a matter of congratulation that notwithstanding the 
stress of economic conditions, our material prosperity has re- 
mained unabated during the last twelve months. There is no 
visible diminution in the number of our members, nor has 
there been a fail in the quantity, and, let me add without 
hesitation, the quality of the communications accepted by us 
for publication. To our keen disappointment, however, our 
building scheme has been held up, by reason of financial diffi- 
culties, just at the stage when we hoped that they had been 
successfully overcome, and it is now fairly clear that the 
matter requires to be explored further. In connection with 
this project for the erection of a handsome building on this site, 
a gentleman, who may well claim to be a man of culture but 
who has not yet joined the Society, has seriously put to me 
the question, whether the Society which has now existed for 
140 years and has occupied these premises erected more than 
a century ago, is likely to last during the normal lifetime of a 
new habitation. I assured him, with my usual optimism 
that the work of the Society would never come to an end, for 
had not our illlustrious Founder, with the boldness which 
characterised all his conceptions, defined the bounds of our 
investigation to be the geographical limits of Asia and included 
within the scope of our enquiries whatever is performed by 
man or produced by Nature. It is, I venture to think, 
not general ty realised, even by well -educated people, that 
problems of scholarship, both literary and scientific, which 
still await solution, are so numerous and so fascinating that a 
Society like this can never languish. It is of the problems in 
one of these fields alone that I shall venture to address you 

xvi Proceedings of the 

this evening — 1 mean the achievement of scholars of different 
nationalities in the domain of Indologv. 

The greatest work in this department, which is also the 
greatest event of the year just closed, is the publication of the 
tirst volume of the long projected and keenly expected Cam- 
bridge History of India, the first of a series of six, setting forth 
the history of ancient India from the earliest times to about 
the middle of the first centurv of the Christian era. A glance 
at this work suggests many ideas for our reflection. In 1839, 
when Mount-stuart Elphinstone first attempted a com- 
prehensive History of India, he remarked: "No date of a 
public event can be fixed before the invasion of Alexander, 
and no connected relation of the national transactions until 
after the Mahomedan conquest." The first part of this state- 
ment is still true, if it is strictlv taken to mean that no date 
of an historical event anterior to the invasion of Alexander can 
be determined with absolute precision. But the second part 
of his observation has lost all point in the light of the wealth 
of materials now available for the reconstruction of the ancient 
history of this country ; and even in respect of the pre- 
Alexandrian period, " connected relation" is possible and has 
been established in the case of at least the social and religious 
historv of India. 

But what is this wealth of materials accessible to us, vou 
will perhaps ask. which have made the reconstruction of our 
past history possible ? Briefly, they are the literary composi- 
tions and the archaeological monuments. So far as the first 
of these sources goes, there can be no doubt that we have 
made much headway in the publication of the literary compo- 
sitions of ancient India. Thanks chieflv to the industrv and 


devotion of European scholars, almost the whole of Vedic 
literature is now before us for study and utilisation for histori- 
cal purposes. All the important works of Pali Buddhism are 
now accessible to us for the same purpose, principally through 
the unflagging and disinterested efforts of the late Professor 
Rhys Davids, who has just passed away, to the extreme grief 
of scholars in all countries. In regard to later periods, the 
publications brought out in such series as the Bibliotheca 
Indica of our Society, the Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit series, 
the Kavyamala, the Vizianagram series, the Benares Sanskrit 
series, the Chaukhamba series, the Trivandrum Sanskrit series, 
the Harvard Oriental series and the like, have placed before 
us much material which can be easily utilised in the ex- 
ploration of the ancient history of India. I do not for a 
moment intend to imply that no further work remains to be 
done in the matter of such publication ; all that I intend to 
emphasise is that much progress has been achieved in this 
direction. Such is not, however, the case with the collection 
and stndy of archaeological monuments, which, as I have 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. xvii 

already tcld you, is another important source of our past 
history. These fall into four broad divisions, (1) Epigraphy, 
(2) Numismatics. (3) Iconography and (4) Art and Architec- 
ture. Notable advance has doubtless been made in the study 
of these sources during the last half a century, as I attempted 
to show in my Address to the Second Oriental Conference held 
last year in this city under the auspices of the University 
of Calcutta. But it must be conceded that much still remains 
to be accomplished in this direction. Even in the sphere 
of Epigraphy, which may create the impression that the field 
has been thoroughly exploited, if we look into the Government 
Epigraphist's list of inscriptions discovered in the Madras 
Presidency alone, we are constrained to admit that numbers 
of them still await to be deciphered and made accessible for 
the purposes of history. The same remark may be applied 
with even greater emphasis to each of the other branches of 
Indian Archseologv. 

The materials which have been critically handled by 
different scholars and archaeologists are now within the reach 
of the historian. He has but to digest and collate them, to 
requisition them into the service of History. It is an elemen- 
tary truism that the life of a nation is faithfully portrayed in 
the monuments of its literature; here, as elsewhere among all 
civilised people, it is indisputable that our literary composi- 
tions illuminate many a dark and obscure corner in our past 
history, and their importance can scarcely be over-rated 
specially for our earliest period. The history of the pre- 
Asokan times in all its aspects still rests practically on literary 
evidence. It is true that the bulk of this literary source is 
preponderantly religious. But we have such secular works 
as the Puranas and the Epics which have helped to preserve 
the historic tradition. The results obtained by a scrutiny of 
this tradition, specially when compared and contrasted with 
those reached by a study of Vedic literature, throw unexpected 
yet welcome light on the political history of that penod. 
The fruit of such a critical inquiry is now before us in the 
shape of a book entitled '' Ancient Indian Historical Tradi- 
tion " brought out by Mr. F. E. Pargiter whose name occupies 
an honoured place in the long roll of Presidents of this Society. 
The idea of such a work had been conceived by him thirty 
years ago, when he was engaged on the translation of the 
Markandeva Purana, undertaken bv him for this Society. It 
is also extremely gratifying to note that a work of exactly the 
same nature was submitted in 1921 by Mr. Sitanath Pradhan, 
Lecturer on Physics in the Murarichand College, Sylhet, for 
the Degree of Doctor* of Philosophy, although he himself was 
presumably a votary not of philosophy, but of science The 
thesis has been pronounced by experts to be of much ex- 
cellence and has been accepted by the University for immediate 


£viii Proceedings of the 

publication. A comparison of the divergent results obtained 
by Mr. Pargiter and Dr. Pradhan cannot but prove useful for 
the reconstruction of the political history of the pre- Maury an 
period. It cannot thus be questioned that the Vedic and 
Post-Vedic literature, inclusive of the Pali Buddhist Canon, 
contain valuable materials for the investigation of the social, 
economic and religious history of that period ; this, indeed, is 
now admitted on all hands and calls for no detailed comments 
Such then is the value of the literary source, specially for the 
pre-Mauryan period, where archaeological monuments cannot 
come to our aid, though no doubt, when the latter become 
accessible, our knowledge attains further precision and becomes 
better connected. But even these records, though they have 
been judiciously handled by archaeologists, stand in need of 
examination also by the artist and the historian before thev 
can be made to \~ield the ancient history of India. Take for 
instance the field of numismatics. So many different coins of 
different periods have been found, classified and catalogued by 
expert numismatists, that many might labour under the im- 
pression that whatever was possible had been achieved- But 
the moment the records are studied and handled from the histo- 
rian's point of view, they yield many interesting results. I 
need make only a passing reference to the ancient history of 
coinage, such as we have seen already narrated in the lectures 
delivered in 1921 by the Carmichael Professor of the Calcutta 
University. Take, again, the ancient art and architecture of 
India. Vincent Smith's u History of Fine Art in India and 
Ceylon" and Fergusson's ''History of Indian Architecture" 
are still looked upon as the standard works on the subjects. 
The authors of these publications, however, never professed to 
give exhaustive descriptions of all the types of Indian art and 
architecture ; these treasures are indeed inexhaustible, and new 
specimens are brought to light year after year, thanks to the 
energy ot members of the great Archaeological Survey, as also to 
the enthusiasm of orivate citizens. It is not for this reason 

that these pioneer works were considered to be the standard 
authorities, but rather because thev were taken to have ex- 
pounded the grounds and principles of Indian art and architec- 
ture. We are indebted, however, to the striking efforts made 
by Mr Havell, that we are now able to approach the subject from 
an entirely new angle of vision ; the consequence is that the 
works of Fergusson and Vincent Smith are criticised as domi- 
nated bv the erroneous idea that the art and architecture of 
Ancient India qua art has very little to teach the world. It is 
iefreshing to find that the workers of this generation have now 
commenced studying the problems of Indian art and architec- 
ture from this new point of view, which is not that of the ar- 
chaeologist, but of the artist. It was only the other day that 
Dr. Stella Kramrisch delivered two courses of lectures before the 

A sialic Society of Bengal. x i.\ 

Calcutta University, setting forth some of the results reached 
by her in this field. Mr. Manomoban Ganguli, author of 
'' Orissa and its Remains," is also delivering a series of lectures, 
under the auspices of the University, on the architecture of 
ancient India from this view-point ; while Mr. Sen, Jamini 
Kanta, in his brilliant work " Art-o Ahitagni " has expounded 
an attractive theory. No impartial critic can, for a moment, 
lay down that this new method of treatment is wholly correct 
1 am not pledged to accept either the old or the new ; indeed, 
to my mind, both the old and the new contain elements of 
truth, and unless the partisans of both thresh out the subject 
thoroughly, we cannot hope to reach the unalloyed truth. 

It will thus be admitted that the labours of scholars work- 
ing in various fields have brought to light a vast mass of 
material since the time when Elphinstone first attempted to 
write a history of India, as will be apparent from even a 
cursory glance at the pages of the first volume of the Cam- 
bridge History. We must not overlook, however, that the 
magnitude of the task is so great that a work of this character 
could have been rendered feasible only by the co-operation 
of a band of scholars who are researchers and experts in the 
different branches of Indology. It is only by this co-operative 
method that it is possible to compose a work which can be 
treated as an authority on the history of ancient India. If 
we wish to realise how progress has been made by immense 
strides in quite recent years, we need only recall the history 
of ancient India by Vincent Smith, which was rightly acclaim 
ed on its first appearance as a distinct step forward, though 
scholars were not slow to recognise its obvious imperfections 
and inevitable limitations. It was, however, readily acknow- 
ledged as a helpful advance over what had preceded, and it 
was in fact entitled to unreserved credit as the first systematic 
attempt to compress a bewildering mass of materials of the 
most diverse character into a fairly well-connected narration. 

I have hitherto referred specifically only to such materials, 
literary and archaeological, as have been discovered within 
the geographical limits of India. But it is manifest that one 
cannot ignore the wealth of materials which abound in what 
was in ancient times rightlv regarded as a greater India. It 
would be folly to overlook the remains of Indian Civilisation 
in the world around India and the ineffaceable traces of her 
vitalising intercourse in ancient times with her neighbours, 
such as Persia, Central Asia, China, Tibet and Indo-China. 
Xo student of Ancient Indian Historv and Culture can ignore, 
for instance, the materials brought to light by that intrepid 
explorer Sir Aurel Stein, whose latest work "Serindia" has 
added notably to his many triumphs as a path-finder in track- 
less regions where Indian Culture flourished in ages gone by. 
This manifestly adds to the immensity of the work which 

xx Proceedings of the 

lies before the investigator of this generation In this connec- 
tion, we cannot afford to ignore the fundamental position that 
the history of a nation is not merely a chronicle of its political 
events, but comprehends equally every important development 
in the domain of religious, social and economic life. It is no 
reproach to the Cambridge History that from this standpoint 
it has not realised our highest conception of historical work. 
One of the greatest achievements of the nineteenth century 
was the application of scientific methods to historical studies, 
so that Historv may be regarded as teaching; a continuous 
sequence, an inflexible order, an eternal law of progress. Inis 
indeed is expressly recognised by the projectors of the Cam- 
bridge History. " It is precisely to the last quarter of the 

eighteenth century/' they say, "that we may trace the 
growth of the modern scientific spirit of investigation, which 
may be defined as a recognition of the fact that no object and 
no idea stands alone by itself as an isolated phenomenon. 
All objects and all ideas form links in a series, and therefore it- 
follows that nowhere, whether in the realm of nature or in the 
sphere of human activity, can the present be understood 
without reference to the past." fa the evolution of the race, 
there are no sudden starts, no absolute beginnings History 
is thus like a continuous flow of the Ganges, out of the dark 
and mysterious heights of hoary antiquity, which emerging 
flows unceasingly into eternity. The time, however, has not 
yet arrived for undertaking a history of Ancient Indian History 
and Culture from the standpoint of the philosophical student 
of Historv. Notwithstanding the labours of generations of 
assiduous scholars in manv lands, we are still on the threshold. 


We are still engaged in discovering, sifting, appraising, eva- 
luating and classifying our material. If at this stage, gener- 
alisations were boldly hazarded on the basis of incomplete 
and imperfect data, our theories might be upset by an un- 
expected discovery. We cannot consequently blame the con- 
tributors to the Cambridge History, many of them famous 
as profound investigators, merely because they have resisted 
the temptation to draw an idealistic picture of ancient India 
and her civilisation. We may feel disappointed that the 
Cambridge Historv jnspite of its many excellences, does not 
reach the ideal of a History of Ancient India, which will 
portray the picture of each period as evolved out of the sum 
total of circumstances and activities characterising the preced- 
ing age. Such an ideal cannot be realised in a work, which, 
for the very reason that it is an epoch-making Encyclopaedia, 
composed by an army of experts, fails to furnish a continuous, 
and uninterrupted flow of historical stream. The synthesis of 
different chapters and different sections, which makes one 
period imperceptibly glide into another, can be accomplished 
by one master mind, like Grote or Mommsen, and not by a 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxi 

congeries of scholars. The dav when India can have a Grote 
or a Mommsen to write her history, which far transcends that 
of Greece or Rome not only in the extent of area but also of 
age. may yet be far distant. Meanwhile, let us hope that 
some scholar will undertake to write a history which though 
not exhaustive, is yet a history in the modern scientific sense 

of the term ; and further let us hope that a teacher connected 
with an Indian University, shall we sav the Calcutta Uni- 
versitv, mav enable us to realise our cherished dream. 

I trust I may be allowed to bring this Address to a close 
with an offer of congratulation to the members of the Society 
for the happy choice they have made in the election of our 
new President. It would be inappropriate on my part to 
extol the eminence of Dr. Annandale in the branch of know- 
ledge which he has made specially his own, but even a layman 
may be permitted to express the confident opinion that he 
will yield to none among his predecessors as a fearless and 
devoted guardian of the truest interests of the Society. 

X"*-. * "*• ' *- «* 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The President announced the election of Officers and 
Members of Council for the vear 1923 to be as follows : 

Officers and Members of Council. 

N, Annandale, Esq., CLE., D.Sc.., C.M.Z.S., F.L.K .. F.A.S B., 

F. R .S.E. 


The Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhvava, Kt.. C.S.I , 

DX , D.Sc., F.R.8.E., F.R.A.S , F.A S.B." 

Mahamahopadhvaya Haraprasad Shastri, CLE., M.A. F.A. S.B. 
J. Coggin Brown. Esq., F.G.S.. D.Sc, F.C.S. 
lieut.-Col. J. D. W. Megaw. I.M.S 

Secretaries and Treasurer. 

General Secretary Johan van Manen, Esq. 

Treasurer C . V. Raman. Esq., M.A. 

Philological Secretary P. R. Bhandarkar. Esq., M.A., 

Ph.D . F.A.S. B. 
Joint Philological Secretary S Khuda Bukhsh, Esq., M.A.. 


Biology. P. J. Briihl, Esq , ISC , D.Sc , 

F.C.S., F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 

Physical P. C. Mahalanobis, Esq.. M.A., 

Ramaprasad Chanda, Esq.. B.A. 

Natural History 

Anthropological Secretary 

Medical Secretary Major R. Knowles, I.M.S. 

Honorary Librarian T.O.D. Dunn. Esq., M.A., D.Litt 

Honorary Numismatist. ... 0. J. Brown. Esq.. M.A. 

Other Members of the Council. 

Upendra Nath Brabmachari, Esq., M.D. M.A., Ph.D. 
Kumar Sarat Kumar Hoy, M.A. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.C.I.E.. K.C.V.O. 
Pramatha Nath Banerjee, Esq., M.A., B.L. 
W. A. K. Christie, Esq., B.Sc, Ph.D.. F.A.S.B. 






The President also announced the election of Fellows to 

be as follows : 


S. Khuda Bukhsh, Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 
Dr. G. N. Mookorjee, B.A., M.D. 


The Meeting was then resolved into the Ordinary General 







/Asiatic ^Society of |3engal 


THE YEAR 1922 


Proceedings of the 

1 0'22. 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


To Establishment. 

Rs. As. P. 



Share of grant made to the widow of the 

Rs. As, P 

8,627 12 
444 6 


late Assistant Secretary 


11,782 2 7 

To Contingencies. 


Light and Fans 

Postage . . 
Freight . . 
Audit fee 
Petty Repairs 


Purchase of Books 
Book Binding 


Journal and Memoirs 
Circulars printing charges, etc. 

Bad Debts Written-off 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet 











































• • • • 




• • • • 









Asiatic Society of Bengal 


No. 1. 

General Account 



Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . 

Rs. As. P, 

2,14,171 4 

By Cash Receipts. 

Interest on Investments 

Sale of Publications 

Rent Realized 

Annual grant from Government for 

publication of papers in Journal. 

thropological grant.) 
Miscellaneous credits 

12,926 12 
215 2 10 



179 11 3 

By Outstandings. 

Members' Subscriptions 

Subscriptions to Journal, etc. 

Admission Fees 

Credit sale of Publications 



1 ,266 

4 1 

2 2 

15,971 10 1 

11,916 6 3 

Total Rs 

• • 

2.42,050 8 


Proceedings of the 


1922. Barclay Memorial Fund in Account 

From a sum of Rs. 500 odd given in 1896 by the Surgeon 

encouragement of Medical 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet 
G.P. Notes as per contra 
Accumulated interest 

Rs. As. P. 

107 2 10 

Rs. As. P. 

607 2 10 

Total Rs. 

607 2 10 


Servants' Pension 


Founded in 1876 as the Peddington Pension Fund, 


To Bank's Commission 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet 

G.P. Notes as per contra 

Accumulated interest 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. 

1,399 6 
311 13 10 

Rs. As. P. 

1,711 3 10 

1,711 7 1« 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxvii 


with the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

General, I. M.S., for the foundation of a medal for the 
and Biological Science* 


By Balance from lost Account 
Rs. 400, 3£% G.P. Notes, 1854-55 at face 


Rs. 100, 3|% G.P. Notes, 1900-1 at face 

value .. .. .. 100 

Accumulated interest . . . 92 3 S 

. , Interest for the year 

No. 3. 


with R 3 . 500 odd from the Peddineton Fund 


By Balance from last Account — 

Rs. 1.400. 3J% G.P. Notes, 1865 at cost 1,399 6 
Accumulated interest . . • • 263 1 10 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

592 3 8 
14 15 2 

Total Rs. . . 607 2 1 

/ 922. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

., Interest for the year 

1,662 7 10 

Total Rs. .. 1,711 7 10 

xxviii Proceedings of the 




From a sum of Rs. 40,000 given by the Government of India 

Proceeds of the 


To Cash Expenditure. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

Architects' Fees .. .. .. 7,500 

Bank's Commission . . . . . . 1110 

Balance Us per Balance Sheet — 

Rs. 40,001), 3J% G.P. Notes, 1865 at cost 38,025 

Treasury Bills at value .. .. 63,578 2 

Accumulated interest and cash balance 17,499 12 

7,501 11 

1,19,102 14 

Total Rs. . . 1,26,604 9 


1922. Catalogue of Scientific Serial 


To Cash Expenditure, 

Rs. As. P. 

Cost of Catalogue refunded 

.... 5 

Balance as per Balance Sheet . . . . . . 395 

Total Ra. .. 400 










Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxix 

' No. 4. 

Fu iid. 


towards the rebuilding of the Society's Premises, and from the Sale 

s Society's Land 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . . • •• 1,22,443 12 

,, Interest for the year .. .. •• 4,160 13 



By Sale proceeds of Catalogue . . • • 

Note.— 450 Catalogues were printed and 

were paid for by a sum of 
Rs. 2.500 given in 1907 by the 
Trustees of the Indian Museum 
through the Government of 
India and a cash payment from 
the Society of Rs. 134/14/0-. 

• • 

Totai. Rs. .. 1,26,604 9 

i Publications Fund, Calcutta. 19B2. 

Rg. As. P. 


Total Rs. . . 400 

Proceedings of the 


192&* Bureau of Information in Account 

From an annual grant of Rs. 1,200 made by the Govern- 


To Balance aa per Balance Sheet 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P. 

• • 



Anthropological Fund in Account 

This sum was set aside for the purchase 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet 

Total R> 

Rs. As. P. 
968 4 3 

968 4 3 



International Catalogue of Scienti- 

Asiatic Society 


To Cash Expenditure, 


Balance as per Balance Sheet . . 

Rs. As. P. 

5,067 10 

Total Rs. 

5.163 10 











Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxi 

No. 6. 

wi£& £/&e Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1922. 

raent of Bengal for the salary of the Officer-in-Charge. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . . . . . 1,600 

Total Rs. ..' 1,600 

No. 7. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



of Anthropological books in 1918. 


Rs. As. P 
By Balance from last Account . . . . . . 968 4 3 

Total Rs. .. 968 4 3 

No. 8. 

fie Literature in Account with the 1922. 
of Bengal. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . • - . • • 5,163 10 

Total Rs. .. 5,163 10 



Proceedings of the 



Oriental Publication Fund, No. 2, in 


To Cash Expenditure. 

Rs. As. P 

Printing Charges . . 

Balance as per Balance Sheet . . 

t * 

Rs. As. P. 

1,120 9 

Total Rs. 

19.989 9 


1922. Sanskrit Manuscript Fund in Acct. 


To Cash Expenditure. 



Light and Fans 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • * V 

• » • V 

• • • ■ 

• • mm 

Total Rs. 

Rs. A 


• • 

• • 











Rs. As. P. 

2 .938 7 5 
19.961 1 4 

Balance as per Balance Sheet 

22,902 8 9 


1922. Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund in 


To Cash Expenditure. 


Salaries . 

Purchase of Manuscripts 



Postage . . 


Printing . 

Balance as per Balance Sheet . . 

• • 

» • 

• * 

• * 

• « 

Rs. As. P. 


4,760 2 


121 5 9 

28 11 

4 14 6 

31 4 


Rs. As. P. 

9,676 5 
3,522 14 



Total Rs. 

13,199 3 4 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxv 

No. 11. 

Acct. with the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. W22. 


Rs. As, P. Rs. As. P< 

By Balance from last Account. . . . •• 18,989 9 

By Cash Receipts. 

,, Government of Bengal's annual grant 

up to the 3 1 st March 1922 . . . . 1 ,0 00 

Total Rs. .. 19,989 9 

No. 12. 

with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1922 


Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account. . . . .. 16,058 10 9 

By Cash Receipts. 

Govt, of Bengals annual grant for Sanskrit 

MSS. Preservation .. .. 3,200 

Govt, of Bengal's annual grant for Cata- 
loguing (Bureau of Information) . . 3,600 

Advance .. .. ## .. 14 

6,800 14 

By Outstandings. 

Total Rs. .. 22,902 8 9 

Sale of Publications . . 

No. 13. 

Acot wit I 'i / he , J [static Soc. of Bengal. 1922, 


Rs. As. P. Re. A*. P. 

By Balance from last Account. . .. •» 8,199 3 4 

By Cash Receipts. 
Govt, of India's annual grant . . • • • • 5 » 000 ° ' ' 

Total Rs. .. 13,199 3 4 


Proceedings of I he 





To Balance from last Account 

Face Value. 
Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P 

2,84,300 2,73,206 3 10 

Total R>. 2,84,300 2,73,206 3 10 


Genkral Fn 










16.700/- *},% 

Rs. 58%. the 
1,53,700/- 3£ 

Rs. 58%, the 

1,900/- 3A% 

Rs. $8%, the 

1.000/- 3J% 
Rs. 58%, the 

8,000/- 3$% 
Rs. 58%, th 
51,000/- 3i% 
Rs. 58%, the 
10,10ft/- 1% 
Rs. 98%, thr 

Government Loan of 1842-43 

Kate on 51-12-22 ... 
% Government Loan of 1854-55 
Kate on 31-12-22 ... 

Government Loan of 1865 
Rate on 31-12-22 ... 

Government Loan of 1865 
Rate mi 31-1 2-22 ... 
Government Loan of 1879 

Rate on 31-12-22 ... 

Government Loan of 1900-01 
Rate on 31-12 22 ... 
Terminable Loan of 1915-16 
Rate on 31-12-22 

• * • 

BuuniNG Fund. 

Rs. lO.ouo- 3i% Government Loan of 1865 
(" IN. 58%, the Rate on 31-12 22 ... 

- ■ 

Pension Find. 

Rs. 1,400/- :\h% Government Loan 
IN. 58%, the Rate on 31-12 22 

of 1805 

31st Dee 
1922 Valna 

• t • 

Makclay Memorial Find, 

Rs. 400- 3.J% Government Loan of 1854-55 

@ IN. 58%, the Rate on 31-12-22 
Rs. 100/- 3.J% Government Loan of 1900 01 

@ Rs. 58%, the Rate on 31-12-22 

• - 

• - 

Total Kb* 

Valuation as 

per Individual 


Loss on 

at 3 1st Dee. 
1922 Rates. 




89,1 46 1 





4,610 o 


A. P. 

} 2,23,181 13 10 












58; o 







88,447 13 





587 6 





10 1,01,272 310 

* Investments of Permanent Reserve. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxvii 

No. 14. 




Face Value. Cost. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

By Balance as per Balance Sheet .. 2,84,300 1,68,934 

„ Loss on Re- valuation at 3 1st December 

1922 Rates .. .. .. .. 1,04,272 3 10 

Total Rs. 2,84.300 2,73,206 3 10 




Proceedings of the 



War Bond 



To Balance from last Account • . 

Face Value. 
Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

80,000 81,693 II 10 

Total Rs. 80,000 81,693 11 10 


31st Dec. 

192i Valua 

Gritfral Fund. 

Rs. 75,0(H> - 5iV Bonds of 1928 @ Rs. 100/8/-, Kate 
on 31st December 1922 .. ... .. 75,375 

Rs. 5,000/- 6% Bond of 1926 @ Rs. 100/4/-, Rate on ' 
31st December 1922 ... ... ... i 5,012 

- . 

Total Rs, 

Valuation as 

per War Bond 


Loss on 

at 31st Dec. 
1922 Kates. 

S0.3S7 8 


a a 


Treasury Bills 




To Balance from last Account 

Six months' Bills 
To Purchase during the year 

Six months' Bills 

Face Value 
Rs. As. P. 

• . 65,000 
.. 1,30,000 

Total Rs. 1,95,000 

Rs. As. P. 

63,862 8 

1,26,953 2 

1,90,815 10 


No. 15. 


Asiatic Society of Bengal, 




By Balance as per Balance Sheet 
,, Loss on Re- valuation at 31st December 
1922 Rates 

Face Value. 
Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

80,000 80,387 8 

1,306 3 10 

Total Rs. 80,000 81,693 11 10 

No. 16. 




Face Value. 
Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

By Realizations from the Imperial Bank 

of India .. .. ..1,30,000 1,27,237 8 

By Balance of Bills in hand carried forward 

.. 65,000 63,578 2 

as per Balance Sheet 

Total Rs. 1,95,000 1,90,815 10 


Proceedi?igs of the 



To Balance from last Account . . 
,, Advances for postage, etc. 

Asiatic Society's Subscriptions, etc. . . 
Sales of Oriental Publications as per 
Fund No. 1 . . . . „ 

Sales as per Sanskrit Manuscript Fund 



Rs. As. P. 

11,916 6 3 

2,863 3 3 

Rs. As. P. 

3,244 2 4 
624 4 3 

14,822 9 6 

Total Rs. 

18,691 1 




Fixed Deposit 


To Balance from last Account . . 

Total Rs. 

Rs. As. P 

Rs. As. P. 

8,619 11 7 

8,619 11 7 

No. 17. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 


Accou n t . 



By Realization during the year 

Bad Debts Written-off, Asiatic Society 

do. . O. P. Fund No. 1 

By Outstandings. 

• •• 



Bill Collector's Depo 

sit ... 

• • • 

Due to the 

Due by the 


• ft - 




• ■ • 

Rs. j 


A s. 


ft ft • 


ft ft ft 












Total Rs 

Rs. As. P. 

288 6 6 
398 6 9 

* • 

Rs. Aa. P. 
13,380 13 7 

•sc, 13 3 

4,623 5 3 

18,691 1 

No. 18. 



By Balance 


Total Rs 

Rs. As. P 

» • 

Rs. As. P. 
8,619 11 7 

s.»,19 II 7 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Copy of Certified Statement of Securities in Custody of Bank of 

Bengal on account of Asiatic Society of Bengal, December 


3£ per cent Loan of 1 842-43 

• • 


3* . 

, ,, „ „ 1854-55 

• • i 

, 1,54,100 

H , 

, ,, »• „ 1865 .. 

ft • 


H , 

, ,, „ ,, 1879 .. 

■ • 


3* , 

, ,, „ M 1900-1 

~ • 4 


*3 , 

, „ ,, .. 1896-97 

• ft 4 



, ,, Terminable Loan of 




, ,, Bonds of 1926 .. 

• m 


5* , 

, ,, War Bonds of 1928 

m • i 



i Treasury Bill 

• # * 


Total Rs. ., 

. 4,29,800 

I, 1922: 

[* Cashier's security deposit] 






List of 

Officers, Council Members, Members, 

Fellows and Medallists 

of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

On the 31st December, 1922. 

xln Proceedings of the 





t • 

• » 

• * 

• • 

To Balance from last Account . . 
,, Asiatic Society . . 
,, Barclay Memorial Fund 
,, Servants' Pension Fund 
,, Building Fund . . 

,, Catalogue of Scientific SI. Pub. , Calcutta 
,, Indian Science Congress 
,, Oriental Publication Fund No. 1 
Do. do. No. 2 

Sanskrit MSS. Fund 
,, Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund 
,, Treasury Bills Account 
,, Personal Account 

J 9 

• »^ 

Rs. As. 


Rs. As. P. 

• ■ 

11,328 12 9 

15,971 10 


14 15 



4,160 13 



5,3(31 4 

9,544 5 


1 ,000 

0,800 14 

5 ,000 

1,27,237 8 


13,380 13 


1,88,916 3 

Total Rs. . . 2,00,244 15 9 





• • 

9 t 

Asiatic Society 
Barclay Memorial Fund 
Servants' Pension Fund 
Building Fund 

Catalogue of Scientific SI. Pub., Calcutta 
Bureau of Information 
Anthropological Fund 

International Catalogue of Scientific Liter 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

Indian Science Congress 
Oriental Publication Fund No. 7 

Do. do. No. 2 

Sanskrit MSS. Fund 

Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund 


2,13,868 3 7 

H07 2 10 

1,711 3 10 

1,19,102 14 



968 4 3 

5,067 10 

2,342 14 4 

55,961 7 1 


19,964 1 4 

3,522 14 1 

T B t* .. -. 4,43,980 U 4 

Less— Depreciation on Investments and 

War Bonds at close of the year as 
per Investments and War Bond 
Accounts .. .. 9m 1,05,578 7 8 

3,38,402 3 8 

Total Rs. .. 3,38,402 3 8 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet and the appended detailed 
Accounts with the Books and Vouchers presented to us and certify that it 
is m accordance therewith correctly setting forth the position of the 
Society as at 31st December 1922. 

Calcutta, PRICE W ATERHO U SB PEAT & Co., . 

\2th April. 1923. Chartered Accountant,. f Auditors. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal 

No. 19. 





• • 

« • 

By Asiatic Society . . 
,, Servants' Pension Fund 
„ Building Fund .. 
,, International Catalogue of Scientific 

<, Indian Science Congress Account 
> Oriental Publication Fund No, 1 
' Do. do. No. 2 

-, Sanskrit MSS. Fund 
,, Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund 
,, Treasury Bills Account 
1, Personal Account 

• • 

Rs. As. P. 








, Balance as per Balance Sheet 

• * 

Total Rs. 









Rs. As. P 

! ,87,958 6 
12,259 8 


2,00,244 15 9 

No. 20. 


War Bends 
Treasury Bills 
Personal Account 
Fixed Deposit 
Cash Account 


Rs. As. P. 


80,387 8 

63,578 2 

4,623 5 3 

8,619 11 7 

12,259 8 10 

Rs. As. P. 

3,38,402 3 8 

Total H 

3,38,402 3 S 

\V. K. C. BitlERLEY. 

Calcutta, Ut February, 1923. 

Hon. Treasurer. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Copy of Certified Statement of Securities in Custody of Bank of 
Bengal on account of Asiatic Society of Bengal, December 31, 1922 : — 




per cent Loan of 1842-43 


1865 .. 

1879 .. 

1 900- 1 

Terminable Loan of 1915-16 
Bonds of 1926 
War Bonds of 

♦ » 

9 9 

1 9 

9 ■» 

• 9 

• • 

• • 

« ft 

Indian Treasury Bill 

Total Rs. 





51 100 







[* Cashier's security deposit.] 




List of 

Officers, Council Members, Members, 

Fellows and Medallists 

of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

On the 31st December, 1922. 











THE YEAR 1922. 


The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. Kt., C.S.I. , 
D.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., F.A.S.B. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Mahamahopadhvava Haraprasad Shastri, C.I.E., M.A., F.A.S.B. 

P. J. Briihl, Esq., LS.O., D.Sc, F.C.S., F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 

L. L. Fermor, Esq., O.B.E., A.R.S.M., D.Sc, F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 

UpendraNath Brahmachari, Esq.,M.D., M.A., Ph.D.. F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries and Treasurer. 
General Secretary :-— W. A. K. Christie, Esq., B.Sc, Ph.D., 

/ FA.S.B 

Treasurer :— W. E. C. Brierley, Esq. 

Philological Secretary :— D. R. Bhandarkar, Esq., M.A.,Ph.D., 

Joint Philological Secretary :— A. H. Harley, Esq., M.A. 

Biology : — N. Annandale, Esq., B.A., D.Sc, 
f Natural History ) C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries. ) Physical Science : — E. P. Harrison, Esq., 

Ph.D., F.R.S.E., F.Inst. P. 

Anthropological Secretary : — Ramaprasad Chanda, Esq., B.A., 

Medical Secretary :— Major R. Knowles. I.M.S. 

Honorary Librarian :— S. W. Kemp, Esq.. B.A., D.Sc , C.M.Z.S., 


Other Members of Council. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.C.I E., K.C.V.O. 

P- C Mahalanobis, Esq. : M.A., B.Sc. 

Kumar Sarat Kumar Roy. M.A. 

A. Suhrawardy, Esq., iftikharul Millat, M.A . Ph.D., M.L.C., 

F.A.S.B., Bar.-at-Law. 
T. O. D. Dunn, Esq , M.A., D.Litt. 
8. Khuda Bukhsh, Esq., M.A., B.C.L. 

Honorary Num xsmaiiit . 

W. E. M. Campbell. Esq. 



THE YEAR 1923. 

N. Annandale, Esq , CLE., B.A., D.Sc, C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., 

r . A S . B . , x* . R > . o . E . 

Vice- Presidents. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyava, Kt., C.S.I., 

D.L, D.Sc . F R.S.E,, F.R.A S, FA. S3. 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastrl,C.I.E , M.A., F. A.S.B. 
J. Coggin Brown, Esq., F.G.S., D.Sc, F.C.S., F.A.S.B. 
Lieut.-Col. J. D. W. Megaw, I. M.S. 

Secretaries and Treasurer. 

General Secretary : — Johan van Manen, Esq. 

Treasurer: — C. V. Raman. Esq., M.A. 

Philological Secretary: — D. R. Bhandarkar, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., 


Joint Philological Secretary :— S. Khuda Bukhsh, Esq., M.A., 


fBiologv :— P. J, Brtihl. Esq., I.S.O., D.Sc, 
F.C.S., F.G.S, F.A.S.B. 
Physical Science: — P. C. Mahalanobis, Esq., 
M.A., B Sc 

Anthropological Secretary : — Ramaprasad Chanda, Esq., B.A., 

Medical Secretary : — Major R. Knowies, I. M.S. 
Honorary Librarian : — T. 0. D. Dunn, Esq., M.A., D.Litt. 

Other Members of Council. 

Upend ra Nath Brahmachari, Esq., M.D., M.A., Ph.D., F.A.S.B 

Kumar Sarat Kumar Roy, M.A. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Pramatha Nath Banerjee, Esq., M.A., B.L. 

W. A. K, Christie. Esq., B.Sc. Ph.D.. F.A.S.B. 

Honorary Numismatist. 

C. J. Brown, Esq., M.A. 




K.= Resident. 

N.R.=Xon-Resident. A. = Absent. L.M. = Life Member. 

F.M. = Foreign Member. 

An Asterisk is prefixed bo the names of the Fellows of the Society. 

N.B. — Members who have changed their residence since the list was 
drawn up are requested to give intimation of such a change to the 
General Secretary, in order that the necessary alteration may be made 
in the subsequent edition. Errors or omissions in the following list 
should also be communicated to the General Secretary. 

Members who are about to leave India and do not intend to return 
are particularly requested to notify to the General Secretary whe- 
ther it is their desire to continue Members of the Society ; otherwise, 
in accordance with Rule 40 of the rules, their names will be removed 
from the list at the expiration of three years from the time of their leav- 
ing India. 

''ftteof Election. 

1922~April 5. 


1919 Feb. 5. N.R. 

1909 Mar. 3. 


1894 Sept. 27. L.M 

1921 Mar. 2. 


1921 Mar, 2. 


1915 Feb. 3. N.R. 

1920 Jan. 7. N.R. 


Abdul Ali, Abul Faiz Muhammad, m.a., 
m.b.a.s.j f.r.s.l., etc. 3. Turner Street, 

Abdul Kader Surfraz. Elphinstone Col- 
lege, Bombay. 

Abdul Latif, Syed, Khan Bahadur, b.a., 
b.l., Assfc. Secretary to the Government 
of Bengal, Revenue Dept., Writers' 
Buildings, Calcutta. 32 1, Upper Cir- 
cular Road. Calcutta. 

Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. 3, Alimuddin 
Street, Calcutta. 

Acton, Major Hugh William, m.r.c.s., 

L.R.C.P. (Lond.), i.m.s. School of Trop- 
ical Medicine, and Hygiene, Central 
Avenue, Calcutta. 
Agharkar, Shankar Purushottarn, m.a., 

Professor of Botany, Cal- 

Ph.D., F.L.S 

cutta University. 
Circular Road, alcutta. 

35, Bally gunge 

Ahmad Ali Khan, Hafiz, Controller of 
Household and Officer in Charge of 
State Library. Rampur State, UJ\ 

Aiver, S. Paramesvara, m.a., b.l., m.r.s.l., 
m.f.l.s., m.e.i.a., Kavitiiakii, Secretary 


Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1903 Oct. 28. R. 

1919 July 2. 


1912 July 3. 



1904 Sept. 28. L.M 

1911 May 3. 


1904 July 6. N.R 

1917 April 4 

1914 Mar, 4. 
1870 Feb. 2. 


to the Government of Travancore. 
Trivandrum, South India. 

Allan, Alexander Smith, bi.b. 17 & 18, 
Esplanade Mansions, Calcutta. 

Amin-ul-lslam; Khan Bahadur, Nawab- 
zada, b.l. Inspector -General of Regis- 
tration, Bengal. 

Andrews, Egbert Arthur, b.a. 

Experimental Station, Cinnamara P.O., 
Jorhat, Assam. 
*Annandale, Nelson, cie.,, c.m.z.s., 
f.l.s., f.a.s.b., f.b s.e., Director, Zoolog- 
ical Survey of India Calcutta. 

Atkinson, Albert Charles. La Martiniere } 
11, Loudon Street, Calcutta. 

Aulad Hasan, Khan Bahadur. Sayid. 

Rajar Deori, Dacca. 
Awati, P. R., ma., Medical Entomologist, 
Central Research Institute. Kasauli. 


1919 April 2. 


Bacot, J. 31. Quai d'Orsay, Paris. 
Baden-Powell, Baden Henry, m.a., c.i.e. 

Ferlys Lodge, 29, Banbury Road, Oxford, 

Bal, Surendra Nath, Ph.c, m.Sc. f l.s., 

Curator, Industrial Section, Indian 

Museum. 1, Sudder Street, Calcutta. 
1918 April 3 N.R. [ Ballabhdas, Dewan Bahadur, Banker and 

Zemindar. Jubbulpur. 
Ballardie, J. H. de Caynoth. a.r.i.b.a. 

7, Old Court House Street, Calcutta. 
Banerjee, Narendra Nath, m.i.p.o.e.e. 

1920 Mar. 3. 

1918 Feb. 6. N.R 


1922 April 5. 

1905 Mar. 1. 
1919 Julv 2. 

(Lond.), a.m. i.e. (Ind.), 
Engineer, Telegraphs. 

M and Jay 

N.R. Banerjee, Sasadhar, b.a., Head Master, 

H. E. School, Gopalganga. Gopa/ganj 

1919 July 2. 
1907 Jan. 2. 


P. . Bihar. 




1918 Dec. 4. 



Banerji, Muralidhar. Sanskrit College, 
Banerji, Pramathanath, m.a., 

cutta University, Calcutta. 
Banerji, Pramathanath m.a., b.l., Vakil. 

High Court. Calcutta. 
Banerji, R*khal Das, m.a. 65, Simla 

Street. Calcutta. 
Banerji, Sudhangsu Kumar, Ghose 
of Applied Mathematics, Calcutta 
University. Calcutta. 




Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election. 

1921 May 4. 

1898 Mar. 2. 


1918 July 3. 



1922 Aug, 2. N.R. 

1909 July 7. 


1895 July 3. 

1907 Feb. 6. 

1915 April 7. 


Barman, Madan Mohan, Merchant and 
Landlord. 145, Harrison Road, Cal- 

Barnes. Herbert Charles, m.a. (Oxon.), 

c.i.E. Gauhati, Assam. 
Basu, Charu Chandra, b.a., m.b. 

Mirzapur Street, Calcutta. 
Batta, Bhagwan Das, Consulting and 

Analytical Chemist. Munshian Street. 

Nahha State. 



Rangnath Khemraj, Proprietor, 
Venkateshwar Press. 




1909 April 7. 

Khetwadi, Bombay No. 4. 


1876 Nov. 15 F.M 

1917 Aug. 1. 

1909 July 7. 
1908 Nov. 4. 



1922 Feb. 1. 

1922 June 7. 

1922 Dec. 6. 



Beatson-Bell, The Hon. Sir Nicholas 
Dodd, b.a., c.i.e. , i.c.s., Chief Com- 
missioner of Assam. Shillong. 

Bell, Charles Alfred, C.M.G., i.c.s. The 
Elms, Darjeeling. 

Belvalkar, Sripad Krishna, m.a., Ph.D., 
Prof, of Sanskrit, Deccan College. 

Bentley, Charles A., m.b.. d.p.h. Writers' 

Buildings, Calcutta. 


Beveridge, Henry, f.a.s.b., r.c.s. (Re- 

53, Campden House 




*Bhandarkar. Devadatta Ramkrishna, m.a. 
35 Circular Road, Bally gunge. 

Bhattacharji, Shib Nath, m.b. 80, Sham- 
bazar Street, Calcutta. 

Bhattacharya, Bisvesvar, b.a., m r.a.s., 
b.c.s. 16, Toivnshend Road, Bhawani- 


1893 Feb. 1. 
1912 July 3. 

1919 June 6. 

pore, Calcutta. 
Bhattacharya, Vidushekhara, 

Prof. . 

Visvabharati. Santiniketan, Birbhum. 



Sivapada, m.d. 


School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta 
N.R. | Blackett, Sir Basil Phillot, k.c.b., Finance 

Member, Government of India. Delhi 

and Simla. 
Bodding, Revd P. 0. Dumka : Sonthal 


Bomford, Capt. Trevor Lawrence. i.m.s., 
m.b., b.s., m B.c.s , l.r.c.p. Eden Hos- 
pital. Calcutta. 

Bose. A jit Mohan, m.b , ch.B (Edin.), L.M. 
(Dub.). 92/3, Upper Circular 





Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1898 Feb. 2 

1895 Mar. 6 



1922 Apl. 5. N.R 

1917 Oct. 3. 

1920 Mar. 




Bose, Amrita Lai, Dramatist. 9-2, Ram 

Chandra Mailra Lane, Calcutta. 
*Bose, Sir Jagadis Chandra, Kt., o.s.i., m.a. 
d.Sc, c.i.e., f.a.s.b. Presidency College, 




Chandra, Landholder 

1910 Julv 6. 
1908 Jan. 1. 

1920 Sep. 1. 


Contai, Midnapore . 
Bose, Satyendra Nath, University 

College of Science, Calcutta. 
Bosworth-Smith. Percv. f.g.s.. m.i.m.m, 

m.a.i.m.e. Kolar Gold Field, Mysore 

State, Oorgaum P.O., South India. 
Botham. Arthur William, i.c.s. Shillong. 
Brahmachari, Upendra Nath, m.a , Ph.D., 

m.d., f.a.s.b. 82 3, Comwallis Street, 


N.R. Brandon, 


1921 Nov. 2. 
1920 Feb. 4. 



Reza, f.j., Captain, 
Recruiting Officer, Collieries. Balhar- 

shah, C.P. 


1907 July 3. 


1909 Oct. G. 

1909 Oct. 6. 

Brierly, W. R. C. 41, Bankshall Street, 
Brij Narayan, m.a., F.R.Hist.s., m.r.a.s. 
8, Bank Road, Allahabad. 
*Bro\vn, John Coggin, o.b.e., d.Sc , f.g.s., 

M I.M.E., M Inst.M M.. 



(lnd.) 5 

f.a.s.b , Geological Survey of India. 
27, Chowringhee, Calcutta. 

1901 June 




1896 Jan. 8 





a.r.c.a. Government 

1900 May 2. N.R 

School of Art, Calcutta. 

*Briih]. Paul Johannes, i.s.o., d.Sc, f.c.s., 
f.g.s., f.a.s.b. 35, Bally gunge Circular 
Road, Calcutta. 

*Burkill. Isaac Henry, m.a., f.a.s.b. Bo- 
tanic Gardens, Singapur. 

*Burn. Richard, c.i.e., i.c.s., f.a.s b 
Board of Revenue, Allahabad, U.P. 
Butcher, Flora, l.m.s., Tanakpur Medi 

cal Mission. Tanakpur, 
Kumaon Rn., U.P. 


1913 Apl 2. 
1918 June 5. 



1901 Mar. 6. N.R. 

1918 July 3. 


Calder. dimming. Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Sibpur, Howrah. 
Campbell, Major W. L, i.a. Europe 

(c.o India Office). 
Campbell, William 

i.c.s., Commissioner Benares Division. 

Edgar Marmaduke, 



Campos. Joachim Joseph, m.b. Ur 2, Royd 

Street, Calcutta. 











Asiatic Society of Bengal 


Date ot Election 

1915 Jan. 6. 

1920 Sept. 1. 
1909 Mar. 3. 

1905 July 5. 
1920 Sept. 1. 

1906 Jan. 3. 

1915 Oct. 27. 

1911 June 7. 




Carter, Humphry G., m.b., Ch.B. Bolanic 
Gardens, Cambridge, England. 

Chakladar, Haran Chandra. 28 4, Sahana- 
gar Lane, Kalighat, Calcutta. 

Chakravarti, Nilmani, m.a. Presidency 



College, Calcutta. 



Chakravarti, Vanamali. Cotton College, 
*Chanda, Ramaprasad, b.a., f.a.s.b. 37^4, 

Police Hospital Road, Calcutta. 
Chapman. John Alexander. Europe (cjo 


1916 Jan. 5. 

1920 Sep. 1. 
1907 Sept. 25. 
1922 April 5. 




Imperial Library, Calcutta). 






1893 Sept. 28. 

1914 April 1. 
1922 Feb. 1. 


1907 July 3. 

1909 Nov 


Chatterjee, Karuna Kumar, f.r.c.s, 74, 
Dharamtala Street. Calcutta. 


Chatter jee, Khagendra Xath, b.a., b.l., 
Attornev-at-Law. 12, Madan Mohan 
Chatterjee Lane, Calcutta. 

Chatterjee, Nirmal Chandra. 52 % Haris 
Mukerjee Road, Bhoioanipore, Calcutta. 

Chatterjee, Promode Prakas. 8, Dixon 
Lane, Calcutta. 

Chatterjee, Rakhahari, b.a., Student, Cal- 
cutta University. 7, Lakshman Das 
Lane, Howrah. 

Chaudhuri, B. L., b.a., (Edin.), 
f.r.s.e., f.l.s. (Lpnd.). 120, Lower 
Circular Road, Calcutta. 

Chaudhuri, Gopal Das. 32, Beadon Row, 

Chopra, R. N., Major, i.m.s., Prof, of 
Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medi- 
cine. Calcutta. 
*Christie, William Alexander Kynoch, b.Sc, 
rh.D., M.inst. m.m , f A.3.B, Geological 
Survey of India, Calcutta. 
N.R |*Christophers, Major Samuel Richmond, 





1906 Nov. 7. 
1915 Sept. 1. 
1920 Dec. 1. 

1 907 July 3 . 


M.B., F.A.S.B., I.M.S. 

tory, Kasauli. 

Research Labora- 



Clarke ; Geoffrey Roth, i.c.s., Director 
General, Posts and Telegraphs. Simla. 
Cleghorn, Maude Lina West, f.l.s., F.e.s 




1887 Aug. 25. R. 

Connor, Lieut. -Col. F. P. 

Wood Street, Calcutta. 
Cotter. Gerald de Purcell, B.A., f.g.s 

Europe (c/o Geological Survey of India). 
Griper, William Risdon, F.c.s., F.I.C. 


Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1918 April 3 
1915 Sept. I. 
1922 Sept. 6. 




1917 April 4 

1922 Dec. 6. 

1910 Jan. 5. 



1895 Sept. 19. 

1917 June 6. 




1921 Sept. 7. 
1904 Sept. 28. 

1906 Dec. 5. 
1910 May 4. 

1922 April 5. 
1920 Aug. 4. 






1907 Oct. 30. N.R 

1898 Jan. 5. 

1902 July 2. 



a.r.s.m. Konnaqar, E.I.R., Hughly, 

Das, Jagannath, Ratnakar, b.a., Kavi- 
Surlhakar. The Rajsadan, Ajodhya. 

Das-Gupta, Hem Chandra, m.a., f.g.s., 
Prof., Presidency College. Calcutta. 

Das Gupta, Dr. Surendra Nath, Prof, of 
Sanskrit and Philosophy, Chittagong 
College. Chittagong. 

Datta, Rasik Lai, d sc. s F.C.S., F.B.S.B., 
Industrial Chemist, Dept. of Industries, 
Bengal. 78, Manicktola St., Calcutta. 

Datta, Dines Chandra, m.a.. Prof., St. 

Joseph College. Calcutta. 
David, David A. 55, Free School Street, 

De, Kiran Chandra, b.a., c.j.e., i.c.s., 
Commissioner, Presidency Division, 

Bengal. Theatre Road, Calcutta. 

Deb, Kumar Harit Krishna, m.a., Zemin- 
dar, Sobhabazar Raj bat i. Raja Nava- 
krishna Street, Calcutta. 

Deb, Profulla Krishna, Zemindar and 
Landlord. 106/1, Grey Street, Calcutta. 

De Courcy, William Rlennerhasset. Led- 





Dhavle, Sankara Balaji, i.c.s., District 
and Sessions Judge. Cuttack. 

Dhruva, A. B., Principal, C.H. College, 
Benares University. Benares. 

Dikshit, Kashinath Narayan, ma., Super- 


Eastern Circle. Calcutta. 



1909 Aug. 4. N.R, I Drake-Brockman. 

Dixit, Sri Ram, b.a. Dewan of Banswara, 

Dods, William Kane, xAgent, Hongkong 

and Shanghai Banking Corporation. 

Calcutta. [cutta. 

Doxev, Frederick. 63, Park Street, Cal- 



1919 Nov. 5. N.R 

1917 June 6 


B a., i.c.s. Jodhpur, Rajputana. • 
Dube, Babool Mayeshanker. R. N. High 

School, Fathpur (Jaipur). 
Dunn, Theodore Oliver Douglas, m.a., 

D.Litt. United Service Club, Calcutta. 








Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Kleo.tion. 

1914 Sept. 2. 
1920 April 7. 
1922 April 5. 

1910 April 6. 

1911 Nov. 1. 

1904 Aug. 3. 

1906 Oct. 31. 

1913 Nov. 5. 

1919 April 2. 
1922 April 5 

1903 Mar. 4. 

1919 Feb. 5 

1919 Nov. 6 

1909 Oct. 7 

1912 Mar. 6. 

1920 Mar. 3. 
1922 Julv 5. 


Dutt, B. C. 172, Manicktola Street, Col- 



Dutt, Kumar Krishna. 10, Hastings 
Street, Calcutta. 
N.R. j Dutta, Bhagad, Prof, and Supdt., Re- 
search Dept., Dayanand Anglo -Vedic 

College. Lahore. 



[ Calcutta . 

Elmes, Dr. Cecil H. Harrington Mansion, 
Esch, V. J.. Architect. Victoria Memo- 
rial Building, Cathedral Avenue, Maidan, 
Calcutta . 

♦Fermor, Lewis Leigh, a.r.s.m.,, f.g.s., 
I f.a.s.b. Geological Survey of India, 
\ Calcutta. 
N.R. Finlow, Robert Steel,, f.i.c., Director 

of Agriculture, Bengal. Ramna P.O.. 
Fox, Cyril S.,, m.i.m.e., f.g.s. Geo- 
logical Survey of India, Calcutta. 
Friel, Ralph, i.c.s. Silchar, Assam. 
Fulep, E G., Merchant, Proprietor, E. G. 
Fiilep & Co., Calcutta, Bombay and 
Hamburg. 5, Mission Bow, Calcutta. 







Lieut. -Col. Andrew Thomas, 



1921 June 1. 

1905 Julv 5 

1912 Aug. 7 






M.A., M.B.. B.Sc. F.L.8.J F.A8.B., I. M.S. 

Europe (do Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Galoostian, Valarshak Mackertich. P.O. 

Box 6U7, Sanger, California, U.S.A. 
Gambhir, J. S. Shamaldas College, Bhav- 

nagar, Kaihiawar. 
Gangoly, Ordhendra Coomar. b.'a. 12 1, 

Gangoly Lane, Calcutta. 
Ganguli, Manmohan, b.e. 50 3 Raja Raj- 

ballav Street, Calcutta. 
Ganguli, Captain P. ; i.m.s. Rawalpindi. 
Gaur, Udai Narain, Zamindar, Pidwhal. 

Ghosi P.O., Azamgarh, U.P. 
Ghatak, Prof. Joyotischandra. 5, Bolo- 

ram Bose Ghat Lane, Bhoiuanipore, Cal- 
Ghosh, Amulya Charan, Vidyabhusana. 

82, Manicktolla Street, Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Atal Behari, ma., b.l. 59, Sukea 

Street, Calcutta. 


Proceedings of the 

Dfeto of Election. 

1918 Feb. 6. 

1907 Mar. 6 

1920 May 5 

1912 Sept. 4. 

1922 April 5. 

1920 July 7. 

1909 Jan. 0. 

1910 Sept. 7. 
1905 May 3. 
1910 Mar. 2. 

1900 Dec. 5. 

1917 June 6 

1919 Mar. 5. 

1915 Aug. 4. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1892 Jan. 6. 

1907 Aug 7 

1908 June 3 





1919 Feb. 5. N.R. 


Ghosh, Ekendra Nath, m.d., m.Sc, f.z.s., 

f.r.m.s., Prof, of Biology, Medical 

College Calcutta. 
Ghosh. Prafulla Chundra, m.a. Presi- 
dency College, Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Sukhendra Nath, b.a. (Cal.), B.Sc. 

(Glasg.), a.m.t.c.e., M.RSan.i., m.i.e. 

(Ind.), Executive Engineer, P.W.D.. 

Bengal. 7, Hay sham Road, Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Tarapada. 14, Paddapuker Street, 

Kidder pur, Calcutta. 
Ghulam Mohiud-din Sufi. Normal School, 

Goswami, Sarat Chandra, Supdt , Nor- 

inal School, J or hut. 
Gourlay, Lieut. Co]., Charles Aikman, 

d.s.o., i.m.s. ; m.a., m.d. 16 ; Alipore 

Park, South, Calcutta. 
Gourlay, William Robert, c.i.e., i.c s 

Government House, Calcutta. 
*Gravely, Frederic Henry, d.Sc, f.a.s.b. 

Government Central Museum, Madras. 
Graves, Henry George, a.r.s.m. 52, Gar- 

ington Road, Bedford, England. 
*Greig, Major Edward David Wilson, 

m.b., f.a.s.b , I.M.8. Simla. 
Grieve, James Wyndham Alleyne. 

C o Messrs. Colitis & Co , 440, Strand, 

London, W C. 2. 

N.R. Gupta, Kisorimohan ; m.a., Prof, of His- 
tory, MO. College. Sylhet, Assam. 







N.R. Gupta, Sivaprasad. 

Se va 






Benares City. 
Garner, Cyril Walter, i.c.s. United Service 
Club, Calcutta. 

Habibur Rahman Khan. Raees. Bhikan- 

pur. District Aligarh. 
Haior, Lieut. Col. T. Wolseley, cm. a., 


Indian Army, H.B.M.'s Legation. 
Tehran, Persia. 
*Haines, Henry Haselfoot, o.i.k.. f.c.h , 
f.l.s., f.a.s.b. Glen Ashton Wimbonie, 
Hallowes, Kenneth Alexander Knight, 

m.a. (Cantab), a.r.s m. (Lond.L f.g.s.. 

A. Inst. MM., F.R.M.S., F.Tnst P., Mem.K.SL 

Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. 








Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election. 

1916 Jan. 5. 
1920 May 5. 

1912 Mav 1. 

1908 April 1 
1921 May 4. 

1911 June 7. 

1919 Nov. 5 
1 908 June 3 . 

1920 Feb. 4. 

1891 Julv 1 

1921 Nov. 2. 

1873 Jan. 2 

1918 Feb. 6. 

1911 Feb. 1. 




N . R . 

1897 Feb. 3. F.M. 





Hamilton, 0. J. Patna University, Patna. 
Harcourt, Major E. S. United Service 

Club, Calcutta. 
Harley Alexander Hamilton, m.a. 

Madrasah, Calcutta. 
Harrison, Edward Philip, Ph.D., f.r.s.e 

The Observatory, Alipur, Calcutta. 
Hartog, Philip Joseph, m.a ,, 

Vice Chancellor, Dacca University. 

Ramna, Dacca. 
Hay den, Sir Henry Herbert, Kt., c.i.e., 

D.Sc., R.A., B.E , B.A.T., F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 

Oriental Club, Hanover Square, London. 

Hedayat Husain, Shams-ul-Clama Muham- 
mad. 7-1, Ramsanker Boy's Lane, 

Hemraj, Raj Guru. Dhokatol, Nepal. 

Heron, Alexander Macmillan, D.Sc, f.g.s.. 
Assoc, inst. c.e. Geological Survey of 

India, Calcutta. 

[P.O., Assart*. 

1911 April 5. N.R. 

N.R. Hill, Harold Rrian Cunningham. Chabua 


Hiralal, Rai Bahadur, Dy. -Commissioner 
(Retired). Craddock Town, Nag pur, C.P. 




* Holland, 




1\- . (_/ . c? . I • , 

K.C.I.E., D.SC, LL.D., F.R S., F.A.S.B., 

Rector, Imperial College of Science 

South Kensington , 


Technology v. 

London, 8. W . 7. 


1922 Nov. 1. N.R 

1920 Dec. 1. 


1921 Feb. 2. 

1916 Jan. 5. 
1910 Aug. 3. 




Hora ; Sunder Lall. Zoological Survey of 
India. Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Houstoun, George L., f.g.s. Johnstone 
Castle, Renfrewshire, Scotland. 

Hui. Rev. Sramana Wan. Post Box No. 

971, Rangoon. 

Insch, James. Co Messrs. Duncan Bros. 

ds Co., 101, Clive Street, Calcutta. 
Irfan, Mohammad, Prof, of Arabic and 

Persian. Hooghly College. Hooghly. 
Tvanovv. Wladimir. Cjo Asiatic Society ot 

Bengal, 1, Park Street, Calcutta. 

Jain, Chhote Lall, M.R.A.S. 53 % Burtolla 

Street. Calcutta 
Jain. Kumar Devendra Prasad, Secy. 

All-India Jain Association. Arrah. 
Jain, Podamraj Raniwalla. 9. Joggo 

mohan Mullirk Lane, Calcutta. 

1; • 

Proceedings of the 

Date of election. 

1907 Sept. 25. 

1908 June 3 

1911 Sept. 1. 



191 1 Nov. 1 

1891 Feb. 4 

1920 July 7 

1920 Feb. 4 



Jenkins, Owen Francis, i.c.s. Badaun. 
Jones, Hurbert Cecil, a.r.s.m., a.r.c.s., 

f.g.s., Asst. Superintendent, Geological 

Survey of India. Calcutta. 
Juggarao, Sree Raja Ankitam Venkata, 

Zemindar of Sh^rmahamadpuram. 

Daba-gardens, Vizagapatam. 

Kamaluddin Ahmad, Shams-ul-Ularna, 

m.a. The University, Lucknow. 
Kapur, Ban Behari. Raja Bahadur, c.s.i. 



Ban Abash, Bardwan. 
Sites Chandra. 

4 7 , Gory oration 


1910 Mav 4. 

1882 Mar. L 
1920 Mar. 3. 

1909 April 7. 



Street, Calcutta. 

Keir, W. L, Asst. Architect to the Govt, of 

Writers' Buildings, Calcutta. 



Kemp, Stanley W., b.a.,, f.a.s.b. 

27, Chowringhee Road, Calcutta. 
Kennedy, Pringle, m.a., b.l. Mozafferpur. 
R. *Khuda Bukhsh, S., f.a.s.b., Bar.-at-Law. 


Elliott Road Calcutta. 


19 10 Mar. 2. R. 

1920 Julv 7. 

1921 Dec. 7. 



1920 Mar. 3. 


Kilner, John Newport, m.b. } l.r.C.s., 
l.r.c.p. 14, Cardan Reach, Calcutta. 

Kirkpatrick, W. Chartered Bank Build- 
ings, Calcutta. 

Knowles, Robert, Major, i.m.s., m.r.o.s., 
l.r.c.p., b.a. (Cantab). Calcutta School 
of Tropical Medicine, Central Avenue, 

Kumar, Anand Kumar. Fairfield, Firoze- 
pore Road, Lahore. 

Lahiri, Jagadindranath. 91, Upper Cir- 
cular Road, Calcutta. 
1887 May 4. | L.M. Lanman, Charles Rockwell. 9, Farrar 

Street, Cambridge. Massachusetts, U.S. 

Larmour. F. A. 60, B entitle k Street, Cal- 
*La Touche, Thomas Henry Digges, m.a., 
f.g.s. , f.a.s.b. 230, Hills Road, Cam- 
bridge, England. 

Law, Bimala Charan, iM.a., b.l., F.R.Hist.s., 
m.r a.s. 24, Sukea Street, Calcutta. 

Law, Narendra Nath, m.a., b.l., p.b.s., 

1919 Nov. 5. 


1889 Mar. 6. 

1914 Aug. 5. 

1911 Feb. I. 

L. M 



1914 July 1. 



Ph.D. 96, Amherst Street, Calcutta. 
Law. Satya Churn, m.a., b.l., f.z.s., 
m.b.o.u. 24. Sukea St.. Calcutta. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election . 

1902 July 2. 

1918 June 5. 
1911 Mav 3. 





Sc.P., F.L.S. 


Nawabgunj, Gawnpore. 

1906 Oct. 31. 

1870 April 7. 

1905 Aug. 2 





1893 Jan. 11. j L.M. 

1913 Mar. 5 

1893 Jan. 11 

1910 June 7 
1920 Mar. 3 

1906 Dec. 5. 

N^R. Lees, Donald Hector, r.c.s. Jalpaiguri. 

Lomax, 0. E., m.a. La Martiniere, Cal- 

Luard, Lieut. -Col., Charles Eokford, 
O.I.B., m.a. (Oxon). G/o Grindlay ds 
Co., London and Bombay. 

Lyman, B. Smith. 708, Locust Street, 
Philadelphia, U.S. America. 

cOay, David, Lieut. Col., M.D.,, 
b.a.o. (R.U.L.), m.r.c.p. (Lond.). 
f.a s b., i.m.s. 24, Park Street, Calcutta, 

Maclagan, The Hon Sir Edward Douglas, 
k.c.s.t., k.c i.e., Governor of the Punjab. 

MacMahon, P. S., m.Sc, Canning College, 

Madho Rao Scindia, His Highness Maha- 
rajah Colonel Sir, Alijah Bahadur, 
Q.C.S.I., g.c.v.o., a.d.c, ll.d., Maha- 
rajah of Gwalior. Jai Bilas, Gwalior. 

Mahajan, Surya Prasad. Murarpur, Gaya. 

Mahalanobis, Prof. P. C, B sc, m.a, 
210, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 

Mahalanobis, Subodh Chandra, 





1911 Mar. 1. 

1918 Aug. 7. 



(Edin.) F r.s.e.,i.e.s , Prof., Presidency 
College. 210, Cornwallis Street, Cal- 
Mahatap, The Hon. Sir Bijoy Chand, 
k.c.s.i., Maharajadhiraj of Burdwan. 
6, AH pur Lane, Calcutta. 

, Jatindra Xath, Physician and 
Surgeon. 68 ,4, Beadon St., Calcutta. 
1918 Feb. 6. (N.R. Maitra, Sisir Kumar, Principal, Indian 

Institute of Philosophy. Amalner, 

1920 June 2 


1916 Feb. 2. 

Bombay Presidency. 
Majumdar, Nani Gopal, ma., Lecturer, 


1912 Jan. 10 N.R. 

1913 June 4. ! N.R. 

Calcutta University. 

North, Calcutta. 

ar, Narendra Kumar 
Prof., Calcutta University. 


M.A., ASSt. 


Majumdar, Rai Jadunath, Bahadur, m.a., 
b.l., m.l.a., cm: . Vakil. Jessore. 

Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra, m.a., Ph.D.. 
Prof., Dacca University. Hamna, 
Dacca . 


Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1918 Feb. 6. 


1920 Jan. 5. N.R. 

Manen. Johan van, Offg. Librarian. Impe- 
rial Library. Calcutta. 
Mangalik, Murari Sharan, Editor, " The 


? i 

Si vasa da n . M e e r u t . 

1901 June 5. N.R 

Mann. Harold Hart, d sc,, f.i.c., 
f.l.s., Director of Agriculture, Bombay 

Presidency. Poona. 
1899 Aug. 30. L.M. Mannu Lai' Rai Bahadur, Retired Civil 

Surgeon. Rai Bareli. 
1919 Oct. 10. N.R. Manry, Rev. J. C. Ewing Christian 

College, Allahabad. 
Marsden, Edmund; b.a., f.r.g.s., f.r.h.s., 
fb.s.l., m r.a s. 12, ElUrdale Bond. 

1905 Dec. 6. 


Hampstead, London. 


1919 Oct. 29. N.R. Marten. John Thomas. Hotel Cecil Simla. 

Martin, Harold. 6 & 7, Olive Street, 

Martin. Oswald. 6 & 7. Clive Street. 

1920 Aug. 4 

1920 Aug. 4. 


1910 June 4. N.R 
1920 Dee. 1. R. 

1922 Feb. 1. 


Matthai George. Govt. College, Lahore. 
Mazumdar, B. G. 33 1 C. Lansdowne 

Road, Calcutta. 
Megaw, Lieut. -Col. J. W. D., i.m.s., 

1886 Mar. 3. 

Director. Calcutta School of Tropical 
Medicine. 15, Kyd Street, Calcutta 
L.M. Mehta, Roostumjee Dhunjeebhoy, c.i.f . 

i J. p., pbs.a. 9, Rainey Park, Bally- 

gunge, Calcutta. 

1884 Nov. 5. N.R. *Middlemiss. Charles Stewart, c.i.e.,, 

1884 Sep. 3. 


1912 June 5. N.R. 

b.a., f g.s . f.a.s.b. Srinagar, Kashmir. 
Miles, William Henry, f.b.s. 7, King 

Edward Court, Chowringhee, Calcutta. 
Misra. Champaram. b.a., Dy. Director of 

Industries. Cawnpore, U.P. 
1.919 Nov. 5. N.R. Misra, Pramatha Nath, m.r.a.s., Pleader. 

1911 July 5. N.R. Misra, Syama Behari, b.a., p.c.s., Rai 

Bahadur, Pandit, m.r.s.a., m.r.a.s.. 
f.t.s., Retired Dy. Director, Land 
Records, U.P. Partabgarh, Gudh. 
R. Mitra, Adar Chandra, b.l. 164, Bow 

1916 Nov. I 

1919 June 4. 


1906 June 6. 


1919 April 2. 


Street, Calcutta. 
Mitra, Amulya Chandra, Rai Bahadur, 
Medical Practitioner. Amriia Kutir. 

Mitra, Kumar Manmatha Nath. 34 

Shampukur Street, Calcutta. [Calcutta. 
Mitra, Panchanan. Bnngabasi College, 






Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election. 

1920 Dec. 1. N.R 

1916 Feb. 2. 


1895 July 3. F.M 





May 4. 


Dec. 5. 


Feb. 5. I 

I R 

Jan. 10. 


22 Feb. 1. R 

1909 Mar. 3. 


1899 Sept, 29 R. 

1916 Mar. 1. 


1921 Feb. 2. 


1921 Feb. 2. 


1919 Feb. 5 

1922 July 5. 


1894 Aug. 30. 
1886 May 5. 

1908 Feb. 5. 

1892 Dee. 7. 

1921 June 1. 


Mohammed Akbar Khan, The Hon'ble, 

Chief of Hoti, 

Major, c.i.e., 



Mohammad Yusuf, Hashimi, Khan Sahib, 

M.A., m.r.a.s. The Madrasah, 21, Wel- 

lesley Square, Calcutta. 
Monahan, Francis John, i.c.s. Harrington 

Mansions, Calcutta. 
Mookerjee, Sir R. N.,, k.c.v.o. 

7, Harington Street, Calcutta. 
More. Major James Carmichael, 

Sikhs. Kuwait, Persian Gulf. t 

Moreno, Henry William Bunn, m.a., Ph.D., 

m.r.a.s. 13, Ucllesley Street, Calcutta. 
Muhammad Kazim Shirazi, Aga. 23, 

Lower Chit pur Road, Calcutta. 
Muir, Dr. E., m.d. ; f.r.c.s. (Edin.), Cal- 
cutta School of Tropical Medicine 

(Leprosy Research Worker). Calcutta. 
Mukerjee. Brajalal, m.a.. Solicitor. 12, 

Old Post Office Street, Calcutta. 
Mukerjee. Jateendra Nath, b.a.. Solicitor. 

4, Hastings Street, Calcutta. 
Mukerjee Prabhat Kumar, Bar.-at-Law. 

14A, Ramtanoo Bose Lane, Calcutta. 
Mukerjee, Ramaprasad, m.a., b.l. 77, 

Russa Road, Bhowanipore. 
Mukerjee. Subodh Chandra, m.a 97/1, 

Musjid Bari Street, Calcutta. 
Mukerjee, Taraknath. Falka Colliery, 

Nirshachate P.O.. Manhhum. 
N.R. Mukerji, Radhakumud, Prof, of Indian 

History, University 




D.L #) D.Sc. 

77, Russa 

Mukharjee. Sivnarayan. Zamindar of 
Uttarpara Uttarpara. {near Calcutta). 
L.M. j*Mukhopadh\aya, The Hon. Justice Sir 

Asutosh, Kt., c.s.i. , M.A., 

F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., F.A.S.E. 

Road (North), Bhowanipur, Calcutta. 
Mukhopadhyaya, Girindra Nath. Bhisaga- 

charya, b.a.. m.d. 156, Haris Mukerjee 

Road (North), Bhowanipur, Calcutta. 
Mukhopadhyaya. Panchanan. Vidya- 

bhusana. " 46. Bechoo Chatter ji Street. 


Calcutta . 

N.R. Muzammil ullah Khan, 


Hon. Nawab, Khan Bahadur, o.b.e., 


Proceedinqs of the 

Date of Election, 

1906 Mar. 7. 


Pais. Bhikampur. Bhikampur, Dial 
Aligarh, U.P. 

Nahar, Puran (/hand. , Solicitor. 
Indian Mirror Street. Calcutta. 


1918 Sept. 25. N.R. Narayan, Victor Nityendra, Maharaj 

1916 July 5. 

1914 Feb. 4. 

Kumar of Cooch "Behar. Gooch Behar 


1901 Mar. 6. 



1889 Aug. 29. 

1913 July 2 





1915 April 7. 

1907 July 3. 



Naseer Hosein Khayal, 
Prinsep Street, Calcutta 

Nawab Ali Chaudhury, The Hon. Nawali 
Sved. 27. Weston Street, Calcutta. 

Nevill, Lieut. -Col. Henry Rivers, i.c.s. 
Cranagh, Simla. 

Nimmo, John Duncan. C/'o Messrs. Wal- 
ter Duncan & Co., 137, West George 

Street, Glasgoio. 
Norton. E. L.. i.c.s., District Magistrate. 

Gorakhpur, U.P. 

Otani, Count Kozui. Go Consulate- 
General of Japan, Calcutta. 


William Walter K., Solicitor. 

1920 Aug. 4. 1 N.R 

1904 Aug. 3. N.R 

1919 Nov. 5. 


1906 Dec. 5. 

1888 June 6. 

1889 Nov. 6. 




1914 Nov. 4. 

1 904 June 1 . 


1920 April 7. 
1918 April 3. 




Europe (c/o Messrs. Pugh & Co., Calcutta). 
Panikker, Padmanabha, N. b.a., f.t,.s., 

Inspector of Fisheries. Travancore. 
Parasnis, Rao Bahadur Dattatrava Bal- 

want. Satara. 
♦Paseoe, Edwin Hall, m.a., sc.d. (Cantab), 

dsc. (Lond.), F.O.S., f.a.s.b., Director. 

Geological Survey of India. 27, Chow- 

ringhee, Calcutta. 
Peart, Major Charles Lube, c.i.e., 106th 

Hazara Pioneers. Europe (c f o Board 

of Examiners). 
PennelL, A u bray Percival, b.a., Bar. -at - 

Law. Rangoon. 
*Phillott, Lieut. Col. Douglas Craven, 

m.a., Ph.D., f.a.s.b., mr.a.s., Tndian 

Army (Retired). Felsted, Essex, 

Pickford, Alfred Donald. 2. Hare Street. 

Pilgrim, Guy E.,, f.g.s. Geological 

Survey of India, Calcutta. 
Pradhan, Hariprasad. Pradhan Cottage, 

Prashad, Baini., f.z.s., Zoological 








Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


aie ut K lection. 

1914 Mar. 4. 
1880 April 7. 

1895 Aug. 29. 



1920 May 7. N.R. 

Survey of India. Indian Museum, Cal- 


1922 Feb. 1. 

1917 June 6. 



Raffin, Alain. Europe. 

Rai, Bepin Chandra. Giridih, Ckota 
Nag pur. 

Rai Chaudhuri, Jatindranath, M.A., b.l m 
Zemindar. Taki, Jessore. 

Ram, Kamakhya Dat, Member, Benares 
Hindu University Court. Rai Sri 
Barn's House, Golagunj, Lucknow. 

Raman, Chandrasekhara Venkata, M.A., (Hon.). 210, Bowbazar Street, 

Rangasvvami Aiyangar, K. V., Rao Baha- 
dur, Prof, of History and Economies, 
H.H. The Maharaja's College. Trivan- 

Rankin, James Thomas, i.c.s., Commis- 
sioner. Dacca. 

Ranking, Colonel Geo. S., c.m.g. United 
Service Club, Calcutta. 

N.R. Ray, Maharaja Jagadisnath, Maharaja of 

Dina j pore. Dinajpore . 

R. Ray, Kumud Sankar, m.a., b.Sc, m.b., 

ch.B. (Edin.). 44, European Asylum 
Lane, Calcutta. 

1890 Mar. 5. | R. *Ray, Sir Prafulla Chandra, Kt.,, 

f.a.s.b. University College of Science, 

1905 Jan. 4. 

1921 Dec. 2. 



1921 Jan. 5. 
1917 May 2. 

1919 Feb. 5. 

1920 Mar. 3. 
1918 April 3. 

1900 April 4. 



Ray, Sasadhar. 17, Balaram Bose Ghat 

Road, Bhowanipur, Calcutta. 
Rave, Narendra Nath. Bhagalpur. 

F.M. Robinson, Herbert C, Director 



Museums and Fisheries, Federated 
Malay States. Kuala Lumpur. 
* Rogers, Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard, Kt,. 


1920 Mar. 3. 
1901 Dec. 4. 



1918 July 3 

C.I.E., MB., B.S., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S 

F.A.S.B, f.r.s., i. m.s. Europe (cjo Medi- 
cal College, Calcutta). 
Ronaldshay, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 
Governor of Bengal. Calcutta. 
F.M. *Ross, Sir Edward Denison, Kt., c.i.E.. 

Ph.D., f.a.s.b., Director, School of 
Oriental Studies. London. 
R. Roy, Dr. Bidhan Chandra, b.a. (Cal ), 

M.D., FB.C.S., M.R.C.P. (Loild.). 36, 

Wellington Street, Calcutta. 


Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

192 L Sept. 7. 


1903 Julv 1. L.M. 

1915 Oct. 27. 

1910 Sept. 7. 



11120 July 7. 

1915 Mav 5. 



1916 April 5 

1913 April 2 
1919 Sept. 3 


1922 Nov. 1 

N . R . 


1909 Mar. 3. 



1917 Dec. 5 


1922 May 3 

1919 April 2 
1902 May. 7 

N . R 


1914 April 1. 


Roy, Hem Chandra. 76 I A. Upper Circu- 
lar Road, Calcutta. 

Roy, Maharaja Jagadindranath, Bahadur. 
6. Lansdowne Road, Calcutta. 

Roy, Kaviraj Jamini Bhusan. Kaviratna. 
M.A., m.b. 46, Beadon Street, Calcutta. 

Roy, Kumar Sarat Kumar, m.a., m.r.a.s., 
52, Police Hospital Road, hit ally P.O., 

Rov-Chaudhuri, Hem Chandra, m.a., Ph.D. 
43 2, Amherst Street. Calcutta. 

Rushbrook- Williams. L. F., m.a., B.Litt., 
o.b.e., m.r.a.s.. v R.Hist.s. Home De- 
partment, Government of India, India. 

m.r.a.s., Medi- 
16, Lachmikundu, 

Saha, Radhika Nath. 

cal Practitioner. 

Benares City, U.P. 
Sa-hav. Rai Sahib Bhagvati, m.a.. b.l., 

Offg. Inspector of Schools. Bhagalpur. 
Saksena, Debi Prasad, Sub-Dy. Inspector 

of Schools. 66. Ganesh Madhia, Jhansi 

City, UP. 

Sarkar, Suresh Chandra, Dy. Magistrate 
and Dy. Collector. B. & O. Barganda, 

Sarvadhikary, Sir Deva Prasad, Kt.. c.i.e., 
M.a.j B.L M F.c.u., LL.n (Aberdeen), ll.d. 
(St. Andrews), Suriratna, Vidyaratna- 
ker. Jnanasindhu. 20, Suri Lane, 

Inially P.Q , Calcutta. 

Sastri, Ananta Krishna. 56 I A, Sri- 

(/opal Mullick Lane, Calcutta. 

Schomberg. Lieut. -Col. 


C. F., 

Seaforth Highlanders. Meerut. 

Sen, A. C. 80, Lower Circular Road, 

Calcutta . 
Sen, Jogindranath. Vidyaratna, m.a., 

V 7 idvabhusan. 32, Prasanna Kumar 

Tar/ore Street, Calcutta. 
N.R. i Sen-Gupta, Dr. Nares Chandra, m.a., d.l. 

Ramna CO., Dacca. 
Seth. Mesrovb Jacob, m.r.a.s., m.s.a. ? 

f.r.s.a. 19, Lindsay Street, Calcutta. 
191 1 July 5. | N.R. *Sewell, Robert Beresford Seymour, Major, 

1897 Dec. 1. 




M.A , M.K.C.S., L.R.C.P 

r . z . s • > 

f.l.s. Cjo Indian Museum, Calcutta 
1921 Nov. 2. | N.R. ! Shah, Emdadul Haq, m.l.c. Vill Bhoivk- 











Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election. 

1885 Feb. 4. 

sar, P.S. Chandina, P.O. Mudafargar 


Dist. Tipper a. 





1909 Jan. 6. 

1913 Dec. 3. 



1 908 Mar . 4 . 


1916 Aug. 2. N.R 
1902 Feb. 5. N.R 

1913 Mar, 5. L.M 

padhyaya, c.i.e., m.a., f.a.s.b., Hon. 
Member, R.A.S 26, Pataldanga Street, 

Shirreff, Alexander Grierson, b.a., i.c.s. 
Europe {co India Office). 

Shorten. Captain James Alfred, b.a., m.b.,, i.m.s. Medical College, Cal- 

Shujaat Ali, Nasirul Mamalik Mirza, 
Khan Bahadur, Acting Consul-General 
for Persia. 10, Hungerford Street, Cal- 

Shukla, Ashwani Kumar, b.a., ll.b., 
Council Member, Mewar State. Udaipur. 

Shyam Lai, Lala m.a., ll.b.. 
m a. SB., Dy. Collector 




(Retd.). Nawabgunj, Cawnpore, U.P. 
*Simonsen, John Liouse,, f.i.c , 

Forest Research Institute and 

1909 April 7. 


1918 Feb. 6. N.R 

1894 July 4. N.R 
1899 Aug. 29. N.R 

F.A.S B 


1909 April 7. 

1899 Nov. 6. L.M 


1919 Nov. 5 

N R 

1894 Feb. 7. 
1918 Feb. 6 


College. Dehra Dan. 
Simpson, George Clarke,, f.a.s.b. 

Europe (c/o Meteorological Department, 

Singh Badakaji, Marichiman. 38, Khi- 

chapokhari, Katmandu, Nepal. 
Singh. Raja Kushal Pal, m.a. Narki. 
Singh, H H. The Maharaja Sir Prabhu 

Narain. Bahadur, g.c.i.e., gcs.i., 

Maharaja of Benares. Ramnagar Fort, 

Singh, Prithwipal. Raja. F.R.G.S., F r.s.a., 

f.t.s , Talukdar of Surajpur. Chandra- 

%has Palace. Hathannda P.O., Did. Bara- 

banki Oudh 
Singh, H. H The Hon'ble Maharajadhiraja 

Sir Rameshwar, O.O.I e., k.b.e., D.Litt , 

f.k.a.s., f p.u. Darbhanga. 
Singh, Shyam Narayan, m.b.e , m.l.a.. 

Rai Bahadur, Bihar and Orissa Civil 






1912 May I. N.R J 


Singh, H.H. The Maharaja Vishwa Nath 
"Bahadur. Chhatlv rpur, Bunddlchund. 

Singha, Kumar Arun Chandra, m.a. 120/3, 
Upper Circular Bond. Calcutta. 

Singha, Rai Lalit Mohan, Rai Bahadur 



Proceedings of the 

Date of Election, 

1922 Feb. 1 

m.l.c., m.r.a.s. Zemindar of Chakdighi, 
Dist. Bur divan. 

1918 April 3. N.R. Sinha. Raja Bahadur Bhupendra Narayah, 

I b.a. Nasipur Rajbati, Nasipur P 0. 
R. J Sinha, Kumar Gangananda, m.a., Zemin- 
dar. 7, Dedarbaksh Lane, Calcutta. 
1921 Feb. 2. N.R. Sinha : Gopinath, b.a., m.r.a.s. (Lend.), 

Zemindar and Rais. Mohalla, Qua- 
nungu, Bare illy, U.P. 
1913 July 2. N.R. Sinha, Rudra Datta, m.a., ll.b., m.r.a.s. 

Nazirabad Road, Luclcnow. 
1912 Sept. 5. N.R. Singhi, Bahadur Singh. Azimgunj, Mur- 

1916 July 5 

R. Sircar, Ganapati, Vidyaratna. 69, Belia- 

ghatta Main Road, Calcutta. 

1913 July 2. N.R. Siva Frasada, b.a., m.r.a.s., u.p.c.s. (Re- 
tired). Civil Lines, Fyzabad, Oudh. 
R. Skinner, S, A., Engineer and Director, 

Messrs. Jessop & Co., Ltd. 93, Clive 
Street, Calcutta. 

1901 Dee. 4. N.R. *Spooner, David Brainerd, o.b.e., Ph.D., 

f.a.s.b.. Dy. Director-General, Archaso- 

1920 June 2. 

1904 Sept. 28 

1908 Dec. 2 

1922 Feb. 1. 



Benmore, Simla, E. 



1016 July 6 
1922 Sept. 6 



1922 Nov. 1 


1921 Mar. 2 


Stapleton, Henry Ernest, m.a , b.Sc. 
Ramna, Dacca. 

Steen, Major Hugh Barkley, m.b,, i.m.s 
1, Upper Wood Street, Calcutta. 

Stewart, Major A. D., i.m.s., Director, 
Public Health Laboratories, School of 
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Cal- 

Street, W. S. Cjo Messrs. Shaw Wallace & 
Co., Calcutta. 

Strickland, Lieut. -Col. C. A. 3 i.m.s., Prof, 
of Medical Entomology, School of Trop- 
ical Medicine. Calcutta. 

Strickland-Anderson. Mrs., Composer and 
Author. Suite 143, The Grand Hotel, 

Sturrock, Lieut. -Col. G. C, i.m.s. 

Park Mansions, Calcutta. 


1907 June 5. R. j *Suhraward y, Abdullah Al-Ma'mun, Iftik- 

harul Millat, m.a., D.Iitt., ll.d., f.a.s.b., 
Barrister-at-Law. 56, Mirzapur Street, 

1920 Jan. 7. N.R. Suhrwardy, Hassan, Major, m.b., fr.c.s, 

! i.t.f.m.c. Gaya, E.I.Ry. 
1920 Mar. 3. N.R. Sundara Raj, Bungard, m.a. (Madras) 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. 






Date of Election. 

1916 Sept, 27. 


1919 June 4 

1909 Jan. 6 

1914 April 1 
1 898 April 6 





1904 July 6 

1893 Aug. 31 


1906 Dec. 6. L.M 


1878 June 5 

1909 Aug. 4 


1904 June 1 

1861 June 5 

1917 Dec. 5 

1894 Sept. 27. 




1922 Nov. 1. 



C o Madras Fisheries Bureau, Mad- 


Sutherland, Rev. W. S., d.d., Scottish 
Universities Mission. Kalimpong, Dist. 

Tacchella, C. F. H. Europe (c/o Indian 

Institute of Science, Bangalore). 
Tagore, Kshitindranath, b.a, Tatwanidhi. 

5/1B, Baranashi Ghose 2nd Lane, J or a- 

sanko, Calcutta. 
Tagore, Prafulla Nath. 1, Darpanarain 

Tagore Street. Calcutta. 
Tagore, The Hon. Maharaja Sir Pradyot 

Coomar. Bahadur, Kt Pathuriaghatla, 




H. S. King & Co., 9, Pall Mall, London, 

S. W. 

Tate, George Passman. 

56, Cantonment, 

Bareilly, U.P. 

Tek Chand, The Hon. Dewan, o.b.e., 

i.c.s., b.a., m.r.a.s., Barrister-at-Law, 

Commissioner, Ambala Divn. Ambala 

Cantt.. Punjab. 
Temple, Colonel Sir Richard Carnac, 

Bart., c.i.E., Indian Army. 9 Pall Mall, 

N.R. Thompson. John Perronet, m.a., i.c.s., 

Chief Secretary, Govt, of the Punjab. 

•Tipper, George Howlett, m.a., f.g.s., 

m.t.m.m., f.a.s.b. Cjo Geological Survey 

of India, Calcutta. 
Tremlett, James Dyer, m.a., i.c.s. 

(Retired). Dedham, Essex, England. 
Tripathi, Ramprasad, Reader in Modern 

Indian History. The University, Allaha- 

bad . 






Prachvavidvamaharnava, Siddhanta- 
Varidhi. Tattva-Chintamoni, Sabda- 

* _ 

Ratnakara, etc. Vishvakcsha Office, 9, 
Visvakos Lane, Calcutta. 
Vidgolankar, Prannath, Prof, of His- 
tory and Economics, B.H. University. 



Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1901 Mar. 6. 


1894 Sept. 27. L.M 

1902 Oct, 29. 


1907 July 3. 


1918 April 3. 


*Vogel, Jean Philippe, Litt.D., f.a.s.b. The 

University, Leiden, Holland. 
Vost, Lieut. -Col. William, i.m.s. 26, Cry- 
stal Palace Part Road, Sydenham, Lon- 
don, 8.E. 26. 

*Vredenburg, Ernest, b.l., b.Sc, a.r.s.m., 
a.r.c.s., f.g.s., f.a.s.b. Europe (c;o 
Geological Survey of India, Calcutta). 

Walker, Harold, a.r.c.s., f.g.s., a.m., 

mst.M., Asst. Superintendent. Geological 
Survev of India. Calcutta. 
Wall, Frank, Colonel, o.m.g., c.m.z.s., 

f.l.s., ii c.z.s., India. Gfo H. S. King 
Co., 9, Pall Mall, London. 
11)11 Feb. 1. N.R. Waters, Harry George, Lieut. -Col., v.d., 

d.p.h., d.t.m. & h. (Cantab), Chief 
Medical Officer, E.I.Ry. Allahabad. 

Webster, J. E., i.c.s. Sylhet, Assam. 

White, Bernard Alfred. Chartered Bank 
Buildings, Calcutta. 

Whitehouse, Richard H.,, i.e.s. 
Central Training College, Lahore. 

Whitehead, Richard Bertram, I.C.S. 
Rupar, Umbala, Punjab. 

Wills, Cecil Upton, b.a., i.c.s. Nagpur. 

Woolner, Alfred Cooper, m.a. Pan jab 
University, Lahore. 

Wordsworth, William Christopher. Presi- 
dency College, Calcutta. 
1894 Aug. 30. N.R. Wright, Henry Nelson, i.c.s., District 

1909 Dec. 1. N.R, 

1913 April 2. 


1915 Jan. 6. N.R. 

1906 Sept. 19. 

1919 May 7. 
1906 Mar. 7. 

1908 April 1. 




1911 Aug. 2. 

1906 June 6. 

Judge. Bareilly. 

A. Young, Gerald Mackworth, b.a., i.c.s. 

Europe (c/o India Office). 
Young. Mansel Charles Gambier. Khagaul 


1910 April 6. 


1919 Feb. 5. 

1919 July 2. 



P.O., Dinapore, E.I.R. 
Young, Captain Thomas Charles McCom- 

bie, m.b.. i.m.s. Shillong, Assam. 
Yazdani, Ghulam, m.a. Hyderabad, Deccan. 

Zafar Hasan. Archaeological Survey of 
India, Delhi. 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



Date of Election 

1884 Jan. 15. Revd. Professor A. H. Sayce, Professor of 

Assyriology, Queen's College. Oxford, Eng- 


1884 Jan, 15. Monsieur Simile Senart. 18, Rue Francois ler, 

Paris. France. 





Date of Election. 

1879 June 4, Dr. Jules Janssen. Observatoire d'Astronomie 

Physique de Paris, France. 
1896 Feb. 5. | Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman. 9, Farrar 

Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S. 

Professor Edwin Ray Lankester, m.a., ll.d., 

f.r.s. British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Crom- 
well Road, London, S.W. 
Sir Ramkrishna Gopal JBhandarkar, m.a., Ph.D.., 

ll.d , k.c.i.e. Sangamashrama, Poona. 
Sir George Abraham Grierson, k.c.i.e., Ph.D., 

D.Litt., ll.b.. f.b.a., i.c.s. (Retired). Rath- 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar, 2. 

farnham, Camberley, Surrey, England. 
1906 Mar. 7. ! The 


Hon'ble Marquess Curzon of 

Keddleston, k.g., m.a., d.c.l., f.r.s. 
Carlton House Terrace, London, S.W. 


1908 Julv 1. ; Lieut. -Col. Henrv Haversham Godwin-Austen, 

f.r.s., r.z.s., f.r.g-S. Nora Gorlaltninrj, 

Surrey, England. 

1911 Sept. 6. I Alfred William Alcock, c.i.e., W.B., ll.d., f.r.s. 

Heathlands, Belvedere, Kent. 

1911 Sept. 6. Edward Granville Browne, m.a., m.b. (Cam- 
bridge), f.r.c.p., m.r.c.s. (London), f.b.a. 
Pembrooke College, Cambridge. 

1911 Sept. 6. Mahamahopadhyaya Kamakhyanath Tarka- 

vagisa. 111/4, Shambazar Street, Calcutta. 

1915 Aug. 4. i Prof. Sir Paul Vinogradoff, f.b.a., d.c.l. 

19, Linton Road, Oxford, England. 

1915 Aug. 4. Sir Joseph John Thomson, Kt., O.M., m.a., sc.d.,, ll.d., Ph.D. Trinity College. Cambridge, 


1916 Dec. 6. Dr. G 


A. Boulenger, F.R.S., ll.d., British 

Cromwell Road, 



London, 8. W. 



Proceedings of the 

Date of Election. 

1917 Mav 2. 

1920 Feb. 4. 

Herbert Allen Giles, Professor. 10, Selwyn 

Gardens, Cambridge, England 
Sir Charles Eliot, k.c.m.g., c.b., m.a., ll.d., 

d.c.l. H.M. Ambassador at Tokyo. 
Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids, ll.d., Ph.D., 
University College, London. 
1920 Feb. 4. | Prof, Sylvain Levi College de France, Paris. 
1920 Feb. 4. vSir Aurel Stein, k.c.i.e., Ph.D. D.Litt .,, 

1920 Feb. 4. 

d.o.l., f.b.a. Srinaqar, Kashmir. 


1920 Fob. 4. 

1920 Feb. 4. Prof. A. Foucher, D.Litt. University 
1920 Feb. 4. Arthur Keith. Esq., m.d., f.r.c.s,. ll.d., f.r.s. . 

Royal College of Surgeons of England. Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, London, W.C. 2. 
R I). Oldham, Esq , f.r.s., f.g.s., f.r.g.s. 
1, Broomfield Road, Kew. Surrey, England. 
1920 Feb. 4. Sir David Prain, Kt., c.m.g., c.j.e., m.a., m.b., 

LL.D., F.R.S. E., F.L.S., F.R.S., F.Z.S., M.R.LA. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey, Eng- 
Sir Joseph Larmor. Kt. 5 m.p., m.a.,, ll.d., 

D.O.L. , f.r.s., F.R.A.8. Cambridge. 
Sir James Frazer, Kt., d.c.l., ll.d., Litt.D. 
1, Brick Court, Temple, London, E.G. 4. 
1920 Feb 4. Prof. J. Takakusu. Imperial University of 

1920 Feb. 4. 

1920 Feb. 4. 

1922 June 7 
1922 June 7 

1922 June 7 

Tokyo. Japan. 

Prof. W. H. Per kin, Ph d., sc.d., ll.d., f.r.s. 
Sir Thomas Holland, k.c.s.l, k.c.i.e.,, 


Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., CLE., m.d., b.s , 

F.R.C.P., F.R.S., I M.S. 

1922 Nov. 1. I Prof. A. 0. Macdonell, m.a., Ph.D. 


Date of Election. 


1910 Feb. 2. N. Annandale, Esq.,, c.m.z.s., f.l.s, 
1910 Feb. 2. The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopa- 

dhyaya. Kt.. c.s.i., m.a., d„l.,, f.r.a.s., 


1910 Feb. 2. I. H. Burkill, Esq., m.a., f.l.s. 

1910 Feb. 2. Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri,, 


1910 Feb. 2. Sir Thomas H. Holland, k.c.s.l, k.c.i.e., d.s 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Date of Election, 

910 Feb. 2. 
910 Feb. 2. 

910 Feb. 2. 
910 Feb. 2. 

T. H. D La Touche, Esq., b.a., f.g.s. 

Lieut. -Col. D. C. Phillott, Ph.D., Indian Army 

Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray. Kt.. 
Lieut -Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., c.i.e... m.d., 

B.S., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S , F.R.S., I.M.S. 

910 Feb. 2. Sir E. D. Ross, Kt., c.i.e., Ph.D. 

910 Feb. 2 

M. W. Travers, Esq.,, f.r.s. 

911 Feb. 1. Sir H. H. Hayden. Kt., c.s.i.. c.i.e.,, b.a 

B.E., B.A.T., F.G.S. , F.R.S. 

912 Feb. 7. H. Beveridge, Esq.. i.c.s. (Retired). 

912 Feb. 7. 

Sir J. C. Rose. Kt.. c.s.i.. c.i.e.. m.a., 

912 Feb. 7. P. J. Briihl, Esq., Ph.D., F.c.s. 

912 Feb. 7 
912 Feb. 7. 

Capt. S. R. Christophers, i.m.s. 

Charles Stewart Middlemiss, Esq.. b.a., f.g.s 

912 Feb. 5. Lieut.-Col. A. T. Gage, t.m.s. 

913 Feb. 5. E. Vredenburg,Esq., b.i., b.Sc, a.r.s.m., a.r.cs., 


913 Feb. 5. J. Ph. Vogel, Esq., Ph.D.. Litt.D. 
913 Feb. 5. Dr. S. W. Kemp, b.a. 

915 Feb. 3. 

915 Feb. 3. 

915 Feb. 3. 

915 Feb. 3. 

Major E. D. W. Greig, o.i.b., m.b., i.m.s 

G. H. Tipper, Esq., m.a.. f.g.s. 

D. B. Spooner, Esq., Ph.D. 

H. H. Haines, Esq., f.c.h., f.l.s. 

916 Feb. 2. Lieut.-Col. C. Donovan, m.d., i.m.s. 

916 Feb. 2. i R. Burn, Esq., c.i.e., i.c.s. 
9!6Feb. 2. 

917 Feb. 7. 

L. L. Fermor, Esq., a.r.s.m.,, f.g.s 
G. C. Simpson, Esq.,, f r.s. 

917 Feb. 7. I F. H. Gravely, Esq., 

918 Feb. 6. J. L. Simonsen, Esq., rh.D. 

918 Feb. 6. Lieut.-Col. D. MeCay. m.d., i.m.s. 

918 Feb. 6. Abdullah Al-Mamun Suhrawardy, Esq., m.a., 


919 Feb. 5. J. Coggin Brown, Esq., o.b.e., m.i.m.e., f g.s. 
919 Feb. 5. W. A. K. Christie, Esq.., Ph.D. 

919 Feb. 5. D. R. Bhandarkar. Esq., m.a. 

919 Feb. 5. Major R. B. Sevmour Sewell, i.m.s. 

921 Feb. 2. Lieut.-Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., i.m.s. 

921 Feb. 2. U. N. Brahmachari, Esq., m.a., Ph.D., m.d. 

921 Feb. 2. B. L. Chaudhuri, Esq., b.a.,, f l.s., f.R.s.e 

922 Feb. 1. | E. H. Pascoe. Esq., m.a., d Sc, f.g.s. 
922 Feb. 1. Ramaprasad Chanda. Esq., b.a. 


Proceedings of the 


Date of Election. 

1875 Dec. 1. Revd. J. D. Bate. 15, St. John's Church Road, 


I Folkestone, Kent, Enaland. 
1885 Dec. 2. Dr. A. Fiihrer, Prof, of Sanskrit. 5, Dorenbach- 

strasse, Binningen, Basel, Switzerland. 
1899 Nov. 1. Revd. E. Francotte, s.J. 30, Park Street, Cal- 


1902 June 4. 
1908 July 1. 

1910 Sept. 7. 

Revd. A. H. Franeke. Europe. 
Rai Sahib Dinesh Chandra Sen, b.a 
Visvakos Lane, Calcutta. 


Shams ul-Ulama Ahmad Abdul Aziz (Nayati), 
Khan Bahadur, Navvab Aziz Jung Bahadur. 
Aziz Villa, Aziz Bagh, Sultan Poora, Hydera- 
bad, Deccan. 

1910 Sept. 7. L. K. Anantha Krishna Iyer, Rao Bahadur, 

b.a., l.t., f.r.a.i., University Lecturer in 
Anthropologv, Calcutta University. Calcutta. 

1910 Dec. 7. Revd. Fr H. Hosten, s.J. St. Joseph's College, 

1915 Mar. 3. 


E. Brunetti, Esq. 27, Chowringhee Road, Cal- 
1915 Dec. 1. Pandit Jainacharya Vijayadharma Surisvaraji, 

Y asovijaya Granthamal Office, Benares City. 
1919 Sept. 3. H. Bruce Hannah, Esq. Bengal Club, Calcutta. 
1921 Jan. 5. Professor Shahay Ram Bose, m.d., Ph.D.. f.l.s., 

Prof, of Botany, Carmichael Medical College. 

Belgachia, Calcutta. 
Pierre Johannes, B.Litt. (Oxon). Prof, of Philo- 

1922 Feb. 1. 

1922 Feb. 1. 

sophy, St. Xavier's College. Calcutta. 
Vedantabisharad Anantakrishna Sastri. 
Sreegopal Mallick Lane. Calcutta. 

57 1, 




* Rule 40. — After the lapse of three vears from the date of 
a member leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall, in 
the interval, have been received by the Societv, his name shall 
be removed from the List of Members. 

The following members will he removed from the next 

Member List of the Societv under the operation of the above 
rule: — 

Major W. L.Campbell i.a. 

George Clarke Simpson, , fa s.b. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. lxxiii 

Harold Walker, a. r.c.s., fg.s., a.m. lust. m. 
Harry George Waters, p.r.i.p h. 

Gerald Mackworth Young, b.a , i.c.s. 


By Retirement. 

Ordinary Members, 

Raja Damodar Das Bahadur. 
Major A. Taneock. 
Dr. B. H. Hankin. 
Babu Netai Churn Law. 
Prof. Jadu Nath Sarkar. 

By Death. 

Ordinary Member; 

Mr. M. L. Dames. 

Babu Khagendra Bhusan Roy. 

Honorary Fellows. 

Sir Patrick Mansnn, g.c.m.g., m.d., ll.d., f.r.c.p 
Mr. C. H. Tawney, m.a., c.i.e. 

Rule 38. 

Rule 40. 

Lt.-Ool. C. Donovan, m.d., i.m.s., f.a.s.b 

Geoffery D. Hope, Esq., r.Sc, Ph.D. 

Revd. R. P. Newton, m.a. 

Pestonji Sorabji Patuck, Esq , r.c.s. 

Dr. C. P. Segard. 

Herbert Neil Randle, Esq., b.a. 



1893 Chandra Kanta Basil. 

1895 Yati Bhu- ma Bhaduri. m.a. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Be 

1896 Jnan Saran Chakravarti. m.a. 

1897 Sarasi Lai Sarkar, m.a. 
1901 Sarasi Lai Sarkar, m.a. 

1904 i Sarasi Lal Sarkar, m.a. 

( Surendra Nath Maitra, m.a. 
1907 Akshoyakumar Mazumdar. 

1911 \ Jitendra Nath Rakshit. 

( Jatindra Mohan Datta. 
C Rasik Lal Datta. 

1913 * Saradakanta Ganguly. 

j Nagendra Chandra Nag. 
vNilratan Dhar. 

1918 Bibhutibhushan Dutta., m.Sc. 

1919 Dr. Jnanendra Chandra Ghosh. 
1922 Abani Bhusan Datta, m.a.. rh.D. 



1901 E. Ernest Green, Esq. 

1903 Major Ronald Ross, f.r.c.s., c.b., c.i.e., f.r.s.. 

i.m.s. (Retired). 
1905 Lieut.-Col. D. D. Cunningham, f.r.s., c.i.e., 

i.m.s. (Retired). 
1907 Lieut.-Col. Alfred William Alcock, m.b , ll.d., 


C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. David Prain, m.a., m.b., ll.d., f.r.s., 
i.m.s. (Retired). 

1911 Dr. Karl Diener. 
1913 Major Willia 

wxo iuajor William Glen Liston, m.d., c.i.e., i.m.s. 
1J15 J. S. Gamble, Esq., c.i.e., m.a., f.b.s. 
1917 Lieut.-Col Henry Haversham God win -Austen, 
iqio . t fr / s ' f - Zs -f.R.o.s. 

^1^ N. Annandale, Esq., d.Sc, c.m.z.s., f.l.s., 


1921 Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, f.b.s., c.i.e., 

f.r.c.s., m.d.,, F.R.c.p., i.m.s. (Retired). 






Proceedings of the Ordinary Monthly 

General Meetings, 1922. 

JxNUARY, 1922. 
There was no Monthly General Meeting in January, 1922 


FEBRUARY, 1932. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 1st, at 9-15 p.m. 

TheHon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt., C.S.I. , 

D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., F.A.S.B., President, in the 

Members ; 


Abdul Latif, Syed,Khan Bahadur. 

Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. 

Bal, Babu S. N. 

Banerji, Babu P. N. 

Banerji, Babu Pramatha Nath. 

Belvalker, ]\Ir. S. K. 

Brahmachari, Dr. Upendranath. 
Bruhl, Dr P. J. 

Chatterji, Babu Nirmal Chandra. 
Christie, Dr. \V. A. K. 
Dikahit, Mr, K. N. 
Francotte, Rev. E. 
Hannah, Mr. H. Bruce. 

Visitors : 

Boyd, Major T. C. 
And others. 

Hosten, Rev. Fr. H. 
Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 
Kar, Babu Satish Chandra. 

Knowles, Major R. 

Majumdar, Babu Ramesh Chandra 

Manen, Mr. J. van. 

Mitra, Babu vS. K. 

Mookerjee, Babu Ramaprasad. 

Moreno, Mr. H. W. B. 

Roychowdhuri, Babu Hem Chan 

Seth, Mr. M. J. 

Napier, Dr. 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected as 
Ordinary Members : 

(1) Lt^Col. J. W. D. Megaw, L31.S., Director, Calcutta 
School of Tropical Medicine, 15, Kyd Street : proposed by 
Major R. Knowles, I. M.S., seconded by Mr. A. H. Harley ; (2) 
Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya, Esq , Professor, Visvabharti, 
Santiniketan (Birbhmn) : proposed by Mr. Narendra Nath 
Law, seconded by Mr. Satya Churn Law ; (3) Dr. E. Muir, M.D., 
F.R.C.S. (Edin.), Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine (Lep- 
rosy Research Worker) : proposed by Major R. Knowles, I. M.S., 
seconded by Mr. A. H Harley; (4) C. V. Raman, Esq., M.A., 
D.Sc, Palit Professor of Physics, Calcutta University, 210, 
Bow Bazar Street : proposed by the Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh 
Mukhopadhyaya, Kt., seconded by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar; 

lxxvi Proceedings of the 

(5) Major A. D. Stewart, L M. S., Director, Public Health Labor- 
atories, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene : 
proposed by Major Know lea, I M.S., seconded by Mr A. H. 
Harley : (6) Kumar Gangananda Sinfox, M.A., Landholder 
(Zemindar) 7, Dedarbaksh Lane (off Wellesley Square), Calcutta : 
proposed by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar, seconded by Babu Hem 
Chandra Ray Chaudhury, M. A., Ph.D. ; (7) Major R. N Chopra. 
I. M.S., Professor of Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical 
Medicine: proposed by Major R. Knowles, seconded by Mr. 
A. H. Harlev. 

The following gentlemen were proposed on behalf of the 
Council as Associate Members and duly elected : 

Fr. P. Johannes, S.J., B.Litt. 

Vedantabisharad Anantakrishna Sastri. 

The President drew attention to the following exhibits : 

Section, Indian Museum. 


MARCH, 1922, 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 1st, at 9-15 p.m. 

Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar, M.A., Ph.D., in the chair. 

1. Exhibits by Medical Section. 

2. An Albinoid Red -whiskered Bulbul. (Painted from 

life.) S. C. Law. 

3. Palm-leaf Manuscripts of two important Sinhalese 

poems. Bimala Charan Law. 

4. Armenian Manuscript, books and painting. Mr. J. 


5. Seven Manuscripts. Dr. A. Suhrawardy. 

6. Three Manuscripts. S. Khuda P>uksh 

7. A Manuscript. Messrs. A. G. Khan and Sons. 

8. Exhibits by P. C. Nahar. 

9. St. Thomas and S. Thome, Mylapore, Madras. Archi- 

tectural Remains. Rev. Fr. H. Hosten, S.J. 

10. Exhibits by the Geological Survey of India. 

11. List of Antiquities exhibited by the Archaeological | 



Members : 

Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. Ghatak, Prof. Jyotish Chandra. 

Agharkar, Dr. S. P. Ghosh, Mr T. P. 

Bal, Prof. S. N. Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 

Brahmachari, Dr. Upendranath. Manen, Mr. J. van. 

Chapman. Mr. J. A. Ray, Babn Hemchandra.^ 

Chatterjee, Prof. Nirmal Chandra. Hoychowdhuri, Mr. H. C. ^ 

Christie, Dr. W. A. K. Sinha, Mr. J. 


Astatic Society of Bengal lxxvii 

Visitors : 

Bhattacharyj-a, Prof. N. C. Leward, Mr. A. S. 

The minutes of the last General Meeting and the Annual 
Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Forty-one presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Sir Edward Gait, 
Mr. V. H. Jackson, Lala Sita Ram, Sir J. G. Gumming and 
Lieut. Col. J. O'Kinealy, I. M.S. had expressed a desire to 
withdraw from the Society. 

The Chairman announced that the following: member 

— _ „ , — 

being largely in arrears with his subscriptions has been posted 

as a defaulter since the last meeting and that his name had 
been removed from the member list. 

Babu Kashi Nath Das. .. .. .. Rs. 59. 

The Rev. Fr. H. Hosten, S.J., exhibited some photographs 
illustrating "Some pre-Portuguese Christian relics from 8. 
Thome, Mylapore." 

The General Secretary read the names of the following 
gentlemen who had been appointed to serve on the various 
Committees during 1922. 

Finance Committee. 
General Secretary. 
L. L. Ferraor, Esq., O.BJE. 
P. C. Mahalanobis, Esq , B Sc. 
Kumar Sarat Kumar Kov, M.A. 

Library Committee. 
General Secretary. 
Hon. Librarian. 

Anthropological Secretary. 
Biological Secretary. 
Physical Science Secretary. 
The two Philological Secretaries 

Medical Secretary. 

J oh an van Man en, Esq. 

W. C. Wordsworth, Esq. 

•I A. Chapman, Esq. 
M.M. Hua Prasad Shastri. 
8. Khuda Bukhsh, Esq. 

lxxviii Proceedings of the 

_, . , Philological Committee. 



General Secretary. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

Babu Nilmani Chakravarti. 

Aga Muhamad Kazim Shirazi. 

W. C. Wordsworth, Esq. 

Rama Prasad Chanda, Esq. 

Philological and Joint Philological Secretaries 
Dr. Suhrawardv. 


Hon. Numismatist. 
W. E. M. Campbell, Esq. 

Hon. Joint Secretaries Science Congress 

Dr. J.L. Simonsen. 
Prof. C. V. Raman. 

Building Committee. 

General Secretary. 

Sir R. N. Mukerjee, K.C.I.E. 

S.W. Kemp, Esq., B.A. 

H. A. Crouch, Esq. 

W. K. Dods. Esq. 

MM. Haia Prasad Shastri. 

Publication Committee. 


General Secretary. 

Biological Secretary 

Physical Science Secretary. 

Anthropological Secretary. 

Medical Secretary. 

Hon. Librarian. 

The two Philological Secretaries. 

MSS. Purchase Committee. 

The Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya : Kt 

A. Suhrawardv, Esq., M.A. 

A. H. Harley, Esq... M.A. 

S. Khuda Bukhsh, Esq., M.A. 

The following papers were put down to be read : 

1. Was State- Socialism known in Ancient India? A 
Study in Kautilya's Arthasastra. — By Hem Chandha Roy. 





Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


2. The modification of the 
Fishes. — By Sunder Lal Hora. 


>/ Meg 

Swim-bladder in Hill-stream 


Boulenger. — By Sunder Lal Hora. 

4. The Homology of the Weberian Ossicles. — By Sunder 
Lal Hora. 

5. Isopodaof the Family Bopyridae parasitic on the Indian 
Decapoda Natantia. — By B. Chopra. 

6. Theory of generalised Quanta. — By S. 0. Kar. 

7. Dates of the votive Inscriptions on the Stupas at Sdncht. 
By R. C. Majumdar. 

8. The Origin of the Sena Kings. — By R. C. Majumdar. 

9. The Identification of Suktiman Mountain. — By R. C 

Nos. 7, 8 and 9 were ordered to be read at the next meet- 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 

Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 8th March. 



APRIL, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 5th . at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt., 
C.S.L, D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E ., F.A.S.B., President, in the chair. 


Members : 

Banerjee, Babu Pramathanath. 

Brahmachari, Dr. Upendranath. 
Bruhl, Dr. P. J. 

Chapman, Mr. J. A. 
Chat terjee, Prof. N. C. 
Ghatak, Prof. Jyotish Chandra. 
Hannah, Mr. H." Bruce. 
Harrison, Dr. E. P. 

Visitors ; 

Chaudhuri, Babu Saroda Charan. 
Dutta, Babu Upendranath. 
Fulep, Mr. E. G. 

Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 
Kar/ Prof. S C. 
Kemp, Dr. S. N". 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 
Raman, Prof. C. V. 
Ray, Mr H. C. 
Roychowdhuri, Mr. H. C. 

And others. 

Harrison, Mrs. E. P. 
Kantmann , Mr. F. 
And others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed 
Forty-seven presentations were announced. 

lxxx Proceedings of the 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Resume of Recent Progress in our Knowledge of the 
Indian Wasps and Bees. — By Cedric Dover. 

2 Pearl Formation in the Indian Pearl Oyster. — By 

James Horn ell. 

3. An automatic " make and break " key for actuating the 
heating and high potential circuits of a Coolidge X-Ray tube. 
By E. P. Harrison and N. N. Sen. 

4 On the Theory of Generalised Quanta and the Relativistic 
Newtonian Motion. — By S. C. Kar. 

5, Preparation of ethyl antimonyl Tartrate, Sodium anti- 
monyl malate. — By U. N. Brahmachari. 

6. On the Rationalisation of Algebraic Equations.— By N. 

The following papers postponed from the last meeting 
were also read : 

The General Secretary reported with deep regret the death 
of Mr. J. H. Elliott; Assistant Secretary. 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected as 
Ordinarv Members : — 

(1) Sarat Chandra Goswami, Esq., Superintendent, Normal 
School, Jorhat, Assam : proposed by Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, 
seconded by Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar ; (2) Jogesh Chandra 
Bose, Esq., Landholder, Oontai. Midnapur District : proposed 
by Dr. A. Suhrawardy, seconded by Sir Asutosh Mookerjee: 
(3) A. F. M. Abdul Ali, Esq., M.A., Keeper of the Records 
and Assistant Secretary to the Government of India, 3, Turner 
Street, Calcutta : proposed by Dr. A. Suhrawardy, seconded by 
Sir Asutosh Mookerjee ; (4) Rakhahari Chatterjee, Esq., B.A 
Student, Calcutta University, 7 Lakshman Das Lane, Hovvrah : 
proposed by Mr Nilmani Chakravarti. seconded by Mr. N. G. 
Majumdar ; (5) Sosadhar Banerjee Esq., B.A., Head Master, 
H.E. School, Gopalganga, Bihar : proposed by M.M. Hara- 
prasad Shastri, seconded by Dr. R. C Majumdar ; (6) A. B. 
Dhruva, Esq., Principal. C.H.C., Benares University, Benares: 
proposed by Dr. S. K. Belvalkar, seconded by Dr. D. K. 
Bhandarkar; (7) E. G. Fillep, Esq., Merchant, Proprietor, 
E. G. Fiilep & Co., Calcutta, Bombay and Hamburg, No. 5 ; 
Mission Row, Calcutta : proposed by Mr. J. A. Chapman, 
seconded by Dr. W. A. K. Christie; (8) Bhagavad Dutta, Esq., 
Prof, and Supdt., Research Dept., Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Col- 
lege, Lahore : proposed by Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, seconded by 
Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar. 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. lxxx> 

1. Dates of the Votive Inscriptions in the St upas at Sanchi. 
By R. C. Majumdar. 

2. The Origin of the Sena Kings. — By R. C. Majumdar 

3. The Identification of Snkliman Mountain — By R. C. 



MAY, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 3rd, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukerjee, Kt., 

O.S.I. , D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B , President, in the 

Members ; Present. 

Annandale, Dr. N. Kemp, Dr. S. W. 

Brown, Mr. C. J. Knowles, Major R. 

Dunn, Dr. T. O. D. Pilgrim, Dr. E. G. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Fifteen presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced with regret the death of 
Mr M. L. Tames, London, an ordinary member of the Society. 

The General Secretary reported that the following mem- 
ber had expressed a desire to withdraw from the Society. 

Raja Damodar Das Barman and Major A. Tancock. 

The following gentleman was balloted for and elected as 
an ordinary member : — 

Reginald C. A. Schomberg, Lt.-CoL, 2nd Seaforth High- 
landers. Meerut : proposed bv Dr. S. W. Kemp, seconded bv 
Mr. A. H. Harley. 

The following papers were read : 

" Lakhimpuri : A Dialed of Modern A wad hi." — By Babu- 
Ram Sakskna. 

a rr 

The development of the Ovary of Calex" — By VlSHWA 


Dr. N. Annandale exhibited a second collection of Weigh- 
ing beams from the Southern Shan States. 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on the loth May. 



Proceeding* of the 

JUNE, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the Tth, at 6-15 p.m. 

The Hon'bije Justice Sir Asutosh Mukkrjkk, Kt., 
C.S.L, DX, D.Sc P.R.S.E., F.A.8.B.. President, in the chair. 


Abdul Wali Khan Sahib. 
Annandale, Dr. N. 
Brahroachari, Dr. U. N. 
Chakladar, Mr. H. C. 
Chanda, Babu Ramaprasad. 
Chapman, Mr. J. A. 
Ghatak, Babu Jyotish Chandra 
Hannah, Mr. H. Bruce. 


Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 
Kemp, Dr. S. W. 
Majumdar, Mr. K. N. 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 

Mehta, Mr. R. D 

Ray, Babu Hern Chandra. 

Sarbadhikari, Dr. Devaprasad 


The minutes of the last meeeting were read and confirmed. 
Thirteen presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported with deep regret 
death in London on 9th April of Sir Patrick Man son, G.C.M.G., 
M.D.. LL.D.. F.R.C.P., an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

The following gentleman was balloted for and elected as 
an ordinary member : 

Dr. Sivapada Bkatlacharyya, Ml)., School of Tropical 
Medicine, Calcutta : proposed by Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, 
seconded bv Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar. 

The following gentlemen were proposed on behalf of the 
Council as Honorary Fellows : 

William Henry Perkin. 

Professor W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., ScJX, LL.D., Waynflete 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Oxford, is one of 
most eminent of living organic chemists. His researches have 
been mainly on (a) the synthesis of polymethylene derivatives, 
(6) the constitution of camphor, (c) the synthesis of the terpenes. 
(d) the constitution of cryptopine and protopine, (e) the con- 
stitution of harmine and harmaline, and the results ot thes* 
researches have been published in a large series of papers, chiefly 
in the Transactions of the Chemical Society. In recognition 
of the value of his contributions to Chemical Science, the Royal 
Society awarded him the Davy Medal and the Chemical Society 
of London the Longstaffe Medal. Prof. Perkin is a Fellow of 
the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, a correspond 
ing member of the Academies of Science of Gottingen and 


Munich, a Foreign Associate of the French Academy of Science, 
and past President of the Chemical Society of London and of 
Section B. of the British Association. 




Asiatic Society of Bengal. Ixxxiii 

Leonard Rogers. 

Tbfi oame of Lt.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., CLE 
KR.&, AID., B.Sc, F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S . F.A.S.B., I.M.S., form- 

erly Professor of Pathology.. Medical College, Calcutta, now Con- 

/ sultant Physician, School ot Tropical Medicine, London, is fam- 

iliar to all as that of one of the most famous authorities on trop 

1 ical diseases such as Kala-azar, Leprosy and Cholera, and the 

moving spirit in the foundation of the lately completed School of 
Tropical Medicine in Calcutta. His most important published 

to works are his books on '" Fevers in the Tropics," 'Cholera 

and its Treatment/' and " Bowel Diseases in the Tropics, " but 
he has also contributed a large number of papers on medical 
subjects to medical and research journals. He was awarded 
the Fothergillian Gold Medal and the Mary Kingslev Medal for 
his rr searches in Tropical Medicine and is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of London. He is also an Honorary Member of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, of the Manila Medical Society 
and the American Climatological Association. He has held the 

' office of President of this Society and of the Indian Science 

Congress and is now President of the Tropical Medical Section, 
of the Roval Societv of Medicine, London. 

Thomas Henry Holland. 

The work of Sir Thomas Holland. K.C.S. I. : K.C.J E. ; U.iic. 
f L.L.D., F.H.S., F.A.S.B., etc., is so well known in India that the 

briefest summary will be sufficient. He joined the Geological 
Survey of India in 1S90, and became Director in 1903 returning 
in 1909. He was President of the Society in 1909. and for many 
years previously had taken an active interest in the work of 
the Council having been for a time its Honorary Secretary. 
He was Chairman of the Trustees of the Indian .Museum from 
1905-1909, and President of the Mining and Geological Institute 
of India in 1906-07. He was appointed Professor of Geology 
I in Manchester University in 1909, but came out to India again 

i as President of the Industrial Commission in 19 16, and remained 

as Chairman of the Munitions Board and subsequently as 
member of the Governor-General's Council until 1921. Quite 
recently he has been appointed to the high office of Rector of 
the Imperial College of Science and Technology. As a geologist 
he is best known for his description of the charnockite series of 
rocks and as an anthropologist for his paper on contact met «- 
morphosis in the races of Coorg. 

Sir T. Holland has taken the fullest possible opportunity 

of the high official positions he has occupied in furthering th.- 
interests of science. 


Proceedings of the 

Man en. 

The following papers were read : — 

A Contribution to the Bibliography of Tibet.— By Johan van 


Notes on Some Bas-reliefs of Bharhut. — By Ramaprasad 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 14th June, 
1022, at 6-15 p.m. 

O — 

JULY, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 5th, at 6-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ple Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

Kt ? O.S.I, O.L., DSc. F.R.S.E., F.A S.B., President, in the 


Ghatak, Babu Jyotish Chandra. 
Hannah, Mr. H. Bruce. 
Harrison, Dr. E P. 
Kemp, Dr. S. W. 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 
Mehta, Mr. K D. 
Moreno, Mr. H. W. B. 
And others. 

Members : 

Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. 
Annandale, Dr. N. 
Bruhl, Dr. P. J. 
Chakladar, Mr. H. C. 
Chanda, Mr. R. P. 
Chapman, Mr. J. A. 
Das Gupta, Hem Chandra. 
Deb, Kumar Harit Krishna. 
Fermor, Dr. L. L. 

Visitor : 

Mr. S. C. Same. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Nineteen presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced with regret the death of 
Babu Khagendra Bhusaii Roy, an ordinary member of the 

The General Secretary reported that Dr. E. H. Hankin 
and Mr. Netai Churn Law had expressed a desire to withdraw 
from the Society 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected as 
ordinary members: — 

Udai Narain Uaur, Zemindar, Village Pidwhal, P.O. Ghosi, 
District Azamgarh, UP.: proposed by Dr. 8. W. Kemp, 
seconded by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar ; Radhakumad Mukerji 
Head of the Department of Indian History, University of 
Lucknow : proposed by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar, seconded by Dr 
S. W. Kemp. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. Ixxxv 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected as 
Honorary Fellows : 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., Sc.D , LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir 
Thomas Holland, K.O S.L, K.C.I.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Lt.-Col. 
Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., CLE., M.D., B.Sc., FRCP., F R.C.X., 
F.A.S., I.M.S. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On the Radioactivity of Some Indian Minerals. — h'i/ 
N. A. Ya.tnik and Saral Jang Kohlt. 


I 2. A Note on the Jangala Desa.— By Kumar Gang a - 


3. Precession of Equinoxes in Indian Astronomy. — By 
} Jyotish Chandra Ghatak. 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on the 12th .Julv. 1922. 




AUGUST, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the moutli 
was held on Wednesday, the 2nd, at 6-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt.. 

O.S.I. , D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.A S.B., President, in the 

Members : Present. 


Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. Manen, Mr. J. van. 

Agharker, Dr. S. P. Matthai, Mr. G. 

Annandale, Dr. N. Moreno, Mr. H. W. B. 

Ayer, Mr. L. K. Anantakrishna. Ray, Kumar Sarat Kumar. 

Chakladar, Prof. H. C. Ray, Babu Sasadhar. 

Das Gupta, Prof. H. 0. Rovehowdhuri, Babu Hem Chan- 

Dikshit, Mr. K. NT. d"ra. 

Gurner, Mr. C. W. Singha, Babu Gangananda. 

Harrison, Dr. E. P. Vidyabhusan, Babu Araulya 

Jain, Babu Chhotelal. Chandra. 

Kesteven, Hon'ble Mr. C. 

Visitors : 

Mr. R. Kimura. Mr. D. R. Mehta. 

And others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Nineteen presentations were announced. 

The President announced that Dr. S. W. Kemp, Offg. 
Honorary Secretary had left Calcutta on tour and that Dr 
E P. Harrison would officiate for him during the month of 

lxxxvi Proceedings of the 

The General Secretary reported that Prof. Jadunath Sircar 
had expressed a desire to withdraw from the Society. 

The following gentleman was balloted for and elected as 
an ordinary member. : 

1. Bhngwan Das Batla, Consulting and Analytical Chemist. 
Munshian Street, Xabha State : proposed by Dr. S. W. Kemp, 
seconded bv Mr. A. H. Harley. 

The General Secretary read the following address presented 
by the Society's delegates to the Academic Royale de Belgique 
on the first day of their 1 50th Anniversary Celebrations and a j 

report of the proceedings of the celebrations by T)r. E. H. 
Pascoe : — 

As the representatives of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, we 
have been entrusted with the honour of conveying to the 
President and Members of the Academie Royale de Belgique 
the respectful congratulations of the senior learned Society in 

Founded also during the latter part of the XVlIIth 
century, the Asiatic Society has had the benefit of the publica- 
tions of the distinguished Academy, particularly those embody- 
ing the researches in Oriental languages and philosophy by 
Felix Xeve, Mgr. Lamy and ftlgr. de Harley, the geological 
work of Edouard Dupont on the Gondwana formations of the 
Congo region and of Em. Laurent and Th. Durand and others 
on the natural history of the tropical belt of Africa. 

The Academie Royale has maintained an unbroken record 
of work throughout all the great political and dynastic 
changes which have passed over Belgium, and the Asiatic- 
Society now joins its correspondents in all the Allied countries 
in expressing the hope that the Academie has at last com- 
menced an era of long-continued tranquillity which will enable 
it to maintain undisturbed the distinguished position which it 
has attained in the world of science and letters 

( T. H. Holland. 
. (Sd.) < Leonard Roger*. 

IE. H. Pascoe. 

The proceedings in connection with the 150th Anniversary 
of the Academie Royale de Belgique were spread over two days, 
Tuesday and Wednesday, the 23rd and 24th of May, 1922. At 
2 o'clock on the 23rd there was a ,; seance preliminaire" at 
which delegates were welcomed by the President and at which 
addresses of congratulation were presented to the Academy. 
The above brief address, which had been drawn up by Sir Thomas 
Holland, was handed in to the President with a few explan- 
atory words. 

At 4-30 of the same day we were entertained to tea by the 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. Ixxxvii 

Bourgmestre, Echevius el autontes eornmunsles of the city in 
the Banquet Hall of the historic old Hotel de Ville. 

In the evening at 8-30 we were entertained at a Raout et 
Concert in the Palais des Academies where a fine string band 
played selections from Mozart and other composers. 

In the morning of the 24th the following programme of 
excursions had been arranged, from which I selected a visit to 
the Archaeological Museum or Musee d' Antiquitees :— 

(1) To the Roval Observatory of Mcele, under the direc- 
tion of M. M. G. Lecointe and P. Stroobant. 

(2) To the Botanical Garden and Institute, under the 
direction of M. J. Massart 

(3) To the Musee archeologique du Oiuquantenaire, under 
the direction of M. J. Capart. 

(4) To the old Museum of Fine Arts, under the direction 

of M. Era. Variant, 

After traversing a small exhibition of modern feminine 
apparel we passed through rooms containing tapestry, bois 
sculpte, old China glass, jewelled caskets and antique furniture. 

The Museum contains an important collection of antique 
vases, including some fine Etruscan specimens, and the usual 
series of stone hatchets, hammers, arrow-heads, lance-heads, 
etc., terra cotta lamps, figures, dishes and cups, .Gallic pottery, 
and bronze and iron implements such as swords, spearheads, 
hatchets, helmets, shields, horse-shoes, and ornaments. 

The Egyptian antiquities are under the especial care of M. 

In the small nucleus of a collection o[ Assyrian and Baby- 
lonian remains are several interesting Sumerian seal cylinders. 
Many of the tablets exhibited are from Ur: some of these 
are pierced with small channels for a thong, and di-play lists 
of small cattle with the name of their owners. Besides these 
there are some metal Hittite seals, the usual Nebuchadnezzar 
bricks, some Warka tablets, tablets of the 1st Babylonian 
dynasty, tablets from Qala't Sharqat. and an interesting stone 
said to be a threshold-stone dedicated to the God Um-ra. . .. 
by Gimil Sin, king of Ur. between 2'i2Z and 2316 B.C. 

From 2 till 4-30 in the afternoon a " seauce commemora- 
tive " was held in the Palais dea Academies, at which His 
Majesty the King of Belgium was present. This consisted of 
complimentary speeches and would have been more enjoyable 
if the thermometer had not registered something like 9">° F. At 
the close of the seance wo were conveyed to the Royal Palace 
of Laebeu, where we were privileged to inspect the wonderful 
-how of azalias and other flowers, amidst which tea was served. 
The proceedings terminated with a pleasant banquet at 
the Hotel Astora in the evening. rg<J ) gj a f{ p AS coK. 




Proceedings of the 

The following papers were read : 

1. Discovery of Bengali (?) Dramas in Nepal. — By 
Kumar Gaxgananda Sinha. 

2. Father A. Monserrate, S.J.. on Salsete, Charao, Divor 
and the Molucas (1529). — Edited and translated by the Rev. Fr. 
FT Hosten, S.J. 

3. The Mahabharata and the Besnagar Inscription of 
Heliodoros, — By Hem Chandra Roychowdhuri. 

4. Vedic Aryandom. — By Haran Chandra Chakladar. 

5. A Note on the Diplopterovs Wasps in the Collection of 
the Indian Museum — By Cedric Dover and H. Srinivasa 
Rao. (Communicated by the Biological Secretary.) 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on Wednesdav, the 9th August. 

— O — 




The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday /the 6th, at 6-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, Kt , 
C.S.I. ,D.L.. D.Sc., F.R.S.E.. F.A.S.R. President, in the chair. 


Members : 


Agharkar, Prof. S. P. 
Annandale, Dr. N. 
Brahmaehari, Dr. U. N 
Brown, Mr. J. Coggin. 
Dikshit, Mr. K.N. 

Hannah, Mr. H. Bruce. 
Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 
Moreno, Mr. H. W, B. 
Singha Ray, Mr. Lalit Mohan 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty -six presentations were announced. 

. • The President announced that Mr. A. H. Harlev would 
officiate as General Secretary in place of Dr. E. P. Harrison. 

The General Secretary reported that Mr. J. 0. Hyrapiet 
has been appointed Assistant Secretarv to the Society in place 
of .Mr. Cedric Dover, RES. 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected as 
ordinary members : 

Dr. C A. Strickland, Professor of Medical Entomology. 
School- of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta: proposed by Dr. 
X. Annandale. seconded by Major R Knowles : Dr. Surendra 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Nath Das-Gupta, Professor of Sanskrit and Philosophy, Chitta- 
gong College, Chittagong : proposed by Sir Asntosh Mookerjee. 
seconded bv Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar. 

The following papers were read : 


An Old Gipsy-Darwish Jargon. — By W. Ivanow. 

2. St. Thomas and S. Thome, Mylapore — Apparitions of 
St. Thomas and other Legends. — By the Rev. Ftt. H. Hosten, 

3 Advances in our Knowledge of the Fauna of Fresh and 
Brackish Waters of India, with a Bibliography for the Years, 

1912-22. — By N. Annaxpale. Bibliography by Cedric 
Dover. ' 

4. A Note on Inscriptions on a Vase from Bimaran — By 
N. G. Majumdar. 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on the 13th September. 1922. 
at 6-15 p.m. 


NOVEMBER, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 1st, at G-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mooki;rjj;e, Kt. 

< 1 .S.I., D.L., D.Sc. ? F.R SE., F.A.S.B.. President, in the chair. 

Members : 

Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib 
Agharkar, Dr. S. P. 
Das Gupta, Prof. H. C. 
Ghose, Mr. T. P. 
Hannah, Mr. H. Bruce. 
Harley, Mr. A. H. 

Visitors : 

Mr. P. C. Bo^e. 

And others. 


Ivanow, Mr. VY. 
Jain, Babu Chhotelal. 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 
Mookherjee, Babu Ramapra 

And others. 


Mrs. A. H. Harley 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Thirty-two presentations were announced. 

The following candidates were balloted for and elected a^ 
rdinarv members : 

(a) Mr, Svresh Chandra Sarkar. retired Deputy Magistrate 
and Deputy Polleotor, Bihar and Orissa. Barbuda, Gmdih 

xc Proceedings of the 

(E.I.K.); proposed by Mr. S. C. Mahalanobis, seconded by Mr. 

P. C. Mahalanobis; (b) Mr. Mohammad Irian. Professor of 

Arabic and Persian. Hooghly College, Hooghly : proposed by 

Mr A. H. Harley, seconded by Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya : . 

(c) Pundit Prannath Vidgolankar, Professor of History and 

Economics. B.H. University, Benares : proposed by Mr. K. N. 

Dikshit, seconded by Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda ; (d) Mrs. 

Strickland- Anderson, Composer and Author, The Grand Hotel, 

Calcutta : proposed by Dr. S, W. Kemp, seconded by Mr. 

A. H. Harley. 

s ocietv. 

Charles Henry Tawney, M.A.. CLE. 1837-1922. He 
was educated at Rugby and at Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
he was Bell University Scholar in 1857; Davis University 
Scholar in 1858: was Bracketed Senior Classics in 1860 ; and 
was elected Fellow of Trinity College in i860. In 1864, Mr. 
Tawnevcame out to this country as Assistant Professor in the 
Presidency College. Calcutta ; he served for many years as 
Professor in and Principal of the Presidency College, as Regis- 
trar of the Calcutta University, and after officiating three 
times as Director of Public instruction, Bengal, retired in 
1891. He subsequently became Librarian of the India Office. 
During his stay in India, he was elected as an Ordinary Mem- 
ber of this Society on the 6th September. 1885. He served 
on the Library Committee and on the Philological Committee 
for many years ; he also acted as Philological Secretary was a 
member of Council on many occasions and became Vice- 
President in 1880 and 1881. After his retirement, he was 
elected an Honorary Member of this Society (subsequently 
designated as Honorary Fellow) on the 5th June, 1895. His 
translations from Sanskrit are well known and include ver- 
sions of the Kathasaritsagrara. the Kathakosa, the Malabi- 


kagnimitra, the Uttararamacharita, the Probandhachintamani 
and the Satakas of YaitriharL His special erudition in the 
classical literature alike of Europe and India was remarkable 

for its depth and wide range, and his commentary on Shakes- 
peare's Richard III bears ample evidence of his profound 
knowledge of Elizabethan Scholarship. Amongst his other 
contributions may be mentioned his Notes on Fire Sticks and 
a Rare Coin of Sofleytes, published in the Proceedings of t hi 
Society in 1881 and a paper on Folk Tale Parallel contribute, 


The following papers were read :— 

" Dihyah-ai l-Kalbi." —By A. H. Harley. 

*'• The Source* of J ami's NafdhaV* — by \V. IvAtfow. ,? 

The President announced with deep regret the death of 
C. H. Tawnev. M.A., CLE., an Honorarv Fellow of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


to the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Loudon in 


The President proposed Prof. A. A. Macdonell (Oxford) as 
an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

Professor Arthur Anthony Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D., DO.L, 
Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford ; 
Stephanos Nirmalendu Ghose Lecturer on Comparative Reli- 
gions.. Calcutta University, 1921-1022; Keeper of the Indian 
Institute; Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford; Fellow of the 
British Academy ; Honorary Member of the American Oriental 
Society: Campbell Memorial Gold Medallist of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Bombay ; Author or Editor of Saravanukra- 
mani of the Rigveda by Katyayana (Anecdota Oxoniensia) ; A 
Sanskrit Grammar; a Sanskrit- English Dictionary; Vedic 
Mythology ; History of Sanskrit Literature ; New Sanskrit 
Grammar; The Brihaddevata (Harvard Oriental Series) ; 
\ edic Grammar; Vedic Index of Names and Subjects; Vedic 
Grammar for Students; Vedic Reader. 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on the I5th November. 1922, 

at 6-15 p.m. 


DECEMBER, 1922. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society of the month 
was held on Wednesday, the 6th, at 0-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosr Mooker/ji;k. ? Kt., 
C.S.I., D.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.E ., F.A.S.B., President, in the chair. 

Members : 


Abdul Wali, Khan Sahib. 

Agharkar, Dr. S. P. 
Banerjee, Babu Pramatha Xath. 
wahmachari. Dr. U. X. 
Chanda, Mr. R. P. 

Das Gupta, Prof. H. C. 
Dikshit, Mr. K X. 
HwIey,Mr. A. H. 

1 isiiors : 

Harley, Mrs, A. H. 

oanyal, Babu Hiran Kumar. 

Jain, Babu Cbhotelal. 
Kemp, Dr. S. W 
Manen, Mr. J. van. 
Mehta, Mr. R. D 
Moreno. Prof H. W. B. 
Ray , Prof H. C. 
Singha Ray, Mr. Lalit Mohan 
And others. 

Winternitz, Dr. N. 
And others. 

The minutes of the last meeting wen- read and confirmed 

Thirty-seven premutations were announced 

xcii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The following candidates were balloted for and elected as 
ordinary members : — 

(a) Sir Basil Phillot Blackett, K.C.B.. Finance Member, 
Government of India, Delhi and Simla : proposed by Lieut. - 
Col. D. C. Phillot, seconded by Sir Asutosh Mookerjee ; (6) 



Calcutta : proposed by Mr. N. G. Majumdar, seconded bv Dr. 
S. W. Kemp. 

The following papers were read : 

1. " A new Kharoshihi inscription from Jamahjarhi of lh 
year 359." — By N. G. Majumdar. 

2. " Notes on Kshatrapa inscriptions." — By N. G. Majum- 


3. ''Father Manoel du Fonseca, S.J., in Am {Burma) 
(1613-1652) "— By Rev. Fr. H. Hosten ; S.J. 

4. i4 Umar bin abdi' l-aziz, and his Musnad collected by 
Al-Baghandi" — By A. H. Harley. 

5 " On the Anatomy and Bionomics of the Red Cotton Bug, 
Dysdercus cingulatus." — By Hem Singh. 

6. i; On the Radioactivity of Some Indian Mineral" — By 
Saral Jang Kolis * 

7. " Lai a — A note." — By Hem Chandra Roy. 

The President announced that the next meeting of the 
Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 13th Decem- 
ber, 1922, at 6-15 p.m. 



Proceedings of the Medical Section 

Meetings, 1022. 

Eleven meetings were held during the year and all were 
well attended. The admission of medical men as visitors has 
tended to attract new candidates for membership, whilst the 
Medical Section serves the valuable purpose of a meeting 
ground for the whole of the medical profession in Calcutta for 
discussion and for securing early publicity for medical dis- 
coveries. Many of the papers read were subsequently pub 
lished in the Indian Medical Gazette, with acknowledgments. 


JANUARY, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesdaw the 11th January, 1922. 

Dr. Upendra Nath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A., 
M.D., Ph.D., F.A.S.B., in the chair. 

Members : Present. 

\garkar, Dr S. P. Conner, Lt.-Col. F. P., I. M.S. 

Ukinson, Mr. A. C. Dikshit, Dr. K. N. 

Bal, Dr. S. N. Ganguli, Cnpt. P. 

Bentley, Dr. C. A. Knowles. Major R., I. M.S. 

Bose, Dr. S. R. Motor*, Dr. S. A. 

Campos, Dr. J. J. Megaw, Lt.-Col. J. W. D ., I. M.S. 

Chapman. Mr. J. A. Mnir, Dr. E. , and others. 

Via itors : 3 2 . 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Major B. Knowles. I.M S., read a paper on "The Problems of 
Kala-azar ." 

The paper was illustrated by lantern slides and covered 
in retrospect the history of the research work upon the tran*- 
n.i.ssion problem, methods of improved diagnosis and of im- 
proved modes of treatment. There was a subsequent discus- 
sion in Which Dr. E. Muir and Dr. C. A Bentley and other- 
took part and which turned chiefly upon the question as 
to the extent of the prevalence of endemic kala a/ar in 


Proceedings of the 

FEBRUARY, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesday, the 8th February, 1922. 

Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur. ML A.. M.D., 
Ph.D., F.A.S.B., in the chair. 


Conner, Lt.-Col. F. P., I.M.S 
Knowles, Major R., I.M.S. 

Members : 

Acton, Major H. W. , I.M.S. 
Campos, Dr. J. J. 
Chatterjee, Dr. K. K. 

Visitors : 5. 

The chairman, before opening the proceedings, referred to 
the great loss sustained by the cause of medical education 
and welfare in Bengal by the sudden death of Major-General 
W. H. B. Robinson.. C.B., K.H.S., I.M.S., Surgeon-General to 
the Government of Bengal, and a resolution was moved and 
carried in silence c; That the Medical Section of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal deeply mourns the sudden and untimely 
death of Major-General Robinson, C.B., K.H.S., I.M.S., 

Surgeon-General with the Government of Bengal, and that a 
copy of this resolution be sent to his widow and bereaved 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and 
__ ned. Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, D.S.O., I.M.S, then read a 
paper "On Malignant Growths of the Tmnerfectlv Descended 




The author 





case reports of cases seen in 

years and drew attention to the 

terriblv malignant characters of such growths. In the discus- 


-ion which followed Dr. K. K. Chatterjee mentioned havin__ 
seen similar cases and Major Acton drew attention to the fact 
that such growths of the undescended testis are usual!) 

endotheliomata and of terrible malignancy', whereas those of 
the fully descended testis are usually epitheliomata of far less 

Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur. M.A., M.D., 
Ph.D., F. A.S.B., then read a paper " On a New Form of Cuta- 
neous Leishmaniasis,— Dermal Leishmanoid." The patient 
was originally a case of kala-azar, treated with antimony and 
cured of all symptoms. Long after complete cure of his kala- 
azar, however, he developed very slowly all over the body an 
eruption which was clinically exactly like nodular leprosy, but 
which was due to infection of the cutaneous tissues with 
Leishmania donovani. as proved on microscopic examination. 
The patient and microscopic preparations showing the para- 
sites were shown. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


Dr. Brahmachari's case has subsequently Jed to wide 
interest and attention. A second similar case was discovered 
in Calcutta in March 1923; much experimental and research 
work has been carried out on this new type of leishmania 
infection. Major Knowles recovering the flagellate form of L. 
donovani in culture from the nodules and succeeding in experi- 
mentally infecting a rhesus monkey from a nodule. Three 
research papers published in the Indian Mfdical Gazette and 
in the Indian Journal of Medical Research in 1922 and 192:; 
deal with the matter. 

Dr. J. J. Campos read a paper "On the Biochemical 
Aspects of Cholesterin and its Therapeutic Value in Infections 
with acid-fast bacilli and in Hsemolvtic Diseases/' 


MARCH, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesday, the 8th March, 1922. 

Dr. Upendrnnath Brahniachari. Rai Bahadur. .M.A.. M.D., 
PhD . FA. SB., in the chair. 

Members : 

Acton, Major H.W., I. M.S. 
Campos Dr. J. J. 

Chatterjee, Dr. K. K. 
Ganguli, Capt. P. 

Visitors : 9, including— 

Cunha Braganca, Dr. 

Napier, Dr. L. E. 


Knowles, Major R. , I. M.S. 
Megaw, Lt. Col. J. W. D., I.M.S 
Muir, Dr. E. 
Stewart, Major A. D., I.M.S. 

Shanks, Capt. G., I.M.S 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and signed. 

Major H. W. Acton, I.MS , then read a paper ' ; On the 
Isomeric Relationships of the Cinchona Alkaloids and their 
Relative Therapeutic Values. ? ' 

This very important paper covered the whole ground of 
Major Acton's enquiry into the cinchona alkaloids during the 
past five years both in India under the Indian Research Fund 
Association and in London under the National Council for 
Medical Research. The work at the malaria hospital at Dags ha i 
was first dealt with. Here, where re-infections could be ex- 
cluded, almost all the relapses were found to be caused by the 

1 • . V- -..* ft • ,,.• 

benign tertian parasite and not by the malignant tertian one 
It was clear that whereas infections with P. falciparum ar. 
more or less readily amenable to quinine administration, thoso 
with P. vivax are not, and it is this parasite which is espeoialh 

xcvi Proceedings of the 

the cause of relapsing malaria. The cinchona alkaloids can be 
grouped into (a) dextro- and (b) taevo-rotatory groups, and the 
relative efficacy of these against a pure strain of /'aramceci 


cuudatuni; used as an experimental protozoal animal was tested 
under most carefully controlled conditions Quinidiue was found 
to be ten times as active as quinine and the dextro rotatory alka- 
loids in general more active than the le&vo-rofcatory. All cause 
muscle necrosis when given intramuscularly, and especially so if 
an acid salt be used The influence of the substrate is enormous, 
and a very slight alteration in the P H of the portal blood may 
render these alkaloids ten times as efficacious or ten times less 
efficacious. The moral is that the treatment of malaria is not 
summed up in the one word '" quinine "; quinidine or even 
cinchona febrifuge is far more efficacious and it should be so 
administered as to reach the portal blood stream at the moment 
of its most alkaline tide, whilst previous administration of 
alkalies may enhance its value. 

Dr. K. K. Chatterji, F.R.flS I. ? read a paper li On Climatic 
Variations in Surgical Practice. " He showed that in Calcutta 
in the months of June to September the bacterial content of 
the atmosphere is at its maximum and that these were the 
worst months of the year for surgical work. Special precau- 
tions against sepsis should be taken in operating theatres 
during these months. After cvclonic weather the bacterial 
content fell. 

Dr. U. N. Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., 
K.AS.B., read a paper " On the Influence of the Acidic and 
Hasic Radicles of an Antimonyl Compound upon the Toxicity 
of its Antimony Content. " He pointed out that of the 
antimonyl tartrates the toxicity of the ammonia-urea tartrate 


was the least, whilst the glycerides were still less toxic and non- 
hemolytic. Sb in pentavalent form was far less toxic than Sb 
in trivalent form. Hence his new preoaration, urea stibamine, 
seemed to be very promising in the treatment of kala-azar. 

Dr. Brahmaehari's new preparation has subsequently been 
the subject of several reports by different workers in the 
medical journals, some of whom report it to be far more 
efficacious in the treatment of kala-azar than are the antimonyl 


MAY, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Friday, the 5th May, 1922. 

Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A., M.D., 
Ph.D., F.A.S.B., in the chair. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 





Acton, Major H. W., I. M.S. 
Bentley, Dr. C. A. 
KnowJes, Major R., I.M.S. 

Visitors: 10, including 

[yengar, Mr. M. V. T. 


Muir, Dr. A. 

Stewart, Major A. D., I.M.S. 

Mcvail, Dr. B. 

The minutes of the Last meeting were confirmed and signed. 

Br. 0. A Bentley, M.D., D.P.H., Director of Public 
Health, Bengal, read a paper on 'The Economics of Bengal 

Malaria. " 




was subsequently published in the Indian 
for September 1922. Dr. Bentley 's main 

contention was that the malaria problem of Bengal was 
dependent upon the economic status of its population. The 
population in general live upon the basal economic line. In 
some areas, especially in Western and Central Bengal economic 
conditions are bad, population has declined, the people live 
below the basal economic line, and here malaria has steadily 
increased and has now become a very serious problem. Tn 
Eastern Bengal on the other hand the people are relatively well 
off owing to jute cultivation, they live above the basal 
economic line, the annual flooding of large areas destroys the 
anopheline larvae, and malaria 


been and is 

Bengal being 


deltaic in character, the one most important 
measure for the eradication of malaria from the province should 
be the introduction of controlled flooding of the country, on 
the lines used in Egypt. Dr. Bentley then went on to describe 
how, in some areas elsewhere in India, such flooding has reduced 
malarial prevalence. The paper was illustrated by a large 
number of lantern slides, and the publication of Dr. Bentley's 
views on the subject has led to an interesting controversy in 
both the medical and lay-papers and renewed interest in the 




JUNE, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical .Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesday, the Uth June, 1922. 

Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur. M.A., M.D., 
Ph.D.. F.A.S.B., in the chair. 


Das, Dr. C G. 
Ganguli, C'apt. P. 
Knowles, Major R., [.M.S. 

Visitors: 21. 


Gourlay, Lt.-Col. C. 

.Muir, Dr. E. 

A., D.S.O.. 


• • • 


Proceedings of the 

The minutes of the last meeting: were confirmed and 


Dr. E. Muir, M.D., F.R.C.S. (Rdin.), read a paper on " Re- 
rent Advances in our Knowledge of and Treatment of Leprosy." 

])r. Muir dwell upon the importance of the secondary 
factors in leprosy Infection almost certainly took place by 
inoculation through the skin or through the mucous membrane 

of the nose. Sepsis was an important element in increasing 
ulceration. Diet, exercise, general tonics and an optimistic 
outlook were most important factors in treatment. The paper 
was illustrated by a very complete collection of lantern slides 
illustrating all the clinical phases of leprosy. 

The paper was followed by an interesting discussion in 
which Major Knowles drew attention to undiagnosed cases with 
minimal lesions. Dr. Jogesh Mukerji described the morpho- 
logical changes which occur in the lepra bacilli under treatment 
with the ethyl ester preparations. Capt. P. Ganguli drew atten- 
tion to the work of Dr Shaw Mackenzie on the lipase mechan- 
ism in tuberculosis and its possible bearing in leprosy. 



JULY, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was heM 
on Wednesday, the 12th July. 1022. 

Dr. Upendranath Brahm uhari. Etai Bahadur. MA. Ml). 
I Mi 1) , F.A.S.B.. in the chair. 

Members : 

Campos. Dr. J. J. 
Ganguli, Capt. P. 
Knowles, Major R., I. M.S. 
Muir, Dr. E. 

Visitors : i 1 . including 

Armytage, Major V. R Green, 



Reed. Dr. A. V. 

Shorten. Major J. A., I. M.S. 

Stewart. Major A. D. , T.M.S 

N'apier, Dr. L. E. 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and signed. 

Major J. A. Shorten, B.A., M.B., B.Ch.. 1. M.S. .read I 
paper on 4 Diathermy, its History and Uses in Medicine and 

Major Shorten first dealt with the history of the introduc- 
tion of diathermy. If a very high frequency alternating curreiv 
of more than 10,000 per second be passed through the tissue- 

between two electrodes placed on the skin, the tissues do not 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 


contract, but their temperature rises and local temperatures of 


even 120 C F. can be induced without the patient feeling any 

pain. Such an application results in a flow of lymph to the 

part and the method has wide application-. It can be used {a) 

\- general diathermy for the whole body, administered with 

the patient lying upon a diathermy couch. Here cases of in- 
somnia, arteriosclerosis, chilliness and glandular deficiency, 
and of neurasthenia and malnutrition are benefited, (b) 
Local diathermy is of great value in such condition- as intract- 
able neuritis, sciatica, lumbago, angina pectoris, tenosynovitis 

of whatever causation, neuritis of whatever causation, painful 
hemorrhoids, Raynaud's disease, painful stumps after amputa- 
tion in which the method gave great relief during the war, stiff 
joint > 5 arthritis of whatever causation and gout Gonorrhoea 
was especially amenable to it ; both as a lo< 1 urethral appli- 
cation, since the gnnococcus is not resistant to heat, and also 
gonorrhoea! arthritis, (c) Surgically with the use of the 

t lather my Burgical electrodes absolutely Woodless operation 

can be carried out upon such conditions as cancer of the tongue 
or larynx, and the operations are sterile, and in operating on 
malignant disease there is freedom from the danger of metas- 
tases. The paper was followed by a very complete exhibition 
of diathermy methods showing the different uses concerned. 


A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
m Wednesday the 9th August. 1922. 

Dr Upend ranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A., M.I)., 
Mi.l>. F.A.S.B.. in the chair. 

Members : 

V ■ i. Major H\ VV. . I. M.S. 

Barnardo. Lfc.-Col. F. A F 

CLE., I.M.s. 

fttterjee. Dr. K. K. 

Chopra, Major H X . I.M S 
G nguli. Capt. P. 

Visitor* 35, includin 

PR! - M'. 


\ t 

Bishop, Dr. T H. 

ifttterjee. Dr. G. C, Rai Bahadur. 

Curjel \li.9 Dagmar. M.h 

Knowles, Major \i . f.M.S. 
Muir. Dr. E. 

S ton art. Major A D . F M .8, 

Strickland, Dr I 
Suhrawardy, Dr. H , M L <\ 

Harnett, Major W L . I.M.S. 
Leicwter,Lt I ol J. I H. # 1.M 
Napier, Dr. L. B. 

hi minutes of \\\r I» I meeting \\ < >n firmed and 


o Proceedings of the 

Major A. D. Stewart, D.P.H., LM.S , Director, Public 
Health Laboratories, Bengal, lead a paper on "Tube Wells in 

Bengal. " 

Major Stewart explained that there are really two Ganges 
deltas, an ancient and a more modern one super imposed. Two 
methods of boring tube wells were described, the one in which 
the tube well itself is used for boring, the other in which an 
outer tube boring is first sunk, the tube well then inserted, and 
the outer cover removed by degrees, the space between the two 
being gradually filled in with rammed sand. Experiments 
with tube wells in Bengal has shown that often an absolutely 
sterile, cool and reliable supply could be obtained at a very low 
cost, and tube wells were coming into more and more use in 
Bengal. At first the water might be contaminated, and especi- 
ally so if a contaminated water supply be used in the jet for 
loosening earth inside the bore. Even this however usually 
clears later. Occasionally iron salts constituted a difficulty in 
such supplies and might necessitate chemical treatment. As 
to cost it could be roughly estimated at one rupee per gallon 
yield per hour. In the discussion on Major Stewart's paper 
Dr. Bishop gave an interesting account of the use of tube wells 
on the E. B. By during the building of the Sara Ghat Bridge, 
and in cholera epidemics. 

Major H. W. Acton, I. M.S., then read a paper i: On the 
Causation of the Epidemic Dropsy of Calcutta. M He described 
the close association of the disease with the consumption of a 
particular grade of rice. It had been found that this rice was 
usually brought to the rice stores in Howrah by boat. During 
the monsoon season, with conditions of great humidity and high 
temperature, the rice became infected with certain moulds and 
a spore bearing aerobic bacillus. As the rice was both milled 
and parboiled before storing, it was unprotected, and these 
hydrolysing microorganisms produced in it poisonous amines. 
These amine < had been salted out and experimentally tested. 
They produce shortened, diminished and irregular systola of 
the heart with a rise in blood pressure and an increase in 
volume of the lower limbs. Symptoms similar to those ot 
epidemic dropsy had been produced in monkeys fed on the 
infected rice, and experiments were in progress to try and 
infect healthy rice and to experimentally produce these amines 
and test them. 

Major Acton's paper was subsequently published in the 
Indian Medical Gazette, and has led to increased interest in and 
investigation of the disease, the true etiology of which now 
appears to be established, as well as the measures needed for 

its prevention. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesday, the 13tb September, 1922. 

Dr Upendranath Brahinachari, Kai Bahadur, M.A.. M D., 
Ph.D., F.A.S.B, in the chair. 



Members : 

Acton, Major H. \V. , I M.S. Knowlea, Major R., I.M.S. 

Chopra, Major R. N., I.M.S. Stewart, Major A. D., I.M.S. 

Ganguli, Capt. P. Strickland, Dr. C. 

Visitors: 18. 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and 


Dr. Brahinachari read a paper on <: Further Biochemical 
Researches in Kala-azar and a new Globulin Test. 

He showed that in the serum from the blood of kala-azar 
patients the globulin-albumin ratio appears to be the reverse of 
that in health, and the total globulin content is increased in 
Kala-azar. On diluting with distilled water these globulins could 
be fractionally separated, one fraction coming down at a dilu- 
tion of 1 in 3~to 5, another at 1 in 30 to 50, a third at 1 in 200. 
An application of this principle was described by which the 
total globulin content could be measured in special test tubes 
held over print by dilution methods with distilled water, and 
a new test for the diagnosis of kala-azar by serological methods 
introduced. The paper was discussed by Dr. L. E. Napier. 
Major Acton and Capt. P. Ganguli. 

Major R. N. Chopra, I.M.S. , then read a paper on " The 

Xature, Production and Actions of the Toxins of the Cholera 

In this he summarised the experimental work on the 
subject, subsequently published in a joint paper with Majors 
Acton and Boyd in the Indian Journal of Medical Research. 
The cholera vibrio was a peculiar organism. When grown on 
media relatively free from a rich supply of amino-ncids it pro- 
duced but little toxin ; but when grown mi media rich in amino- 
acids, such as could be obtained by using decomposed veal 
and then sterilising the medium before inoculation, it yielded 
a rich production of poisonous amines, or pressor bases. 
These had been salted out from such cultures and isolated in a 
state of chemical purity, separated into constituent volatile 
and non-volatile fractions and each experimentally tested. As 



thus tested the non-volatile amine 


uterus and was responsible for the abortions in pregnant 


Proceedings of the 

women suffering from cholera ; its toxicity resided in its 
argenme-fraction. In general the non-volatile amines caused 
stimulation of the heart beat, but diminution of the kidnev 
volume, fo lowed later by increased kindney volume, severe 
and irregular peristalsis of the intestine, 'and intertubular 
oedema of the kidneys as shown by microscopic sections. The 
symptoms of cholera had been experimentally reproduced in 
rabbits by injection of these amines, freed from all bacteria, 
and even fatal collapse might occur, whilst the typical cramp 
of cholera always resulted. Hitherto wp h«™ mk»Ai^A »v»\»£ 

Hitherto we have studied chiefly 

the morphology of bacteria ; it is now time that we studied far 
more their biochemistry and bionomics. Thus with either a 
feiiiga bacillus infection or with an infection with the cholera 
vibrio, whether the result was merely the production of the 
carrier state, a transient diarrhoea, or a fulminant and even 
lata I attack of enteritis might depend very largely upon the 
proteid content of the environment in the gut, and 'the clinical 
applications of such experimental findings in both prevention 
and treatment of these diseases were obvious. 

\i ■ Th ™ S J cre T t T ar - v then rearl a Paper, communicated bv 
iajor Y\. L. Harnett, I.MS, on " A case of Traumatic 
Aneurism of the Spleen," the paper being illustrated by 
colon r-plates ot the organ, and microscope sections. The case 
was one of an adult male Italian who had been injured years 
before in a railway accident, and the localised aneurism 
appeared to have been a late sequela of the accident. He 
made a good recovery after splenectomy 


OCTOBER. 1922. 

on wli me i ing !f£ y edicaJ Section oi the Society was held 

on Wednesday, the 1 1th October, 1922. 

Ph n D p\ P ^ drana ^ Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A.. M.D.. 
trn.u., t. a. SIS., m the chair. 

Members : Present. 

Acton, Major H. W.. I.MS. Campo* I> T T 

B Tj% d0 j\K C0] P " A - *•> CBE ' G^i! ?a P ; J p J - 
RWtaoW ■ ' n G Know-leg, Major R,, I.M.S. 

Bhattacharji, Dr. S. Stewart. Major A. D. . I.M.S. 

Visitors : 62. 

1 * n\ le S ikl l lte l 0i the last nieeti "g were confirmed and sigued. 
i mo n- • Ba ™ardo, C.B.E., CLE.. M.D.. F.R.C.S.. 
i.M.fe., Principal, Calcutta Medical College, read a paper 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. ciii 

on " The Management of Typhoid Cases with a Note on the 
Causation of Haemorrhage in the Enteric Fevers." 

Colonel Barnardo based his evidence upon a total of some 
30,414 cases seen during the war in South Africa, during civil 
medical practice in India, and in the Great War on cases 
passing through Bombay. He first insisted that typhoid fever 
was a disease to be diagnosed by the clinician! rather than by 
the pathologist and quoted Garrow's criteria for the diagnosis 
of the enteric fevers. The French Army statistics during the 
war showed the value of anti-enteric inoculation. Besredka 
had advised discontinuance of this inoculation, with the result 
that in the next 12 months the French Army had about 
73,0fK) cases of enteric as against about 4.000 in the British 
Army in France, of approximately equal size, but protected by 
inoculation. He considered typhoid to be a bacillsemia, but 
sometimes the typhoid bacilli were eliminated and a secondary 
invasion of the blood stream with streptococci resulted. 

Clinically with the onset of haemorrhage went a transitory 
fall in blood pressure, great acceleration in the pulse rate, 
great increase in blood pressure and often polyuria. Here if 
blood cultures were taken what was found was not so frequent- 
ly the B. typhosus, but streptococci or staphylococci. The 
ordinary practitioner treated typhoid along a line of expectant 
therapy 3 in other words drift, whereas it was one of the most 
easilv controlled of diseases. A red line should be drawn across 
the temperature chart* at 102. 5 C F. and the temperature 
should not be allowed to exceed this, by hot not cold sponging, 
baths, etc. The mucin of the intestine being the chief defen- 
sive mechanism of the gut, judicious administration of calcium 
salts was useful ; but they must not be pushed so far as to 
favour thrombosis. Iron perchloride was the sheet anchor of 
treatment, given in big doses. Proteids should be eliminated 
from the diet and for threatened heart failure intravenous 
strophanthin. In the last 340 cases treated at the Medical 
College Hospital on these lines the mortality had only been 
4% and out of 180 cases with relapses, no less than 72 had 
given cultures of septic cocci from the blood. Typhoid was 
a very amenable disease to treat, if one only knew the right 
lines upon which to proceed. 

Colonel Barnardo's paper led to a vigorous discussion. Dr. 
S. K. Bose considered the cocci isolated from the blood to be 
merely accidental, whilst he considered Colonel Barnardo's 
views on the action of digitalis to be not merely revolutionary, 
hut inaccurate. Major Acton -aid that what was wrong with 
the laboratory diagnosis of the enteric fevers was not the 
pathologist's findings but the clinician's interpretation of them. 

He wished to say something about those 17,000 cases in Meso- 
potamia, as he had >een some of them. Most of them were 
not true typhoid at all but paratyphoid A. a disease amenable 


Proceedings of the 

to any or no treatment. The enteric group of fevers showed 
marked differences, the one from the other ; typhoid was a 
rather severe septicaemia, paratyphoid A was a milder septi- 
caemia, paratyphoid B was an enteritis with hut little septi- 
cemic element. 

To what extent were these three classed together in Col- 
onel Barnardo's figures ? Further, streptococcal infections were 
associated as a rule, not with the breaking down ulceration 
described, but with inflammatory induration. Major R. 

Knowles, although not a pharmacologist, was amazed to hear 

Colonel Barnardo claim that digitalis had no cumulative action, 
he had always understood that the contrary was one of the 
most fully established facts in pharmacology. Dr. Brahma- 
chari considered that the value of iron perchloride as an 
antiseptic, whether given orally or used upon skin lesions, 
was far from being; as established as Colonel Barnardo sug- 

gested. Colonel Barnardo replied, and an interesting meeting 
which began at 615 p.m. terminated at 8-30 p.m. 



A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was held 
on Wednesdav. the 15th November, 1923. 

Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari. Rai Bahadur, M.A.. M.D., 
Ph.D., F.A.8. R., in the chair. 

Members : 

Acton, Major H. W., I. U.S. 
Bose, Dr. S. R. 

Chopra, Major R. N., I. M.S. 
Gangwli, Capt. P. 
Knowles, Major R., I. M.S. 

Visitors : 54, including 

Napier, Dr. L. E. 


Megavv, Lt.-CoJ. J. W. D., IMS 
Muir, Dr. E. 
Raman, Prof. C. V r . 
Stewart, Major A. D.. J. M.S. 

Shanks, Capt. G. , J.M.S 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and 

Major H. W. Acton, I. M.S., read a paper" On the Mode 
of Action of Selective Drugs/ ' 

In general he showed that the action of such selective 
drugs, such as the cinchona alkaloids in malaria or the arsenical 
derivatives in syphilis, depended upon certain factors, which 
needed analvsis. (a) Their chemical constitution; thus the 
dextro- and hevo-rotatory cinchona alkaloids showed quite 
different therapeutic properties. (6) The alkalinity or acidity 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


of the tissues in which they acted ; thus to kill Parametrium 

caudatum quinine in 
of 8. but at a P 

1 in 1000 solution is effective at a P 


of 7 a 1 in 100 solution is needed, (c) 
Their diffusibiJity through cell membranes. Hence such factors 
as variations in the hydrogen ion concentration in the tissues 
where they acted, their optical activity, the conditions present 
in the substrate around them and their diffusibiJity, governed 
the mode of action of such drugs and were factors in their 
selective action. At present and in our present-day pharmaco- 
poeia it could be well said that cures were purely chance phenom- 
ena ; we needed much more detailed investigation and 
biochemical knowledge. Turning to the other side of the 
problem, the invading parasites might die from starvation as 
the drug might render the tissues unpalatable to them ; the 
drug might so retard the rate of multiplication of the parasites 
as to reduce them below the pathogenic threshold ; and, should 
the site of most intensive multiplication of the parasites coin- 
cide both with that of greatest concentration of the drug and 
with its optimum P if of activity, the rate of cure would be 

All these points may well come to dominate the 
pharmacology of the future. 

In the discussion on Major Acton's paper Professor C. V. 
Hainan dwelt upon the new vistas held forth by the combina- 
tion of the chemist, the physiologist and the biochemist who 
had hitherto been strangers to one another, but were now 
commencing to work in team work, with results of incalculable 
benefit. Dr. Panchanan Neogi, Major T. 0. Bovd, I. M.S., 
Major R. N. Chopra, I.MS., and Major R. Knowles, I.M.S. 
took part, whilst Dr. » Brahmachari drew attention to the 

problems connected with the biochemical action of the nn aes- 




DECEMBER, 1922. 

A meeting of the Medical Section of the Society WM held 
on Wednesday, the 13th December, 1922. 

Di Upend ranath Brahmachari, Rai Bahadur, M.A., \LI>.. 
Pk.D., F.A.S.B.. in the chair. 

Member* : 

Acton, Major H. VV., I.M.S. 
Bal, Dr. S. N. 

Bose , Dr. S. R. 

Chopra, Major K. N., I.M.S. 

Visitors: 32, including- 


i, Dr. P. 


Chatterjee, Dr. K. EL 
Knowles, Major R., I.M.S. 
Uegaw, Lt.-Col J. VV. D., I.M.S 
Vluir, Dr. E. 

Thomas, Mr. R.W. 

cvi Proceedings oj the 

The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed and 

Major R. N. Chopra, I.M.S.. read a joint paper by himself 
and Dr. Birendra Nath Ghosh on "The Future of Research 
into Indian Indigenous Drugs " 

The writers dwelt upon the enormous field for useful 
investigation into Indian indigenous drugs, the necessity for 


correlating clinical and experimental investigations, for making 
suitable standardised preparations of sucli drugs, and on the 
variations in plant chemistry and therapeutic value of plants 
under different conditions of season and climate. After a 
historical resume of the subject from 1849 to date, it was 

pointed out that there are three main lines of investigation to 
be followed : (a) To render India as far as possible self- 
supporting in her require nents of already recognised and 
official drugs, such as digitalis and belladonna which grow 
everywhere in India but are not utilised, (b) To investigate 
the properties of other Indian drugs of known or of supposed 
therapeutic value, such as bael and isofgool in dysentery, and 
the products of the neem tree as to their antiseptic and 
volatile oils, (c) To bring efficient yet cheap medical remedies 
within reach of the masses of India, since what the Indian 
patient wants is a hakim at four annas, and a bottle of 
medicine at two annas a day, whereas what he now gets is a 
specialist at Rs. 16 a visit and purified alkaloid at Rs. 50 per 
lb ! (from Europe). 

This paper, which covered very interesting ground, was 
subsequently published in ex ten so in the Indian Medical Gazette, 
was copied or abstracted in several of the Indian daily 
newspapers, has arouse 1 attention from almost all the Provin- 
cial Government :g in India and has become the basis for much 
present-day discussion and proposals. There was a most 
interesting; discussion at the close of the paper in which Major 
Acton, Colonel Megaw and Major Knowles took part, whilst 
Professor Panchanan Neogi gave an account of his investiga- 
tions into the composition of Ayurvedic remedies 

Dr. U. N. Brahmachari then read a paper on 4i Some New 
Amino- Antimonyl Tartrates and their Therapeutic Value. " 
The compounds dealt with were phenocall-, anai'Sthesin-. 

apothesine-. novocaine-, orthoform , and aerifiavine antimony 1 
tartrates. Of these the anaesthesin compound could be 
administered painlessly by intramuscular methods, and also 
orally without inducing vomiting; whilst the orthoform 
compound was Bailable for inunction. The antimony content 
of the different compounds varied from 21 to -•>% an ( * 
toxicity of these compounds to experimental animals was less 
than that or potassium or sodium antimony tartrates. 

Dr. BrahmaeharFs paper led to an interesting discussion. 
in the course of which Dr. 1.. E. Napier begged for further 


Asiatic Society of Bengal. cvii 



therapeutic action in kala-azar and on the dangers of analogy 
j between trypanosomiasis and leishmania infections, which were 

[ totally different groups of diseases. In reply Dr. Rrahmaehaii 

commented upon the different therapeutic value of antimony 

compounds where the antimony was in pentavalent and in 

trivalent form respectively. 

In general throughout the year the policy adopted was 
one of throwing the meetings open to medical visitors in the 
hopes that they might be attracted to join the Society, of tak- 
ing full and detailed precis notes of all papers and discussions; 
whilst publication was in general assured, either in the form 
of papers published in extenso after being read at the meetings, 
in the Indian Medical Gazette, or of full and detailed precis in 
the " Current Topics" columns of the same journal. The 
facts that several of the questions and problems dealt with 
have led to correspondence with the different Provincial 
Governments and to general enquiries, whilst abstracts have 
been made by several of the daily papers in India show how 
important the activities of the Medical Section are with 
reference to current Indian medical questions. 

On the other hand the present divorce which exist- 
between the Medical Section and the more general activities 
of the Society is deplored. Modern scientific medicine of today 
is now breaking away from the old rule-of- thumb methods and 
trom empiricism, and is becoming a living and experimental 
science. It is by degrees being realised that modern medicine 
must keep in close touch with such sciences as botany, 
physiology, zoology, pure and applied chemistry, mathematics 
and statistical methods, and above all biochemistry. These 
subjects are to a large extent included in the Society's general 
activitJes and it is desirable that closer co-ordination between 
them and the Medical Section should be secured. 

R. Knowles, Major, I M.S.. 

Medical Secretary. 



3. A 'Witch-case' in Medieval India 

By W. Ivanow. 

In Muhammadanism, as in other great religious systems of 
the world, numerous survivals of natural religion and magic 
have always played, as they still continue to play an extremely 
important part which has never been fully studied or correctly 
estimated. Invariably disguised under a pious religious garb, 
these ancient elements preserve ail their original power not only 
in the popular beliefs of Jslamism or in various customs and 
observances of ordinary life, but often at the bottom of many 
of the philosophical speculations of the orthodox, and especially 
of the sectarians or mystics. 1 To the mind of the average 
Muhammadan in all countries many at these beliefs are insepar- 
able from the most important principles of Islam. Such are 
aith in divination, 2 in the reality of dreams, 3 in the power of 
amulets, 4 special charms and incantations, peculiar form- of 
prayer, as not only endowed with protective virtues, but a- 
often constituting actual cures for maladies of all kinds 

1 Such are, for in-tauee, the much discussed properties of the Divine 
attributes ( ^L^sJ! j;U^3)f ) as well as cabbalistic speculations based on 

the numerical value attributed to every letter of the alphabet. 

2 The forms of divination by the Coran (istikhara) y by the poems of 
the favourite writers (fal), etc., are well known. The more ' scientific ' 
methods are those or rami, jafr, qiyafa and many others. There are also 
many popular, and probably old methods of divination, as by looking at 
"he blade of a knife, or at a comb, etc. 

3 The belief in the indisputable reality of dream 3, so amazingly fin 
»n many Muhammadan countries, is apparently based on a general (at 
least in Persia) theory that at the time of sleep man's spirit leaves his 

^ io »w oi dreaming is tneretore not conaneu omv w ujd mi/^p.^vcwvi. 
of dreams, but also deals with the methods of how to learn to see in 
dreams exactly the things which are wished for (cf. a small work on these 
matters, M 94 in the MS. collection of the A.S.B., without title or author's 

* There is a great variety of forms of amulets Several volumes 
would be required to deal adequately with these matters. In Persia they 

re usually called du'a (prayer), although special terms are applied 
various kinds of them in accordance with their particular shape, construc- 
tion or part of the body on which they are worn, such as sayf,naqsha 9 
bazuband, etc. The prayers intended for medical me (besides those which 
are only recited), are written on paper, vellum of antelope (ahu) skin, 
bread, etc., in ordinarv ink, safron dye, rose-water, etc. Some of them ore 
only recited a speciaf number of times, at a particular hour, etc.; the 
others may be eaten, washed in some liquid and ■ wallowed, or used as a 

44 Journal of the Asiatic Society oi Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

These beliefs, however, are onh' a few instances of an ex- 
tensive lore ; in fact there are almost no departments of human 
knowledge and activity, in which traces of similar superstitions 
cannot be detected. As a rule, they are all in some way connect- 
ed with religion, some being ingeniously based on various spuri- 
ous hadlths, or traditions of Muhammad himself, and others 
on verses of the Coran. which, naturally, like all utterances torn 
away from their original context, admit of an unlimited variety 
of 'mystical' interpretations. 1 Although practices of malefic 
magic, necromancy, etc., are often regarded as impious and 
even occasionally persecuted; 2 they continue to live in dark 
corners and even the most devoted Muslims often not only have 
no objections to them but even spend much time in studying 
astrology, alchemy, sorcery, and other interesting matters of the 
same kind. 

The literature of these occult sciences in Persian. Arabic, 
Turkish, and other languages is fairly rich, although so far 
entirely unexplored. 8 Its study would seem to promise abund- 
ant material to the ethnologist or the specialist in folklore. 4 

I Prof. A. Christensen, in his work, referred to in the next following 
footnote, described a Persian compilation dealing with what may be called 
the application of the Coran to magic. Similar works are common in 
Muharamadan ■ occultist ' literature. In the library of the A.S.B. there 

are several of them (in MSS.), as for instance, *W Jte &b1 ^ ^o[ 

(M 24, ff. 25-39), or a treatise, without title, on the * properties ' of the 
sura beginning with AlJf^i *U ^t (Oc 4), etc. 

2 Soreeres (j^La ) usually are regarded as dangerous offenders against 

public safety, but only in so far as the Muhammadan community ia 
attected They are quite at libert} , according to the ethics of Islamism 

to use their art against non-Muhammadans (cf. A. Christensen, Xavass- 
i-ayat, 1920, pp, 12,33). V 

8 Occasional, and usually very meagre, references to these practices 
and ideas may be found scat t erred in works of travellers, in commentaries 
upon various Persian or Arabic works tc, but so far as 1 know, only 
very few special articles have been devoted to this subject. Besides the 
pamphlet of Prof. A. Christen n, mentioned above, onlv one substantia! 
contribution may bo recalled, i.e. E. Doutte. Magie et Religion dan- 
1 Afriquo du Nord, Alger. 1909. See also interesting notes on the Muham 
madan magic m India : H. A Rose, A glossary of the Tribes and Castes 
of the Punjab andX.-W. F. Province, 1919, p 236-237. Also R. F. 
Burtons remarkable description of the practice as observed in Sind. 
• Smdh,' 1851, pp. 180-184, sq. 

* The MS. library of the A.S.B. posse es a fairly good collection 
of works on these subjects. Especiallv valuable seem to be two book- on ~*| 

the interpretation of dreams, promising to reveal mucl d interest to the 1 

student of folklore, i.e. KSmitu 9 Ma'ter (M 131), comp. in the middle of 
the VI A H. Xllc A.D., by Husayn TiflfsJ, and two copies of Ta'bir 
vultant (M 45 and M 46), comp in 763 AH./ 1 362 A.D., bv Isnm'il b. 
W izaroi 1-Mulk. Of some interest may be TuhfattCl-gharaib (Oa 30), by 
Muhammad b. Ahmad DausT, based on an earlier Arabic work, as the 

author says. It deals with various methods of neutralising the evil effects 
■of different kinds of sorcery, etc. The 'occultist' literature, in which 



I923.J A '■ Witch-case ' in Mediasval India. 45 

There is also another source of information on this subject, i.e. 
many allusions and occasional anecdotes which are found 
scattered throughout general literature. Woiks of the most 
■different contents occasionally provide a good opportunity to 
catch a glimpse of these matters as the}' were in fact, and not 
only in theory. 

The present notice is intended to draw the attention of 
those interested in research of this kind to a specimen of 
material of the last mentioned class. Studying a Persian hagio- 
logical work, compiled chiefly from various earlier sources in the 
beginning of the XYXe , 1 came across a short anecdote referring 

to events of the XIII-X1V centuries, and containing a concise 
exposition of a really typical case of sorcery amongst the 
j Muhammadan community of India in that remote period. In 

I fact it is a miniature but complete ' witch-process,' which 

probably ended without bloodshed because the evidence 
against the offender was not sufficient. It throws interest- 
ing light on the psychological atmosphere of its times, and 
appears to be a reall} 7 peculiar mixture of great piety with un- 
shakable faith in magic rites, necromancy, in the absolute 
reality of dreams, and the great power of incantations. But 
before giving the story both in the original text and in transla- 
tion, ! must introduce to the reader the work from which it was 

Siyaru'l-'arijin, 1 as the book in question is called, was 
composed by Hamid b. Fadii'1-lah Jamall, a devoted Sufi of 
Northern India', between 937 and 942 A.H. /1530-1535 AT) 1 
It contains a collection of biographical notice-, or rather stories 
of various miraculous deeds, of some 14 famous saints of the 
celebrated Indian Sufic affiliation of the Chishtis, to which the 
author himself belonged. In the section dealing with the 

European scholars are rarely interested, is in very great demand in fche 
Oriental book-markets. The number of the works on this subject, which 
have been lithographed in India only is remarkably great These it ion 
are usually very cheap and even with moderate means a student can col- 
lect in the principal book-publishing centres of India, inch as Lucknow, 
Dehli. Lahore, Peshawar, and Bombay, a large library of these books in 
Persian. Arabic, Hindustani and many local dialects. 

* See regarding it: C. Kieu, Cat. of the Pers. MSS. in the British 
Museum, vol. I, p. 354; W. Pertsch, Vera. d. Persischen Handschr. (P.K. 
Bibliothek zu Berlin), p. P66; H. I be, Cat. of the Pers. MSS. in the 
library of the India Offic , vol. J. No (337. Long ago it vvns lith raph i 
in India, but this publication h not procurable nowadays. I u ■ this work 
here in the MS. of the 'Government Collection' in the library of the 

A.S.B., No. 503. 

2 The first dale refers to the ascension to fche fchrone of Humayiin, 
the Mogul ruler of India, to whom the book is dedicated. The second is 
the year generally accepted as the date of the author's death. (There la 
probably some confusion between Jam all the poet and our author, and the 
date 925 A.H. assigned by some authorities as the death of J am fill, refers 
posaibly to the poet)- 

46 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

earlier periods he depended on the works of his numerous pre- 
decessors, especially on Khayru'l-majalis, composed bv one 
Hamid in 756 A.H. 1355 A.D.. narrating the miracles of 



Hasan 'Ala i-Sanjarl, containing the discourses of Nizamu'cl- 
Dln Awliya (d. 725 A.H ./1 325 A.D.), delivered in 717-722 A.H. 
As the biographical literature of the Chishti affiliation is parti- 
cularly rich, there is no doubt that the author had sufficient 
material at his disposal and had no need to resort to fiction or 
spurious legends of a later period. Therefore, leaving aside 
the question as to the real facts which form the basis"of the 
story, we can accept as a fairly reliable theory that the narra- 
tive correctly reflects the ideas current on its subject in Muham- 
madan India of not later than the middle of the XIV century. 


[Fol. 67 J. It is narrated from Shaykh 3 Xasiru'd Din* 
\fol. 67v] that he said: I heard from my preceptor (pir), the 
king of saints, Nizamu'd-Dln 5 (who told me as follows): Once 
a serious indisposition and illness affected Shavkhu'l-Islam 
Farldu'd-Dln Mas ! ud,' 5 so that his appetite entirely departed 
from him and he for several days neither ate any food nor drank 
water. His children, disciples and followers came together and 
• •ailed in physicians. The latter, having examined his pulse, 

reported that they could not define the malady either from the 
pulse or from the analysis of the urine. In spite of careful 
study of both, pulse and urine, they could not discover the 
nature of the illness of the Shaykh and retired helpless. On 
the next day the Shaykh's sickness increased and he asked all 
his friends to come to him. 

Shaykh Nizamu'd-Dln continues: I was also present in 
that assembly. Shaykh Badru'd-Dln Sulavman, 7 the son of 
the Shaykh, ordered us to occupy ourselves (with prayer). So w< 
went and prayed. The same night Badru'cl-Din Sulayman sau 
in a dream an old man, who said to him: ' Your father— i.e. 

J There is a good copy of it in the collection of the A.S. B. (E IG6). 
X place the translation before the text in order not to break the 
narrative for those who cannot read Persian. 

• In the translation 1 omit all the grandiloquent titles, blessings, etc., 
generously distributed throughout the text. 

n k« ^•,-- a? l n T V d " Din ' surn amed Chiragh, the famous Chishtl saint of 
Dehb, d. 7o7 A.H./ 1350 A.D. 

' Here *U! ^ , obviously for the usual, and afterwards repeated 
- veral times ,.>.v!f . *l.l! It: 

l'kna?in e ;!fT U ^ Chis i htI . 8aintd - 6G4 A.H./ 1265 AD., whose shrine at 
I "kpatan in the Punjab still attracts many pilgrims. 

n r*f « «n °c Fa _ rr . du ' dI >rn. See about him Matlubu't-udibin (Ethe. 
'• CU., p. 3-1), SaivaU'u'lanu-ar (ibid., p. 330), etc. ' 

1923.] A ' Witch-case' in Mediteval India. 47 

Shaykh Farldu'd-Dln Mas'ud, — is bewitched/ Badru7i-Dln 
, Sulayman [foL 68] inquired from the old man : ' Who has 

bewitched the Shaykh ? ' The old man replied : ' The son of 

Shihabn'd-Dln the Sorcerer has done this/ There was in th< 

town of Ajwad'han a man, called Shihab the Sorcerer, notorious 

for practising sorcery. Then Badru'd-Din asked : ' What to 

I do in these circumstances, and how to defeat thin witchery ? ' 

j The old man rejolied : ' Let somebody go and sit upon the grave 

* of Shihab. and/ — then the old man recited a few words in the 

dream, — ; let him recite these words over the grave.' And 

Badru'd-Din Sulavman in his dream learnt these words. They 

J were as follows : ' O thou, buried here who causest misfortune ! 

Learn thou that thy son has performed a magic act and caused 
misfortune. So tell him that he should take back his evil from 
us, otherwise let all that cleaved to us cleave unto him.' The 
meaning of these (Arabic) words is this : '0 thou, whoever 
thou art interred in this grave ! Learn that according to the 
results of search thy son has bewitched (us), and caused misfor- 
tune. So tell him to withdraw the danger of that sorcery from 
us. If. however, thou wilt not say (this to him), the things that 
affected us, will affect him.' 

When day dawned, Shaykh NizamuVl-JDln, with the friends 
who were engaged in praying by the order of the Shaykh, came 
with Badru'd-Din Sulayman [fol 68v] to see the Shaykh, and 
informed him about what happened with regard to the dream 
dreamed by Badru'd-Din. 

Then the Shaykh called NizamuM-Dln and ordered him to 
learn by heart those words, to go to the grave of Shihab the 
Sorcerer, asking the people to show it to him. to sit down upon 
it and recite (the incantation). 

Shaykh (Nizamu'd-Dln) went according to the order. H 
inquired about the place of the tomb of Shihab the Sorcerer. 
It was well known, the people pointed it out to him, he sat there 
and recited the words. With his hand- he touched the earth.' 
The tomb was covered with plaster,' 2 and at one end of it there 
was a little clay on the plaster He touched the clay and, un- 
intentionally, began to digit. The clay fell out -o that beneath 
it appeared a hole. He dug further, > that he could push his 
hand through. He continues : when that clay was cleared 
away, my hand uent deep (into the grave). I searched more 
carefully and my hand touched something. I brought it out 


/ it was a figure made of flour, into which soma needles wer 

1 The Persians, when praying over a grave, always touch it with the 
tips of their fingers of both hands (at the end of the prayer they invari- 
ably put a few stones on the grave). 

• Muhammadan graves have a different shape in every country, by 
almost invariably they have a special .structure above them, of bricks <>r 
tone. The plaster, mentioned here, probabh covered th^ brick platform 
on the top. 

48 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

stuck, and which was firmlv tied with hairs from a horse's tail. 
That flour figure [fol. 69] I took to the king of shaykhs. 
Faridu'd-Din. He ordered me to pull out the needles and to 
untie the hairs which were knotted. Every time I pulled out 
a needle, his pain became less and appeased. And when I had 
pulled out all the needles and untied the hairs, his health 
returned (completely). 

The Shaykh ordered then to destroy the figure and to 
throw it into running water. This was done accordingly When 


the governor of Ajwad'han became aware of this, he sent the 
sorcerer, whose hands' work such a deed was, in bonds to the 
Shaykh, informing the latter that, obviously, this man deserves 
to be killed, so that whatever the Shavkh should order, it 
should be done in that way. The Shaykh replied : ' As God the 
All High has granted me health. I, in gratification for that 
health, will pardon the man and forgive his sin. Thou also do 
not interfere with him.' 

[fol. 67 vj tj* 0-3J ^aJt^J &£ o^ jl vj>~ } J5J [fol. 07] 


^ dj^L J.*k &j j,; j>,L^ ^ o<if f^yo ^Jij l$L£l amili^ ^ cA^ 

; ^.J^uJ-ir -yfct j i>Jjwol U& ^l^iXAyO j ^IjbJyO j td&\]* '&—*!*& • 

JlbU 3! fjU a* AJJAf ^JLby *SUUJI ^IkLo 


•• • » 

S;,;l» j ^xj } i iS Ak ^A « ^>i rt^*X» ^-i*^J, »;j;l» J 

,. • . 

(sio) j^ij ■ */,£ J^x aT jyy ojUl o^l Jjjl o^-i* >^;' .wj/ *" 

1 Here 5^ * Here &rL^ 




192I5. J A ' Witch-case 9 in Mediaeval India. 19 

J^ S ' hfe o v '-' ^ ***"*£ i^° l^^' >*^: £^* *£**^ ijth' ^ AJ * ^t- 3 

J JpjWW 0/C^»^ ''J ^.AJ ' J^jJ N»^-X./C 



'j-j-^y- at* * r ~j>v^ ' y e^ J e° f ^^- «*?' ?y & m 


£ V '.' • V • • y 

^^ dti' .vjs.*j* ;Ij JU s^; v -^ ^ [fol. <5Svj SjJj^ ^Jku ^f <fc*^; 


r**-° ci?^ y ^ ol c v -^ j ^/^ ,--.** j c 1 ^* 1 z 1 -^ ^-; if 

>y ^'l^/f [fol. 69] it-, cyi».< C ._^T o;^*,. ; aL-j *<sx< o» ; ^ 

^ --»•• | llll. IJ.7J ^,-c-V^O v_- , 

c»!)' L — c^ 1 * r -ry > )U, f- ^r** ' rV *r- -~ >- ' ^ ^ H -» a ^ 1 


Ffere tS ( JUi)cXi 

50 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Be) <al. [N.S., XI X, 1923. 

• ri 

b"S J> j 1 *« ' *j+> u?J) J* -*^ yuu «^ ^JUo aUt c ,Lc^ r ^ui 

^^•~> oo-^..^ J ;l aT „.a.Li >*-JLf 

.* r »•• < _ • a 

< jLy ^j* jiyjy f&J&oj ^v^ , fijy* ^~- e 

r s .-. 

l Here .Xvx^j 

4 The Owl in Folklore 

By Shams-ul-Ulma Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, B.A.. 

Ph.D.. (U.E. 

[Read before the Anthropological Section of the Tenth Indian 

Science Congress. ] 


The custom of taking omens from birds is common, well- 
mgh among all the people of the world, because in the whole 
of the animal creation., with which man comes into contact, 
the birds stand first. They are seen everywhere and any- 
where, of one species or another. The very Etymology of 
words for " omen '' among different people testifies to the 
generality of the custom of taking omen from birds. For 
example, our English word "auspices* 1 for good omens, 

coming from avis a bird, testifies to the Old Roman belief of 
taking omen from birds. The Sanskrit word for omen is 

Shakun (?&&) which also means a "bird." This Sanskrit 
word has given to the Parsees their Gujarati word sagan ?A^K 

for omen In the A vesta, though we do not find the word for 
omen derived from a word for bird, we find, that omens were 
taken from birds. For example, in the Yasht in praise of 
Haoma, (Yasna X. li) we read, that the seeds of the good 
health-giving sacred plant of Haoma were spread over a number 
of mountains by auspicious birds (spenta fradakhshta merega. 
lit. birds with good signs). 1 The modern Persian word for 

omen margwd ( ^ : yc ) also comes from Persian rnarj 

merega). i.e. bird. 


it also means a bird. Thus, all these words for omen in different 
languages show that omens were taken from birds. For the 
custom of taking omens from birds in some of the countries of 
modern Europe, I will refer my readers to what I have said in 
ray paper on * : Superstitions common to Europe and India." 1 
For the custom of taking omen from birds among the Parse*-. 
-I will refer my readers to mv paper on "Omens among the 
Par sees."- 

1 The Vedic Soma was similarly brought down from heaven by the 
bird falcon. 

' 2 Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, Vol. II, No. 3, 
PP- 161-71. Vide mv Anthropological Papers, Pt. f, p 27. 

3 Ibid, Vol. T.Xo. 6, pp. 239-95. Vide my Anthropological Papers. 

Pt. I, pp. 4-5. 

52 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

The reason, why, of all aninals, man takes aniens mostly 
from birds, is that they are the most migratory, migrating in 
thousands and tens of thousands at different seasons, from 
one country to another, hundreds of miles l distant, some 
marching at the rale of 200 miles per hour. So, their arrival, 
in one season or another, in one country or another, presages a 
change of season. The English proverb ' l One swallow does not 
make a summer/' illustrates this view. Now, a change of season 
often gladdens the hearts of men, who are tired with the rigour 
or a kind ot monotonv of a season. Hence arose, the custom 
of taking omens from birds. 

The object of this paper is to speak particularly about one 
bird, the owl, which is held to be inauspicious among many 
people, and to present some folklore about it. 

The Owl in the A vesta. 

In the A vest a, the owl, which is spoken of as pesho 

(Pers. Push ij*£? ), is represented, as having feathers which 

serve as a kind of amulet. If one rubs his body with the 
feathers, he is safe from the curses of his enemies. Both, its 
feather and its bone, protect the person holding them from 
enemies. They bring him help and respect from others. He 
is bo well protected by keeping these feathers or bones on 
his body that no enemy can smite him. On the contrary, 
he becomes victorious and glorious (Behram Yasht. Yt. XIV 
35-40). King Kavi l T sa (Kai Kaus of the SUah-nameh) and 

king Thraetaona (Traitaaa^nr of the Hindus, Faridun of the 

Shah-nameh) carried its feathers or bones over their bodies 
and were victorious Faridum was victorious by these means 
over the snake-mouthed Azi-Dahaka or Zohak. Here, we find, 
that this bird, instead of being considered as inauspicious, is 
held to be lucky. 


There is another word in the A vesta, which the late Dastor 
Dr. Hoshang Jam asp took to be for owl. It is Sijdareh 
(Vendidad XII I, 2), 2 which he reads as gizdreh * and compares it 

with Sans, j&m Mara thi TZ^Gnjarati^tlU Persian **£. He says: 

•' In this place it is used for an owl. It is true that accord- 
ing to Natural History and Ornithology as developed in 
the present day, the owl is included in the species Strix or 
Strigida, but in the old times when the Avesta was translated 
into Pahlavi (250 or 300 B.C.). the owl was not probably classi- 
fied as a distinct species and was included in the category of 
gizdreh rm. vulture or carnivorous bird, because it feeds upon 

1 Vide * 4 The Migration of Birds," by Chartefl Dixon. 
* Vide his Vendidad. Vol. T ((907). p. 455. 
» Ibid, Preface, p. VII. 

1923.] The Owl in Folklore. 53 

flesh. There can, however, be no doubt from the general 
description given in the texts that the animal alluded to is an 

owl." 1 

The Pahlavi rendering of it is 2 kufik, P. oo (kuf), which 
means "a large owl." 8 A Persian lexicographer, quoted 
by Dastur Hoshang, 4 renders this word (kit/) by *y. (bum) 

which means au owl. The Persian lexicographer says it is 
known for its inauspiciousness (be nuhusat ma'aruf). The 
lexicographer quotes a poet, Ibn-Yamin, as differentiating a 
literate from an illiterate, as the auspicious bird humai (phoenix) 
from an owl. He says : B 

i.e., he made an unintelligent person sit in the place of the 
intelligent and made no distinction between an owl and a 

The Reason why an Old is held to be inauspicious. 

The reason, why an owl is held by many people as 
inauspicious presaging evil to the house or place where 
*t is seen, is this: It generally seeks wilderness and out- 
of-the-way places for sitting and resting. When it conies 
to towns or cities, it generally seeks ruins and deserted places 
•or its rest and abode. It very rarely comes to inhabited 
or frequented places. Hence, it is always associated with ruins, 
deserted places and wilderness. That being the case, when it is 
seen on rare occasions in inhabited or frequented places, people 
associate with those places an idea of ruin or mishap in future. 
&o, the bird is always looked at with dislike. Count* ssCezaresco 
thus refers to the cause of the unpopularity of the bird: 
Besides, the prejudice again-t reptiles, modern popular super- 
stition has placed several animals under a ban, and especially 
the harmless bat and the useful barn-owl. Traditional reasons 
e xist 5 no doubt, in every case ; but stronger than these, are the 
associations of such creatures with the dark in which the sane 
1,lan of a certain temperament becomes a partial lunatic; a 
prey to unreal terrors which the flap of a bat's wing or the 
screech of an owl is enough to w r ork up to the point of 
f- frenzy."'* This idea of superstitious dislike lurks, not only 

among the ignorant or the illiterate, but also anion- some 

educated people. 

1 Ibid, a [bid, p. 456, !• 12. 8 Sfceifigass. 

* Vemiidad, Vol. I, p. Vli, n. i. 5 Ibid, 

8 -'The Place of Animals in Human Thought," by the Countess 
* 'areseo, p 1 12. 

7 t remember well an instance of my boyhood. when I was a rtodent 

54 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

The above fact, viz. the bird's fondness for solitary,* 
deserted ruined places as its seat or abode, seems to be the real 
cause of its being taken by mankind as inauspicious. The 
following Persian story, as given by Mirkhond, in his Rauzatiis 
Safa, presents the old Persian folklore about the owl being held 
inauspicious from very remote times. 

Mirkhond's story about the origin of the custom of faking 

omen from owl*. 

Before the time of Kayomars, there was a kind of disorder 
in the affairs of the world, and sickness was much prevalent. 
So, several wise men met and resolved, that they should appoint 
one man as a ruler who can control all. After asking for divine 

help (istikharat *;l±uLJ) i and deliberating (istisharab tjl&LJ \ 9 
they resolved to elect one of them as a ruler, and their lot of 
selection fell upon one Kayomars ( dUff&j**^ JjjjU&J AeJ),* 

who being thus elected, took an oath (pa em an) " ; of sovereignty. 
He had a son, Siamak by name, who had retired into Mount 

Demavand. One day, he started from his place to go to see 

his >on Siamak in his retirement. On his way thither, his eye 
fell upon "an owl " (jaghd ^^ ) which shouted several times. 

Kayomars was affected bv its voice and he said to himself : 
* If thy news (i.e. news seemed to be conveyed by your voice), 

will be associated with good news (khair) and rejoicing (sarur 
)2j*>) 1 wish that you will be acceptable for your intelligence 
( is^/ ?^° ^j***)* Otherwise you will always be persecuted and 

rejected ( )ys^jo j tjjeuc ).* On going to his destination, 

Kayomars found that his son was killed b} 7 a huge stone 
hurled over him by the Diva and Afrits. Kayomars deposited 

the body of his son in a well (*U>), revealed to him by God 

on the mountain where Siamak lived, and he kindled a great 

of the Elphinstone High School, then located on the Picket Road, where 
the Government Middle School is now situated. The English Principal 
of the school saw one day an owl from his office room sitting upon a part 
of the school building. He took up a tile from an adjoining roof, hast 
ened to the spot where it sat, and drove it away. 

1 Mirkhond's Text of Rauzat-us Safa. Munshi Nawal Keshore's litho- 
graphed edition. Vol. 1, p. 149, I. 9. 

* Ibid. This statement shows, that according to tradition, premitive 
people selected from among themselves a king and that selection wa- 
considered to be a kind of divine work, settled by a kind of lot. Cf. the 
selection of Viraf for a Divine Vision. { Vide my Asiatic Papers, Pt. I, 
p. 1, et. seq). 

* It seems that according to old Iranian tradition, a kind of oath was 
taken by the person selected as a King. 

* Nawal Keshore'fl Ed., I, p. 149, 1. 20. 

,923. ! The Owl in Folklore. 55 


/ire at the mouth of that well ( ^iJl j JsxL ^.Jlj- *U. ^f -«j ) 

Thus, according to the tradition, as given by Mirkhond, the 
owl has since then been condemned as an inauspicious bird. 1 

The story of cm Owl and a Mobad. 

The following story associated the owl with ruins. It is 
-aid, that at one time, a Persian King on seeing a pair of owls, 
asked his Mobad. i.e.. his priestly minister, as to what the pair 
was talking. The Mobad said: "They wish and pray, that 
you, the reigning king, may live long, because they find in your 
reign many forsaken or deserted villages to wander or live 

hi. " It is said, that the king had. b}" his misrule, caused rnanj 
a village to be deserted by the people. So, the owls had many 
deserted villages for their abode. They, therefore, prayed for 
a long life to such a bad king. This was a taunt, intended or 

unintended, for the king bv the Mobad, and, it is said, that the 

ting took this to heart and began to manage his state affairs 
better, so that, in the end. there remained very few deserted 
places in his kingdom. 8 

Firdousi on Owls. 

It is this idea, prevalent from olden times, of associating 
owls with ruins, that led Firdousi to sav on the fall of Persia: 

* Further on, in connection with the same story. Mirkhond describes, 
how the cock has come to be considered as a pood auspicious bird. He 
was informed by some, as to where the murderers of his son had hid 
themselves. He started to go there, and on the way, he happened to see 
a white cock Khar us i-sand) followed by a hen (nuikian). A serpent 
attacked the hen, and the cock, running after the serpent, defended hi 
hen. Kayomars, pleased with the sight, went to the help of the cock, 
Killed the serpent and threw some grains to the cock. The cock invited 
the hen by moving its beak to come and eat the grain, and he himself did 
not eat a single grain till the hen first ate one. Kayomars was pleased 
with the sight. He was going on an errand to kill the murderers* of his 
on, and all that he saw was a good omen for the result of his expedition. 
The fact that he, through the instrumentality of the cock, killed the 
serpent, which was always an enemy of man, pleased him. as all that 
pointed to a good omen. He proceeded further and killed the murderers 
£ his on. Thenceforth, lie declared his heirs to keep cocks and maintain 
them. Mirkhond adds : i4 it is said that no Demon can enter a house in 
which there is a cock ; and, above all, should this bird come to the resi- 
dence of a demon, and move his tongue to chaunt the praises of the glorious 
and exalted Creator, that instant the evil spirit takes to flight. " (History 
■t the earlv Kings of Persia, translated from the Original Persian of 
Mirkhond by Da-id Shea, 1832, pp. 56-67). People generally do not like 
cocks shouting at odd hours. .Mirkhond thus explains the matter: 
'The reason whv persons draw an evil orr.en from the unreasonable 
rowing of the cock, and at the same time put him to death, is this: 
that when Kayomars was - ized with a fatal illness, at the time of the 
evening service, this bird crowed aloud ; and immediately after, this 
orthodox monarch passed awav to the world of eternity. M (Ibid, p 57.) 
2 M Place of Animals in Human Thought," by Countess Cezaresco. 

56 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

" Pardeh-dar mi-kunad bar kasr-i Kaisar ankabut 
Bum naobat mizanad bar gunbad-i Afrasiab." 

i.e., the spider is covering the palace of Caesars with his webs 
and the owl is beating the naobat ] on the castle dome of 

It is said, that Sultan Mahmud also uttered these words of 
Firdousi when he first saw the palace of Constantinople. 2 

If* unpopularity displayed by the language used far owls. 

The unpopularity of the bird is illustrated by the epithet > 
applied to it even by poets. For example, Shakespeare speaks 
of it as "Thou ominous and fearful owl of death" (I Henry 
VI, IV 2); -Boding screach owls-" 1 (2 Hen. VI, IV 2); 
'"Nothing but Songs of Death." Obloquy is conferred upon 
the bird by other poets like Spencer, Shelly, etc., also. 4 

There is a Gujarati proverb which says ^°U «J # ^lld SW 

^s 5 

"HIV i.e., "The death of an owl (occurs) at a grave-vard." 

This proverb indicates that the bird always seeks a deserted 
place like a grave-yard and that its presence is associated with 
ruin and death. From the fact that the owl is a nocturnal 
bird, generally moving about at night, and from the fact, 
that, during the day, it seeks sequestered deserted places, 

we have the English word Ci owl. " used as a verb in the sense 
of " prying about, prowling, carrying on a contraband or 
unlawful trade." 

There is a species of owls, known as Eagle-owls. It is 
believed in Tibet, that when they scream, people are certain 
that there must be robbers in the neighbourhood.' 5 

The alleged reason for the bird's characteristic of loneliness. 

The story of King Solomon. 

Now, as to the question, why the bird has the natural 
characteristic of remaining lonely and of living in sequestered 
places, the following story of King Solomon seems to give the 

i To strike the drum, etc., at the change of watches (naubat) was 
the usual custom of the courts of Eastern Kings. 

8 J.B.A.S., Vol. V t No. 4, p. xciii. 

3 Vide Davenport Adams 9 ' Concordant e to the Plays of Shakespeare 
(1886), p. 310. 

* Vide "Distinguished Animals" by H. Perrv Robinson (191 . 
pp. 215-16. 

> Vide the £^Hct-~HI/Al of Mr. J. X. Petit, edited by Mr. J. P. 

Miatri (1903), Vol. I, p 221. 

* Sven Hedin's Trans-Himalayas, Vol. 11, p. 327. There is a belief 
about another bird that its shrieks informed p >ple that there was a tiger 
in the neighbourhood. 



1923.1 The Old in Folklore. 57 

reason: All the birds, one day, said to Solomon, that tl the 
hated bird owl, dwells secluded in ruins and avoids habitations, 
nor does he repair to branched trees ; and when we ask him 
the reason for this he says no more to us than yd hu yd hu. 
We entreat thee to ask him what is the meaning of this ex- 
pression M Solomon, on asking the reason from the owl was 
told : " He that regards the world as seduced and he that 
knows that he will be called to account for his actions is 
sorrowful ; so I busied myself with the thought of the " One 
I fear and the One I dread, and I love no other friend but Him, 
(Hu) and there is none in my heart except Him (Hu). So. 
praise be to Him, of whom it is said, that there is none but 
Him " This story represents the owl to be, as it wore a 
divine or god-worshipping bird. Like human ascetics, it was 
less of a worldling and more of the divine. This explains, why 
the ancient Greeks held it to be a wise bird. 

The Position and Posture of the Owls when seen. 

It seems, that not only the mere sight of different bird-, 
but their position and posture when seen affect the omens. 
That it was especially so, in Greece, we learn from Mr. Lavvson" > 
" Modern Greek Folklore." Therein, 1 under the heading of 
" Communion of God and man " (Chap. Ill), we have an inter- 
esting account of the Greek view about dreams, chance words, 
meetings on the road and auspices. It seems that in classical 
times, the owl svmbolised wisdom. It was included in " tin* 
canon of ornithological divination."* The position and 
posture of birds at the time of the auguration are always 
important and it was more so in the case of the owls. " Th< 
* brown-owl,' perched upon the roof of a house and suggestin 
by its inert posture that it is waiting in true oriental fashion 
for an event expected within a few days, forbodes a death in the 
household ; but if it settle there for a few moments only, alert 
and vigilant, and then fly off elsewhere, it betokens merely the 
'id vent and sojourn there of some acquaintance. Another 
species of owl, our ■ tawny owl,' 1 believe, known properly a< 
" Charon's bird," is, as the name suggests, a messenger of evil 
under all circumstances, whether it be heard hooting or be 
>een sitting in deathlike stillness or flitting past like a ghost in 
the gathering darkness/' s 

The Owl a bird of Wisdom. 

We saw in the above account of the position and posture 
of owls when omens where taken from them, that in classical 

' Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion. A Study i 
Survivals, by John Cothbert Lawson, 1010. 

2 Ibid, p. 300. 3 Ibid. pp. 311-12. 

58 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

I Ireeee, it was held to be a Bird of Wisdom. It is so held in many 
countries. The idea of wisdom seems to have been associated 
with it from the fact of the solemnity of the way in which it 
Bits. Mr. Robinson in the Chapter (XIII) on Owls in his book 
on ; ' Distinguished Animals," ■ thus speaks of the subject in a 
humourous way : 


'■ As one sees them in their cages in the Zoological Gardens, 
the larger owls are persons of such extraordinary solemnity 
that one almost wonders whether one has not met them at the 
Club. Properly disposed in an armchair, the large owl, for 
instance, might, to the casual glance, pass well enough for an 
elderly member waiting for the Athseneum ; and it is no 
wonder that in the myths of so many countries the owl ha- 
been the bird of wisdom." In its state or posture of repose, it 
looks wise. But in its posture of wakefulness, it looks " frankly 
absurd. " It is its voice not being " commensurate with the 
lignity of its appearance" that has made it unpopular. The 
voice sounds as plaintive. 

Countess Cezaresco. thus speaks of the cause why the bird 
was held to be the symbol of wisdom. " It is a most unfortu- 
nate thing for an animal if it be the innocent cause of a frisson, 
i feeling of uncanny dread. The little Italian owl, notwith- 
standing that it too tomes out at dusk, has escaped prejudice. 
This was the owl of Pallas Athene and of an earlier cult. As 
in the case of the serpent, its wiles to fascinate its prey were 
the ground-work of its reputation for wisdom. Of this there 
cannot be, I think, any doubt, though the droll bobs and 
curtesies which excite an irresistible and fatal curiosity in 
small birds, have suggested in the mind of the modern man a 
I hingso exceedingly far from wisdom as civelteria, which word is 
derived from civetta— "the owl of Minerva" as Italian class-books 
say. The descent from the goddess of wisdom to the coquette 
- the cruelest decadence of all. 2 

Luminous Owls. 

The sight of some luminous owls seems to have added t 
i he view which made the bird a bird of wisdom. As to the 
luminosity of that species, the cause is not pro perl v ascer- 
tained. Some say: 'these birds acquired their luminosity 
by living in, perhaps, a rotten tree phosphorescent with fungoid 
matter. " 3 Some attribute it to its t: dieting on rats killed with 
phosphorus."* Some attribute the luminosity to a " fungoid 

' " Of Distinguished Animals," by H. Perry Robinson, 1910, p. 212. 

* '« The Place of Animals in Human Thomrht," bv the Countess 
esaresco. p. 112. * ' 

3 Ibid, p. 213. 
« Ibid. 

1923.] The Owl in Folk/ore. 59 

growth .. parasitic on the feathers of the owl." » Owing to 
their luminous appearance these birds have created the belief 
about ;< Lantern Men, Lantern Birds," etc.* 

The following Indian tale known as ;; The tale of the Owl 
as a King," which is one of the tales known as the Jataka tales, 3 
-hows that the owl was taken as a " Bird of Wisdom," worthy 
to be considered as a ruler or king of birds. But it was rejected 


for its ugliness. 

The Old as King. 

t rx 

66 Once upon a time, the people who lived in the first cycle 
of the world gathered together, and took for their king a certain 
man, handsome, auspicious, commanding, altogether perfect. 

the quadrupeds also gathered, and chose for king the Lion ; and 
the fish in the ocean chose them a fish called Ananda. Then 
/ all the birds in the Himalayas assembled upon a flat rock, 

crving : 

if ' Among men there is a king, and among the beasts, and 
the fish have one too ; but amongst us birds, king there is none. 
We should not live in anarchy ; we too should choose a king. 

Fix on some one fit to be set in the king's place ! ' 

" They searched about for such a bird and chose the owl ; 
' Here is the bird we like, ' said they. And a bird made 
proclamation three times to all that there would be a vote 
taken on this matter. After patiently hearing this announce- 
ment twice, on the third time on rose a Crow, and cried out : 

Stay now ! If that is what he looks like when he is 
being consecrated king, what will he look like when he is angry 
ft he only looks at us in anger, we shall be scattered like 
sesame seeds thrown on a hot plate. I don't want to make 
this fellow king ! ' and enlarging upon this he uttered the first 

j stanza : 

• The owl is king, you say, o'er all bird-kind ; 

With your permission, may 1 speak my mind I ' 
'The Birds repeated the second, granting him leave to 

speak : 

' Ynu have our leave, Sir, so it be good and light, 
For other birds are young, and wise, and bright.' 

" Tins permitted, he repeated the third : 

■ I like not (with all deference be it said), 
To have the owl anointed as our Head. 
Look at his face ! if this good humour be ? 
What will he do when he look- angrily ? ' 

1 Vide the ** Contemporary Review " of July 1908, the article on 
Luminous Owls and the Will of the Wisp," bv Mr. Digby Pigotfc, p. 04. 

> Ibid. 

3 Jataka Tales, by H. F. Fiances and E. J. Thomas (1916), p. 213. 

60 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, j N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

" Then lie flew up into the air, cawing out : ; I don't like 
it ! I don't like it ! ' The owl rose and pursued him. Thence- 
forward those two nursed enmity one towards another. And 
the birds chose a golden Mallard for their king, and dispersed. 

? > 

The use of Owl in the Economy of Nature, 

In the great economy of nature, everything has its use. 
We see that illustrated even in the case of this bird, which has 
been hated and disliked by man from the time of Kavomars, 
the very first reigning monarch of Iran, passing through the 
classical times of Greece and Rome down to our own times, in 
all parts of the world. Mr. Robinson says: * The proof is 

overwhelming that the generality of owls confer incalculable 

benefit on man by the destruction of rats and mice and voles, 
as well as many species of insects which are 'noxious' from 
the human point of view." l 

Man generally creates his thoughts about others from wha 
he sees of their characteristics. He associates his thoughts 
ibout a bird, an animal, or brother-man to its or his usual 
prominent characteristics, nature or work which strikes him 
most. Take for example the case of priests. Though they 
officiate on both occasions, joyful or sorrowful, they are more 
associated with sorrowful occasions like sickness or death, 
because grief has often more marked effects upon one than 
joy. So, their appearance on some occasions, for example, 
early in the morning, is taken as an ill-omen bv some among 
several people. While travelling in Europe I especially noticed 
this in Italy. Similar seems to be the case with the sight of 
owls. Their usefulness in the economy of Nature is lost sight 
of and another feature is taken into' consideration in taking 
an omen from its sight 


" Distinguished Animals/' p. 221, 



5 Some Variations in the Customs and Manners of the 

Telugus and Tamils of the Godaveri and 

Tinnevelli Districts. l 

By K. C. Yirakaghava, M.A., Rajahmundry, Madras. 

1. The president of Section H (Anthropology) of the 
British Association of Science which met at Hull in September 
last defined anthropology as " the study of the origin and 
evolution of man and his works " and said further that it ought 
l 'not to be limited to the study of backward peoples but 
extended to such civilised peoples as those of the Far East and 
Hindustan. We have much information concerning the arts, 
languages and official religions of these regions; too little 
concerning the physical and mental traits of their menses, their 
customs and actual beliefs." A civilian writer on " native 
South Indian life" recently lamented that "amongst the 
many books which have been published on India and Indian 
topics, it is rare to find one that treats of the south. Since 
the time of Clive and Hyderali, historical interest has centred 
in the north. Travellers prefer to visit the famous cities of 
the Punjab and the North-West Provinces, the gardens of 
Kashmir and the mountains of Nepal, rather than the less 
attractive towns and districts of the Southern Presidency." 
in the light of the observations of the two gentlemen men- 
tioned above, I shall require no apology in attempting to 
describe some of the customs and manners of the South 
Indian peoples and I am restricting my observations specially 
to conditions as they exist at present primarily among the 
■Brahmins and secondarily among the others of the Godaveri 
and Tinnevelli Districts of the Madras Presidency. The 
former is mainly peopled by the Telugu* and the latter by the 
Tamils and my endeavour shall be to compare and contrast 
some of their customs and manners. 

2. It is an open secret that, in South India, people 
frequent open plains to answer their calls of nature, especially 
the banks of rivers, tanks and wells. This may appear very 
insanitary and unhygienic ; nevertheless it is there. Many 
decades of municipal and union administration have not been 
*ble to eradicate this bad custom. Nor has the enlightened 
sanitary consciousness of the educated men shown any im- 
provement in this matter. However the people in the north 
invariably carry a chombu (vessel) with them when they jn 

J A paper submitted to the Anthropology Section of tae Indian 
Science Congress held at Lucknow in 1023. 

62 Journal oj (he Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

to the river banks for answering their calls of nature, take 
the water in it and use it for washing purposes ; while the 
wretched southerners wash their buttocks almost without am 
exception in the river water itself and immediately they will 
clean their teeth and bathe in it. One noteworthy feature is 
that both stick to their own custom even when they sojourn 
in other places. Thus the Telugus, along with their north 
Indian brethren, have this to their credit that they do not 
physically defile the river water sacreri to the Hindus'. 

:>. The Telugu women who bathe in the Godaveri river 

very rarely strain their wet cloth in the river itself. They 

return home dripping; but their sisters in the south will strain 

their cloth well, dress again with the dry and moist cloth, and 

return home. It is said that the sacred (goddess) river ought 

not be defiled by pouring the strained water back into it and 

hence the custom. However it is to be doubted if it is sound 

from considerations of health. Another peculiarity is that 

the northern women wash their clothes by beating them 

between their feet kept at risjht angles. In the south they 

stand on a lower step and rub their clothes on a step higher 

above and never have they to exert so much as their sisters 

have to do in the north, there are not to be found, near the 

water m the Godaveri, rows of long steps of stones built for 

the convenience of the bathers as there are in the Cauveri or 

the Tamraparni. Both men and women adopt the same 

method and even near the wells the washing stones are not 

generally kept at a higher level from the ground. The method 

of ramming the clothes on a stone between the feet is charac- 

tenstie of the Telugus of the north. Furthermore, the 

women of the north are physically stronger perhaps than their 

sisters in the south, for they are "able te cam big heavy brass 

vessels filled with the river, or well water, a pretty long 

clistane. The vessels used in the south (what are' called 

.</(/«// ) are generally thin and small. One noteworthy 

feature is that the Telugu Brahmin women invariably keep the 

big heavy vessel filled with water on their left shoulder and 

never on the waist. Whereas the kudama are placed only on 

the wai^t when the caste women carry them or on the head by 

the ion caste cooly women in the southern districts. (The 

latter is found among the other caste women in the northern 


4. Now ! come to the matter of dress. Much has been 
written on this and some of the conditions have changed in 
recent years. It is very difficult to find a middle class woman 
m the south clothed with a saree costing less than 30 to 
•>U rupees even for ordinary wear and the richer classes have 
almost a craving for costlier cloths. The cloths are commonlv 
i. cubits long, made of silk and dyed with lac for 10 or more 
inches on . !ie border and with' B*ffron dye on the other. 

f.)23.] Customs and Manners of the Telugus and Tamil*. 03 

throughout their length, with the interval decorated with 
different patterns. And they wear this, day in and day out. 
This is economically oppressive and physiologically unsound 
In refreshing contrast to this, one finds that the women of the 
north have a simpler taste and are content with xarees 10 to 
12 cubits long, oniv made of cotton and occasionally inter- 
speraed with silk. In Uajahmundry it is possible to get a 
saree for four to ten rupees, while it is almost an impossibility 
in the south to purchase one, however cheap, for less than ten 
rupees. Again women who have their husbands living, that is 

Sumnngalis, will never wear a white cloth in the south, that 
being specially reserved for widows, but the Telugu women 
have no scruples in the matter and the Sumangalis wear 
bordered white as well as coloured cloths, while the widows 
here also wear usuallv onlv a white cloth without a border. 
It appears these customs are more exacting in the south than 
in the north. 

5. In describing the life of the Uriyas Mr. S. V. Rice \\ rote 
twenty years back with regard to their dress among their 
women as follows : "The dress of the cooly class reaches onlv 
to the knees and often not so low — The process of robing is 
very simple — The cloth is tied round the waist once, tucked 
in at one corner and thrown over the shoulder once or twice 
as its length may allow and the toilette i- complete-— a some- 
what simpler arrangement than the powders and patches, the 
unguents and perfumes of Belinda's bed-i om — women who 
do not usually leave their own houses, women, that is to say, 
of the better class, wear the cloth reaching down to the inkles 
and put on one with ampler folds, should they be palled upon to 
leave the house at an unusual hour/' This is true more or 
less even now of the Tamils and Telugu-. The Telugu 
Brahmin women ieave some folds of their eloth in the front. 

have a broad kacha at the back, visible outside., extending 

from the left to the right waist and finally leave the 
end flowing over from up the left shoulder in the front and 

then along the right at the back, whereas the Tamil Smart ha 

j Brahmin women have plenty of folds near the left leg. have 

I a narrow kacha at their back and cover it up by rounding 

the cloth once and then bring the rest of it up the right 

shoulder in the front and then along the left shoulder. Thus 

18 cubit- of doth are used up. In the - >uth the Ayy*mgar. 
I the Madwa, and the non- Brahmin women have their cloth 

brought up onlv along their left shoulder in the from first and 

then the end of the cloth along the right shoulder jus1 as the 

I -Brahmin Telugu women do in the north. Buf many women of 

\ the other castes in the north dress almost like the Tamil 

I Smartha women of the sooth. I have not been able to -eer- 

( tain the rationale for this difference in the mode of d res 

But it came recently bo mv notice that an old orthodox THugu 

t>4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XIX, 

Brahmin of the north had objections to take his meal from 
the hands of a Telugu Brahmin woman because she had the 
upper portion of her dress brought up the left shoulder in the 
front and then along the right shoulder at the back and also 
had glass bangles in her hand And I have seen the Telugu 

women wearing their cloth in the reverse way on Sraddha 
days, thus showing the ordinary way of wearing a cloth, 
adopted by the Smartha women of the south., being more 
orthodox, and perhaps spiritual too So he cooked his own 
food and ate. while he was staying in a portion of the house 
occupied by me at Rajahmundry. 

6. Furthermore, the Brahmin women of the south are 
very punctilious with regard to their cleanliness (?) in the 
course of the day. Thev bathe earlv morning and wear a 
cloth, washed, dried and kept unpolluted the previous day. 
Once they wear it, they will not touch any old cloth, shirt, or 
coat and thev will not touch a cloth washed bv a dhoby 
(washerman), or worn from the previous day. They will not 
touch even their child wearing a used shirt. Whereas in the 
north the Brahmin women bathe in the morning and wear a 
new cloth but they have what they call a modi saree and, if 
they wear it, they become pure and clean and they do this 
whenever they cook or eat their food ; but at other times 
thev change their saree and then they mav touch any cloth, 
even including bedding. This is a striking contrast between 
the south and the north. 

7. The Telugu Brahmin men are very careful and insist 
upon it, to wear a silk when they eat both day and night. 
At other times they only wear cotton cloth but in the south 
the silk is worn bv the men onlv when thev perform some 
ceremonies, or puja, or when they return after their bath from 
the holy river and in their eyes a silk becomes polluted, or 
unfit for puja purposes, if it is worn during the eating 
time— a fact quite contrary to that obtained in the north. 
While on this subject, I may mention that ordinarily the 
southerners use the plantain leaf, while using it as a plate 
for meals, in a horizontal manner whereas the Telugus use 
it in a vertical manner. Of course it will be very difficult, 
if a leaf is long, to reach the substances at the farther end. 
Still the system is there. 

8. Before I leave the subject of dress, I will refer to one 
other characteristic difference. The Tamil Brahmin women 
reserve a cloth for their menses period and wash it themselves 
after their bath and take it home. But the Tamil non- 
Brahmin women have no special cloth for this purpose and 
after their bath they get it washed by a washerwoman. This 
latter custom is prevalent among the Telugu Brahmin women. 
They expect a similar practice to be adopted by the Tamil 
Brahmin ladies who happen to live amidst them. It appears 


1923. J Customs and Manners of the Telugus and Tamils. 65 

that a southerner was obliged to quit from a house which he 
occupied at Rajahmundry, because the lady refused to have 
her menses cloth washed by a washerwoman. And I know of 
a ease when a southern lady was applauded by her landlady 
when she adopted the custom of the north in her own case, b'v 
putting her cloth to a washerwoman. Such is the rigidity of 
custom in some of its aspects. 

9. I shall briefly allude to one item in wearing jewels. 
The Telugu Sumangalis, whatever their age, have a silver 
anklet in their legs. Whereas the Tamil Sumangalis, as a rule 
discard it even when they are twenty or twenty-five. I have 
*een aged Telugu Sumangalis wearing anklets in their legs. 

10. Even peasants in the Telugu parts, especially at 
Rajahmundry. sleep only on some sort of cot or other. Rope 
cots are very cheap and plentiful. In the Tinnevelly Dis- 
trict palmyras are found in great numbers and still the 
cots, the mattress of which is spun with the palmyra-leaf 
stem fibre, are considered generallv as a luxury. And onh 

1 i * * 

ncn and upper middle class people possess cots and, even 
then, only for males. In Rajahmundry one can see every one 
of a family, male and female, being provided with a cot. 

II- I shall close my paper with one other characteristic 
difference. This time it is as regards the treatment of a 
patient dangerously ill. In Rajahmundry and other places if 
a patient is in his or her critical stages, he or she is removed 
to the street, or roat] side, in front of the house even before 
the life of the individual is out. Recently an intimate friend 
of mine saw with his own eves a newborn babe, scarcely 
twenty days old. exposed to the chill of the night on the out- 
side because it was about to die. Another friend saw an 
enclosure on the King's highway wherein a man. in his dying 
moments, was seen lying. A Tamilian sub-magistrate's wife 
was seriously ill some time back and it appears the landlord 
of his house visited his tenant's house every day and implored 
him to remove the patient to the street outside. It was only 
his magisterial authority which made him do otherwise. In 
the Tamil country, even after the expiry of life, the bodies are 
not removed to the front of the house until and unless most of 
the relations have met and everything is made ready for 
removing the body to the cremation ground. With sue!) 
customs when Tamilian- in Government service are posted to 
the Telugu parts, they feel a good deal of inconvenience with 
regard to this matter When I questioned a Telugu friend of 
mine about this, he told me it was considered to be improper 
for individuals to be allowed to die on cots and hence the un- 
usual custom; but why should the body be removed before 
the person is dead, exposed to the inclemencies of the weather 
and the glare of the public 1 Possibly onlv superstition will 
account for this. 






6. The Nose-ring as an Indian Ornament. 

Bv N. B. Divatia. B.A.. CS. 

We find at present the nose-ring worn bv Hindu ladies 

most all over India in a variety of shapes. In (Jujarat. 

Maharashtra. Sindh. the Punjab and in part- of Upper and 

Central India, the Hindu lady decks herself with a nose-ring: 

is at present considered a sign of married bliss. — a widow 

may not wear a nose-ring. How old is this institution of the 

nose-ring in India ? We find no mention of the nose-ring in 

'Sanskrit literature. lexicons included. It can be safelv 

asserted that this ornament is unknown to Sanskrit literature 

or ancient Indian civilization. 

The words for the nose-ring are: WT5?t (vali) 9 WW (natha), 
and fcn: {vzsara) (old literature) in GujaratI, *r«i ( nat ha), wm*ft 

(nathani), %qi; (besara) in Hindi. *ro (natha) in Sindhl. *w 

(natha) in Marathl. snsft (rait) is so called because of the gold 

wire *rrat (valo) which is passed through the hole bored in the 

nose and forms part of the nose-ring. *m {natha) is derived 

from iiTsjT (naltha), a Desya word meaning " a nose-string" such 
as is passed through the nose of animals (bullocks, camels and 

the like) ; see Hemachandra's Dt&vamnmala , IV, 17. *n**n:^j 

[nam-rajju) is the only sense there given, the illustration also 

-peaks of a wr«?rTwKT^fr2W— a bull without the nose-string. 


Che meaning of a woman's nose-ornament is evidently a latter 
day development ^sjr (nattha), gives *f[^ (ndthya), uose- 
stnng and *m (natha), — a woman's nose-ring. *rm<t {nalkavu 
is a verb made out of the noun sris? (nalht/a) ; mwl (nalhavu) 
meaning to pass a string through the hole bored in the nose. 

i*?K (vesara), (or H. %*k (besara), is a word not trae tble to 
Sanskrit and must have evidently come from some unknown 


foreign word ; ir«tft*n: naka-vesara ( *nir naka = nose + ^h*~ 

vesara) is often found in literature 

The nose- ring in India is of varying shapes and worn in 
varying ways The Gujarat! lady has the wall of her ief( 
nostril bored, the Madras! has the right one so treated. The 
ornament varies from a mere gold (or with poor people s 
brass) wire with a screw-shaped coil and a loop at one end and 
a hooked arrangement at the other, to an expensive setting of 
pearls and diamonds, rubies and emeralds, which sometimes 

H8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N-S., XIX, 


represents in a distant way the figure of a peacock and this 
fact gives the ornament the name of *frc (mora), in Gujarat!. 

*rr^t f^r^t infa^rsft wk 8 ffa *£$* f%rr*n ^tt i 

(Okhaharana, by Premananda.) 

The SindhI nose-ring is so heavy that its lower part ia 
supported by a thin braid of the wearer's hair, brought down 
across the face and tied up with the ornament. There are 

other nose ornaments called ^f^T [kanto) (a gold piece of the 

shape of a mushroom, with one end passed through the hole 
in the nostril and secured by a screwed up stopper, and the 
other end sat with six or seven pearls arranged in a circle and 
a diamond or other gem in the centre ; another called 'm'S (jada), 
a single gemmed article of the above make. Over and above 

these is the «i^r<* (bulaka) or Wi^sr {bulakha), consisting of one or 

three pearls (the middle one being a long shaped pearl) strung 
in a gold wire, which is passed through a hole bored in the 
wall between the two nostrils. This ornament is worn mainly by 
Mussalnum ladies ; no Hindu lady wears it ; occasionally- 7 Hindu 
boys are so decorated when they have survived several children 
born to their parents before them. Such boys have the proper 

name of ^reft (Bulakhi) ( •^TO 5 Km) (°dasa °rama) or *rmt 
(nStho) (WTWHTO, *rrsiT *Nk) {Nathalal, Natha-Sankara) mean- 
ing one who is subjected to the process of *rm^ (nathavu) 

(boring the nose). 

In an article by K P. Umrigar " The Dress of Ardvl Sura. 
and the toilette of the Hebrew Lady " at pp. 95ff. of the 
' Dastur Hoshang Memorial Volume " nose -rings are men 
tioned among the Hebrew Lady's ornaments in De Quincey's 
essay on the 'Toilette of the Hebrew Lady," and also as 
ornaments worn by men among the Mediauites. 

I have said that there is no mention of the nose-ornament 
in Sanskrit, literature. I am confronted by some with the 
following sloka supposed to be in the Bhoja-prabandha : 

The purport of this verse is thh : Lucky are the women 
of Gujarat, for their nose ornament is represented by the father 
of Angada (VSlt), the eye-paint is represented by the animal 

ridden by Agni, (viz. the ram, *m mim) 3 and their houses are 

leansed by Mann (Sivarni qp*f«ir, a matron ymic of Manu). 

Leaving aside the fact that the Bhoja-Prabandha is a notori- 
ous forgery, 1 this particular verse stands self-condemned as it 

The genuineness of this verse is further discounted by the fact 
it is found neither in Ballala's Bhoia-vrabandha nor in the Bhoja 



The Nose-ring as an Indian Ornament. 



is based on puns on words which are purely Gujarat! either b\ 
corruption or otherwise, thus : 

^T^t (vail) Guj. = a nose-ring; *rf% (vali) Skr. = the father 

*w {mesa) (from Sanskrit «nft 
(mast ) = coll vrium used for 

painting the eyelashes. 

of the monkev Angada. 

^ (mesa) = a ram. 

^>\ , — 

*W<m(8avarani) = (Skr. wi^ift wmPI = the son of *renri 

(sammarjanT) through several 
stages (in Prakr. and Ap.) 
= a broom. 


I must therefore summarily reject this verse as an affront 
to scholarship. 

Now, how do we account for the absence of the nose -ring 
in ancient India ? My belief is that this was due to the fact 
that the nose-ring was a Moslem importation, and that, origin- 
ally a symbol of slavery, this nose-ring was invested with a 
different value, as a mark of adornment of the human frame. 
Would it be permissible to guess that the woman' 
has a sinister significance of the slave-like conditio] 
in the days of degraded civilization, and its conversion into 
an ornament was a soothing unction meant to flatter female 
vanity ? That this nose-boring (as also ear-boring) was an 
indication of slavery in Arabia and other parts is an admitted 
and well-known fact. This was known in India as late as 

s nose- ring 
ion of woman 

V.S. 1685 (A.D. 1629) as is seen from the following verse in 
a Jaina writer's work in the GujaratI of his days : 

are %ffr «t ^rm ^ ? 

3p ?fTf TO3T rpT ^, 

*irit *rr^ w% 5tt*j. 

(HI) a v ijaya 8u ri - Rasa , X XV 1 1 , 9 ) 

The verse refers to an incident in the life of the Jaina 
Saint Hiravijaya ; a pupil of his rebelled against him, and the 
pupil was addressed by a mounted policeman as above; the 
verse therefore contains a mixture of bad Urdu and GujaratI. 
The policeman says : You are bis pupil, and he your master ; 
how dare you defy your guru ? The guru has power to lead 
you by the arm (to the slave market) and sell you, and t 
bore your nose and pass a nose-string through it 

prabandha embodied in Mt-rutunga's Prabandha-rintdmani , 
part of several admitted interpolations in a translation of 
work by one DinAnatha SastrT. 




/O Journal oj the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX.. 1923. | 

But I am told that the nose-ring is not known in Persian 
literature or language. I ask — what is the bulak ( -qw W J the 

single ring, pearl-strung, pendant worn through the hole in 
the wall between the two nostrils, but a Moslem ornament. 
Tin- dictionary compiled by Khan Bahadur Xawab Aziz Jang 
Bahadur of Hyderabad (Deccan), Asaf-ul-lugat , give- and 
explains the word bulak fully and the upshot of his discussion 
is — 

That the word means (1) a hole; (2) the nostril, (3) the 
string passed through a camel's nose, and (4) nose-ornament. 
He says that a majority of the authorities regards the word 
as Turkish. The Turks regarded the thing a< an Eastern 
ornament. (Arabia and Persia would be East to them.) 

Another dictionary, Gayasul-luxjat, gives as the meaning 
of bulak, a nose-ring, an ornament of "women (taken from 
Turkish). Johnson does not give the word brdak, presumably 
because it is neither a Persian nor an Arabic word. 

The meaning of bulak. first as a camel's nose-string and 
then a woman's nose-ring, presents a close parallel in the 

evolution of word-meaning to wtsjt (nattha) (Desya) coming to 

give two senses in Gujaratl : *tm (nathyq) a nose-string and 

*m {nalha) a nose-ring. This by the way, but as a significant 

Jt seems that the nose-ring was thus originally an im- 
portation into India from the Moslem countries. How the 
bulak gradually evolved into the sp-j (natha) nose-ring worn 

through the exterior side of the nostril, is a question which I 
have been unable to answer. It will be interesting if more 
light was thrown by others on this whole question. 


Notes on a Type of Sedentary Game prevalent in 

many parts of India. 

By Hem Ch. Das Gupta, MA.. F.G.S. 

The type of sedentary game which is the subject matter 
of this note is usually played on a plank on which a number 
of shallow depressions have been scooped out; the depressions 
are filled with small pieces of stone, cowries, or seeds, etc. 

Plan of the board used to play the game known as Mdwkdr kdtiyd. 

My attention was first drawn to this game in June, 1923 at 
CherrapunjL Among the Khasis the game is known as Mdwkur 
kdtiyd ( = going round the slab or plank). It may be mentioned 
that though a wooden board in which rough circular and 
shallow depressions have been scooped out iu two rows, the 
number of rows in each hole being seven, is generally used. 
sometimes, specially on fair days, the game is played outride 
the house on stone slabs. Two persons are necessary for the play 

Hid , to start with, five small stones are kept within each depres 
sion. One of the players picks up the stones from a depression 
lying in the row just next to him and goes on putting one piece 
<>f stone into each depression. As soon as he has done with the 
five pieces he started with, he picks up all the stones lying im- 
mediately in front of the depression where the last piece was 
deposited. He must repeat this action til!, after having depos- 
ited all the pieces that he may carry in his hand, he comes to an 

mpty depression lying immediately in front of the one where 
the last piece was dropped. In this case all the pieces of stone 
lying within the depression immediately next to the vacant 

me will come into his possession and the other player will begin 
the game, follow ing exactly the same method, each playing from 
right to left nlo 
along the line 

players will thu> keep on the game alternately till ail the pieces 
ha\e been removed from the plank, with the general result that 

ne of the players is in possession of more than 36 pieces of ston 

>ng his line of depressions and from left to right 
of depressions belonging to ins adversary. The 


72 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

and the other less. The game will now be started for the 
second time but not by the player who started it on the 
previous occasion and one peculiarity will be observed while 
arranging the pieces. Suppose, for example, that after the end 
of the first game, one player finds that he has 87 pieces in his 
possession, then he will arrange 35 pieces in the usual way, while 
two (i.e. the pieces he has obtained in excess of 35) will not 
be placed in any of the depressions, but will remain to his 
credit while the game is being played for the second time 
The other player will now arrange the 3.'* pieces, placing 3 
within the depression lying to the extreme left along; his line 
while the other six will contain 5 pieces each. On this occa- 
sion the following additional rules will also be observed : 

(a) The person that has got two pieces extra will have all 
the single groups of 2 pieces that may accumulate within one 
depression while his adversary is playing to his credit While 
the latter will have all the single groups of 3 pieces that may 
accumulate within one depression to his credit while the former 
may be playing. 

(6) The winner will have the depression to his extreme left 
covered by his palm and gain one piece every time he passes 
round this depression, while his adversary will not be allowed 
to drop any piece in it. 

(c) The pieces that will be gathered in the depression where 
the three pieces were placed will always come to the possession 
of the winner. 

These rules will, certainly, vary according to the difference 
in the number of pieces possessed by each player after the end 
of any game. If we, for example, suppose that the winner has 

sot 47 pieces after one game, then two depressions beginning 


from the right of his adversary along the row belonging to hi 
adversary will be kept covered over and none will be allowed 

to place any piece inside these. The games will be continued 

in this way and the person who succeeds in capturing all the 
pieces of his opponent will be victorious. It is clear that the 
rules of the game are a little complicated and as I had r 
obtain my information from an old Khasia woman with the 
help of an interpreter I would not be surprised if it was found 
that the rules enumerated above required correction. I sincerely 
hope that, as a result of the publication of this note, som 
better informed person may come forward and give us (possibly) 
a more correct and complete account of the game. 

It is interesting to note that a game like this is prevalent 
m many parts of India. Lt. -Colonel Shakespear has described 
a game like this among the Lushais. The game is called u Vsi 

lung thlan " ; the board has 12 shallow depressions in two row- 
and is played according to rules different from those stated 


1923.] Notes on a Type of Sedentary dame. 73 

above. 1 A similar game played in parts of Orissa is known 
as Kanp-guti. One hundred and fort\-five pieces are required 
' to play this game. One piece is kept within one depression of 

the central pair, while the other depression of this pair is kept 
empty and 12 pieces are placed within each of the 12 remaining 
depressions. As I gather from my Ooriya servant, the rules of 
the game are mainly the same as are followed by the Khasis witli 
some differences. In the case of the Orissa game one row of 
depressions does not belong to one player, but the six lying on 
one side of the central pair belong to one player and the other 
six lying on the other side of the central pair belong to the 
other player. During the first run of the play no piece is to be 
f dropped in that depression in which one piece was placed at 

j the beginning of the game. Then the rules observed by the 

Khasis are generally followed with the important exception 
that none will be able to play with the pieces lying with the 
central pair of depressions, i e. they cannot be taken out of 
these depressions and dropped in the succeeding ones but the 
pieces lying within the central pair can be captured like the 
pieces lying in the others. In the Orissa type the pieces are 
moved from left to right and the player who captures more 
pieces at the end of each game is the winner, and the result of 

one game is not carried over to the next to finish what mav be 
called a set. 

A game of this type is also prevalent in the Madras Pres- 
idency. It is called Omangnnta peeia [a plank with holes) in 
Telugu and Palanguli (a plank with holes) in Tamil, and for 
the detailed information about the rules that are followed I am 
thankful to Mr. V. V. Rau of the Bengal Nagpur Railway 
lhere are fourteen shallow depressions in two rows, seven being 
\ n eac * ] row. In the central depression of each row only one piece 
18 P^ced 5 while inside each of the rest are placed six, twelve or 
twenty-four pieces. The usual rules of the game are followed 
and the special point to be noted is that like the Orissa game 
none will he able to play with the pieces lying in the central 
pair, and though they may be captured according to the ordi- 
nary rules of the game they will be removed only at the end of 
each game, and the pieces lying in a central depression are t<> be 
shared equally between the players if each of them in course 
°f his play dropped down his last piece in a depression sepa- 
rated from the central one by an empty one or the piece- 
lying in the central depression may belong to none, and in that 
case they will not be removed from their position. If the 
number of pieces lying in a central depression is odd. one will 
be left in it and the rest will be equally divided between the 

. ; The Lushai Kuki Clans, p. 8», 1012. According to this author 
similar game is plaved in many parts of Africa and is known as ' Mancala 
Rao ■ or ■ W«rri > r 


* 4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

two players, but if it is even two will be placed in the central 
depression and the rest will be divided equally between the two 
players. It should also be noted that when a player succeeds 
in capturing pieces lying in a depression, he will also seize all 
the pieces that may be in the depression opposite. At the end of 
one game each player will arrange the pieces he has been able to 
capture i;i the line of depressions next to him and those which 
may be vacant will be supposed to be non-existent in course 
of the succeeding game. The successful player will be he who 
will be able to capture all the pieces. The pieces are moved 
from left to right. 


8. On th2 Occurrence of Ontrea ffrfff*h**4de* Schlotheim 

in Calcutta. 

By J. Coggin Brown, O.B.E., D.Sc . Superintendent, 

Geological Survey of India. 

(Published with the permission of the Director, Geological Survey 

of India.) 

Our knowledge of the deeper strata under! vine: Calcutta 
is derived from the results of one. boring, sunk to a depth of 
481 feet in Fort William during the years 1835 to 1840, for 
although several holes have been drilled within recent years, 
some to considerablv greater distances than this in the search 
tor sub-artesian water, the logs of the bores do not appear 
to have been published and have certainly not found their 
way into the archives of the Geological Survey of India. 

In the Fort William boring no trace of marine deposits 
tu T? .*,-„. was detected, indeed as Mr. R. D. Oldham 

Ihe tort .William v . . »,' 4 tlA , 

boring. " as pointed out, — " there appears every 

reason for believing that the beds traversed, 
from top to bottom of the borehole, had been deposited either 
by fresh water, or in the neighbourhood of an estuary. At a 
depth of 30 feet below the surface,, or about 10 feet below 
mean tide level, and again at 382 feet, beds of peat with wood 
were found .... Moreover, at considerable depths bones of 
terrestrial mammals and fluviatile reptiles were found, but 
the only fragments of shells noticed, at 380 feet, are said to 
have been of fresh water species." ' 

In 1904, while excavations were in progress for the foun- 
„. dations of a new building in Clive Street, 

of Oysterain r ciiw an °. V8ter band a fevv inches iri thickness, 
Street. was met with about 5 feet below surface 

level. It was examined by the late Mr. 

E- W. Vredenburg of the Geological Survey of India. 2 He 

reported that the stratum covered a space of at least 100 feet 

square, that one foot, or a little less, of brown mud intervened 

between the top of the oyster bed and the bottom of some old 

brick foundations, and further, that the underlying stratum 

consisted of black mud The oysters were recognised by 

Col. A. \\\ Alcock, F.R.S., at that time Superintendent of the 

1 H. D. Oldham: "A Manual of the Geology of India/' pp. 432, 
«3 (ISM). 

* E. \V. Vredenburg: "I cent or snb-recnt marine bed in 
Calcutta." Hec. Qeot. Surv. Int., Vol. XXI, pp 174-176 (1904). 

76 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX, 

Indian Mummuh, as identical with a species living in large 
numbers in the mud hanks near the mouths of the channels of 
the Sundarbans Mr. Vredenhurg was definitely of the opinion 
that the oyster bed was of marine origin, that it was in situ 
and moreover, geologically of very modem age. The large 
size and robust appearance of the shells led him to believe 
that it was improbable they flourished much above low water 
mark, though this implied a relative position of the sea and 
land decidedly different from that prevailing at present, for the 
altitude of the oyster bed is scarcely ever reached even by 
the highest spring tides of the Hooghly now. 

Mr. Vredenburg's view was evidently accepted by Sir 
Thomas Holland who wrote in the following year (I9i>5) as 
follows : " The discoverv in July last of an old oyster bed in 
Calcutta at a level well above present high tide mark shows 
that besides the general depression which has occurred to 
permit of the accumulation of alluvial deposits in the 
Gangetic delta, there have been oscillations also of the relative 
level of sea and land during recent geological times/' ] 

Scattered about the mud heaps by the side of the trenches 
m. j.- " i ■ a number of other shells were picked up 

Character of the -, ,^ ^ , . ., ■% .** .„ rtTT o 

associated fauna. and Dr Fermor, who visited the excava- 
tions in July 1904, was informed by the 
overseers that they were found principally in the layer of mud 
underlying the oyster bed. 2 These remains were identified by 
the late Dr. X. Ai mandate, CLE., Director of the Zoological 
Survey of India, with the help of Mr. H. B Preston and it i- 
noteworthy that they write of the deposit not as a marine 
but as an estuarine one. 8 With the exception of a barnacle. 
Balanus patellaris, Speugler, which has been found living in 
ponds containing very little salt in solution and a polyzoon. a 
variety of Lepralia (Eschar hides) occlusa, Busk, which coated 
some of the oyster shells in profusion, the recognisable remain- 

consisted of molluscan shells though there was, in addition, a 
mammalian bone probably belonging to a large dog or wolf. 
A list of the shells is given below : 

Tehscopium fuscum, Ch. A common living species and 

essentially an estuarine form. 
Paludina (Vivipara) bengalensis, Lam. One of the coin 

monest freshwater shells in Lower Bengal. 
Ampullaria globosa, Swains. This is also a very common 

freshwater shell in Lower Bengal. 

1 Sir T. H. Holland: •■ General Report of the Geological Survey 
of India for the Period April 1903 to December 1904." Bee Geol. Surv 
Ind., Vol. XXXII, pp. 136 (1905). 

9 E. W. Vredenhurg : Loc. cit.. p. 17t>. 

3 N. Annandale : ** Second Note on a Recent Estuarine Deposit 
below Clive Street, Calcutta." Ifce. Geol. Surv. lw> . Vol. XXXvJI, 

pp. 221-223 (1908)- 


1923 ] Ostrea gryphoides Sehlotheim in Calcutta. 77 

? Aricia moneta, Linn. An essentially marine mollusc. 
This shell was at one time used as money in Lower 
Bengal and as it is only represented by one small. 
very worn and polished specimen, its presence may 
be purely adventitious. 

Planorbis exnslus. !)esh A common form in ponds around 

Anomia achceus, Gray. A common species in the estuary 
of the Ganges. 

Area adamsiana, Dkr. A single imperfect specimen. 
Oslrea cucvAiata, Row. This oyster is common in brack- 
ish water. 

Ostrea canadensis. Tk. This is the large oyster of the 
Bay of Bengal now known to be Ostrea gryphoides, 

Dr. Annandale concluded that the Olive Street deposit was 
•n\ estuarine one from fairly near the upper limits of brackish 
water, as indicated by the presence of essentially freshwater 
species known to live in ponds and canals containing a small 

percentage of salt in solution. 

In 1909 or 1910 the Geological Department of the British 

Museum received several large oyster shelK 

"Clive Street. ** loam and mud about I) feet below the level 

of Clive Street, during the excavations for 
the foundations of Gillander House. These shells covered 
a space of 10x4x1 feet and the bed was underlain by good 
blue clay. An exhaustive study by Messrs. R. Bullen Newton 
^nd E. A. Smithied them to the conclusion that the large 
ivmg oyster of the Bay of Bengal is distinctly separate from 
the Atlantic form Oslrea canadensis found off the coasts of 
North-Eastern America, that it is identical with the oysters of 
the presumed geological deposit of Calcutta, a conclusion 
already arrived at by Col. Alcock, and that both these and 
the so-called Ostrea crassissima of the Miocene period belong 
to one and the same species which the authors show to be 
Ostrea gryphoides, Sehlotheim. 

Apart from this interesting zoological conclusion Messrs. 
n . ■ . , ^ Bullen Newton and Smith throw grave 

Bed ySter doubts W the theor . v which holds that th " 

Clive Street oyster bed had a natural. 

marine origin. They emphasize that the absence of marine 
conditions throughout the great extent of the alluvial struc- 
tures on which Calcutta is built, as revealed by the Fort 
William boring, makes it seem apparent that the oy-ter 

1 R- Bullen Newton and Edgar A. Smith : " On the Survival of 
a Miocene Oyster in Rppent Seas/' Rti\ GeoL Sur>: Jfwf., Vol XfJI. 
PP 1-15 (1012). 


78 Journal of the Asiatic Society oj Benyal. [X.S.. XIX, 

bed does not form part of that series and cannot therefore be 
of any geological importance. Following a suggestion of the 
late Lt.-Col. H. H. God win- Austin, they believe that the most 
plausible explanation of (he presence of the Give Street 

ovsters is that they were brought from the mud banks of 

the Sundarbans by river craft and deposited on the Chve 
Street site for lime burning, before the davs when Calcutta 
began to be supplied with lime manufactured at the base 
of the Khasi Hills. According to Lt.-Col. Godwin-Austin 
such practices prevailed in Calcutta and were actually wit- 
nessed by himself. They certainly do so still on the more 
isolated parts of the Indian and Burmese coasts and it would 
not be surprising to know that the heaps of shells were of 
considerable extent, perhaps comparable with the great heaps 
of animal bones now collected at Indian ports for export 
to foreign countries, where their utility in the preparation of 
artificial fertilizers is better appreciated than it is in this 
country. If this explanation be correct any geological argu- 
ments based on the occurrence of the so-called oyster bank 
are worthless. 

The third and latest occurrence of oyster shells in the 

vicinity of Clive Street was brought quite 

Third Occurrence recent f y to the nofcice f Dr W . A . K. 
ot Uystera near ••«..., ,, T _~ -, ^ t» u j* 

Clive Street. Christie by Mr. J. H. de C. Ballardie, 

A.RJ.BA., who has kindly presented 
three shells to the Geological Survev and forwarded the 
following report of the engineer in charge of the two excava- 
tions where the shells were found : 

"The oyster shells which were dug up from Swallow Lane 
and Allahabad Bank foundations were found within 1 foot 
6 inches below the original soil, that is, about 5 feet 6 
inches below the adjoining road level. The soil in which 
they were found is black and on closely examining it small 
shells about J to f of an inch in diameter and roots of 
small herbs could be traced. It is very peculiar that where 
sandy soil is found no trace of any class of shells or herb- 
could be found." 

It is to be regretted that the excavations had been filled 
in before the discovery came to the notice of the Geological 
Survey or it might have been possible to examine the section 
in place. Jt is to be observed, however that Swallow Lane is 
only approximately 150 yards in a straight line from the 
nearest point in Clive Street where the earlier shells were 
obtained and that the depth of the horizon in each of the 
case* is much the same. The presence of small shells with 
the oysters is also noteworthy and the traces of herbs may 
have been the rootlets ol terrestrial plants It appears that 
this occurrence is part of the same shell band found before 

1923.J Ostrea gryphoides Schlotheim in Calcutta. 79 

and it is very remarkable that these large oyster shells have 
not been reported from any of the numerous excavations 
and bores made in Calcutta city and its neighbourhood within 
recent years. The shells themselves are of striking appearance 
and it is unlikely that they would be passed unnoticed. 
Small freshwater and estuarine gastropoda are often found 

below the present surface in Calcutta. Telescopiurn fuscum 
was met with in excavations near President- v College and 
a tew molluscs obtained latelv bv the writer, 3 feet below the 
level of Free School Street were pronounced by Dr. Annandale 
to be identical with forms living in Calcutta tanks to-day. 
The last discovery, in the absence of further evidence, has 
left the problematical origin of the Clive Street oyster bed 
precisely where it was before and the reader must be left to 
judge for himself whether it is of marine origin or not. 

The new examples consist of two separated valves form- 
ic-™.- *• c i.i hig one shell, the lower valve of which 

description of the x ° ,, J , £ ., ,. , , 

New Shells. lias ™ ie upper end ot the hga mental area 

11 ** and of one practically complete 

pecimens. The dimensions of 

broken off. 

> j 


lower valve., Both are adult specira ___ 

the single lower valve compared with those of one of the 
earlier examples are given below. 

Present specimen. Earlier specimen. 

Lower Valve J" height = 31 cm. 38 cm. 

Height ot hmge-area =16 .. U 

Width „ , -8 " 7-6 

I have compared the specimens with the 6gures of fehos. 
described by .Messrs. Bullen Newton and Smith, with other 
examples from Calcutta excavations, and with recent shells 
from the Merged coast of Burma. Further, I have compared 
them with the fossil forms known as Ostrea crassissima from 
the Burmese Miocene and I agree with Messrs. Bullen New ton 
and Smith that Ostrea gryphoides, Schlotheim and Ostrea 
crassissima, Marcel de Serres, possess identical specific charac- 
ters in every way and that the latter name should give place 
to the former. The specimens under description, barring the 
injuries received while they were being dug out of the soil, are 
•n perfect preservation and have the ligamental area parti- 
cularly well developed, the ridges and hollows of both valves 
showing the transverse lines of growth and the finer longitu- 
dinal striae. The recent specimens from the clear waters of 
the Bay of Bengal have very much smaller ligamental regions 
than those from the muddy waters of an estuarine environ- 
ment and the Miocene forms approximate the latter in this 
respect. The large size, very numerous growth lamellae ami 
the great thickness of lower valve, which attains 58 cm-. 
through the ligamental furrow in one specimen, indicate 

SO Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

maturity. The heart-shaped muscular impression is 40 to 45 
mm. across and being of a very pale buff colour stands out 
clearly from the white, nacreous interior of the valves. The 


upper, outer surface of one ot the valves has evidently been 
attained at one time to some rough surface on which cirripedes 
of the genus Balanus were already growing. Later, the shell 
had broken free again carrying the remains of the barnacles 

with it. According to Dr. Annandale who has kindly 

examined the specimens, the species represented is probably 
Balanus amphilrite, Darwin, which ranges from the Miocene 
(Aquitanian) to the present time. 


(The figures represent specimens delineated about two thirds 

of the natural size.) 

Ostrea r/rt/phoides, Schlotheim. 

Fig. 1. Adult example showing the internal characters of the 

lower valve. 

Fig. 2. Another adult example showing the internal charac- 
ters of the Upper valve. 

The specimens were obtained from an excavation in 
Swallow Lane. Calcutta and presented to the Geological Survey 
of hidia by Mr. J. H. de C. Ballardie (1923). 

J. P. A. S. B., XIX, 1923. 

Plate X 

Ostrea gryphoides, Schlotheim 

9- On the Fossil Pectinida2 from Hathab, Bhavanagar 

State (Kathiawar). 

By Hem Chandra Das-Gupta, M.A., F.G.S. 


In two of my previous communications I have described 
the fish teeth 1 and a mammalian humerus 2 obtained from 
Hathab in the Bha van agar State and the purpose of this 
short note is to record the description of a few species of 
Ghlamys and Amussium obtained from the same locality. In 
his monograph dealing with the geology of Kathiawar", 
fedden mentioned the occurrence of the following species 
of Pecten in the upper Tertiary beds of Kathiawar : 

Pecten cj. comeus, Sow (op. cit.. pp. 111 ? 117). 

Pecten bouei, var. a cTArch. (op. cit.. pp. 119, 120, 121). 

Pecten favrei? d'Arch. (op. cit.. p. 119). 

Pecten favrei d'Arch. (op. cit., pp. 120, 122). 

Pecten soomrowensis, Sow (op. cit., p. 122). 

Pecten subcomeus, d'Arch. and Haime (op. cit.. p. 122). 

While describing the geology of Navanagar Mr. Adye has 
mentioned the occurrence of weathered-out bivalve shells, 
chiefly of Pectens and Oardiums and of Pecten bouei, Pecten 
favrei and Pecten sp. from the Gaj beds. 4 As far as I am 
aware no detailed description of the Kathiawar Pecten*; has 
been published and accordingly this short note has been 

^ *.' 

- Description of Fossils, 

Amussium hathabiens's, n. sp. 

(Plate XI. Figs. 1-4). 

This fossil was described as Pecten corneus, Sow(?) by 
Fedden. According to Sowerby the valves are smooth with 
v ery fine concentric lines on the outer surface.' According 
to Xyst : < c Sa surface exterieure pa rait lisee ; mais, examinee 
a une tres forte loupe, I'oa a per 90 it des shies concentriques tres 
serreea, lesquelles aont traversees par d'autres lomritu linales 

] Proc. Jul Assoc. Cult. Set., Vol HI, pp. 158-1 GO (1917 

* P. A. SB. (N.S.), Vol. XV, p. cxcim (1010). 

* Mem. Qeol. Sun: In J "-■ * rVT ™ — ' 
Economic Otology of p _ 

h Min. Conch., Vol. Ill, p. I, pi. 204, 

rf., Vol. XXI, pp. 73 -IW (1885). 
N a vanaffar State , pp. 120. 131. 

82 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.8., XIX, 

plus tines encore'. ' Nyst's description makes it quite clear 
that the species is not a true Peeten. Sowerby also pointed 
out the affinity of this species with P. phuronectes the type 
of the genus Amussium, but the absence of the internal ribs 
shows that it cannot be referred to that genus, while the 
published description shows that it is more allied to Pseuda- 
mussium than to anv other genus as already mentioned by 
Stoliczka. 2 The Hathab specimens are entirely different. 
Fedden apparently depended upon d'Arehiac and Haime for* 
this identification, but these authors, evidently, were not 
sanguine regarding the identity of the HaJa Range specimen 
with Pee ten corneas chiefly on account of the fact that the valve 

is " compose de deux couches principales distinctes, lime 

externe. . . .1 ; autre interne on sous-jacente, et present ant in 
systeme de stries rayonnantes nombreuses (80 a 90), droites. 
d'egale profondeur, mais inegalement espacees \ 8 A cursory 
examination of the Hathab specimens shows that these 
characters do not appertain to them. 

The valves are very thin, rounded and slightly inequi- 
lateral The beak is acute with a straight hinge-line. The 
ears are nearly equal and those of the right valve form a 
small synclinal arch where they join the beak, while the ears 
of the left valve form a perfect straight border at the umbonal 
portion. The bvssal notch is fairly prominent. The external 
surface is practically smooth excepting some very indistinct con- 
centric lines of growth. In the interior of the valves there are 
usually 30 to M ribs all arranged in pairs. This number is 
fairly constant in shells of different sizes showing that in the 
younger specimens the ribs are much pressed together. 

This species has some relationship with A. cristatus Bronn 
but a little consideration shows that Bronn's species is more 
swollen, has the external concentric markings more prominent 
and has, below the resilial pit, curved ridges the like of which 
is not found in the specimens from Hathab.* This species 
may also be compared with Peeten (Phuronectia) placunoides 
Martin described from Java, but Martin's species has a larger 
number of internal ribs. 5 The number of ribs found with 
P. corneu.s (?) d'Arch and Haime is still greater, while its 
external surface is markedly concentrically striated. It has 
got a very close similarity with the living Peeten {Amussiavi) 
phuronectes Linn, 6 but in the latter the number of the 
internal ribs is smaller and the resilial pit is a little shallower. 
There are, however, many characters in which these fewo 

1 Descript. d. coq. et d. Polyp. fo>»iles de Btlg.. p. -09. 

Pal. Tnd.. Ser. VI. Vol. Ill, p. 42«J. 
8 Descript. d'anim. foss. d.Num. de VJnde p. 269. 
* Goldfuss, Petrel. Germ., p 77, Tav. 99, figs, 13a-d. 
6 Beitr. Z. Geol. Ott- Asiens und Austral.. Vol. I. Tab. fiir. * - 
« Wot a complete bibliography of this and other specie- o( Amtt** '"'■ 


1923.] The Fossil Peetinidce, Bhavanagar SlaU. 8:> 


species agree remarkably and, though the difference in the 

number of the ribs shows a specific distinction, it is not 

improbable that A. hathahiensis is the fore-runner of A. 
pleuronectes Linn. 

Chlamys tauroperstriata, Sacco var. spiiwsn. n. v. 

(Plate XI. Figs 5-7). 

The right valve is fairly well-preserved. It is higher 
than long, the height being 1 1 mm., while the length is 9 mm. 
The external surface is ornamented with some 30 radial ribs 
which are practically equidistant and of the same strength. 
The beak is not preserved. The anterior ear is provided with 
a few radial ribs which are traversed bv fine and numerous 
/ curved lines giving rise to a markedly wrinkled aspect. The 

valve is moderatelv thick. 

The left valve is higher than long, the height being 18 mm. 
and the length 15 mm. The external surface is marked with 
radial ribs which are about 30 in number, while one incom- 
pletely preserved left valve has a part of its outer layer 
preserved showing very small spinous or warty outgrowths on 
the ribs. The beak is rounded. The anterior ear is covered 
with a number of radial riblets and is tolerably large. Th< 
posterior ear is very small. The valve is moderately thick. 

The two valves belong to two different individuals, but 
they agree so well with the two valves of Chlamys tauroper*- 
triata, Sacco var. persimplicula, Sacco 1 that I have no hesita- 
tion in referring them to the same species. The Hathab 
species, however, differs from var. persimplicula by the presence 
of scabrous outgrowths on the ribs and accordingly a different 
varietal name has been proposed. This also resembles 
P(Chlamys) Kokenianus. Xoetl/ 2 but the number of ribs and 
the punctured interstices of the species from Burma clearly 
distinguish it from the species under consideration. 

Chlamys favrei, d'Arch. 

1850. Pecten favrei, d'Arch.— Hist, des progress de la Geol. Vol. III. 

p. 2C9. 
1853 Pecten favrei, d Arch.— Descrip. d. anim. foss. d. 'Sum. d. 

l'lnde, p. 270. PI. XXIV, fig. 5, a. 

As noted already the existence of this ppeeiea in Kathia 
war was recorded bvFelden. I have very little to add to the 

reference should be made to the work of Gregorio, published in the 
M Annates de Geologie ©I de Paleontologie " Livr. 23, pp. 15-04 (1898 
and Livr. 24, pp. 5-6 (1899). m 

1 7. Moll d. terr. terz. d. Piemen**, Vol. XXIV, p. 8, lav. I, fizs. 
27, 28. 

* Pa!. Ind X.S. Vol. I, Art. 8 f p. 117, with figures. 

84 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

description given by d'Archiao and Haime. There are, in my 
possession, two left valves very likely referable to this species 
which show that the ears of the left valve were verv small. 
Unfortunately the outer surface of the bigger anterior ear is 
-o firmly elosed by deposits that nothing can be made out 
regarding the nature of the auricular ornamentation. The 
number of the radial ribs is 26. 

In his monograph dealing with the Miocene fossils of 
Burma ' Dr. Noetling expressed the opinion that possibly 
Pecten bouei, P. favrei and P. Hopkinri, described by d'Archiac 
and Haime. were specifically indistinguishable. There is 
considerable force in the statement that P. favrei and P. Hop- 
kinsi are possibly identical, but P. bouei is undoubtedly quite 
distinct from them, as is shown clearly by its striae of growth 
traversing the radiating ribs and the ornamentation on the 
posterior ear of the right valve. 

Chlamys sp. cf. bouei t d'Arch. 

(Plate XI. Fig. 8). 

I860. Pecten louei, d'Arch. —Hist, des progres de la Geo]., Vol. Ill* 

p. 2i)9. 
1803. Pecten bouei, d'Arch. — Descrip. d. anim. foss. d. Num. d. 

V Inde. p. 209 PI. XXIV, fig. 1. a, b. 

Fedden has recorded the presence of P. bouei var. a 
d'Arch, ami Haime in the Gaj beds of Kathiawar. In the 
Presidency College collection there is one right valve of small 
size which may be compared to this species, but which lacks 
the Btrhe of growth crossing the radiating ribs of which there 

_ ~..^_ .uvimviiip, 

are 27 in tin- present specimen. The valve is slightly higher 
than long ; the height being 18 nun. and the length 16 mm. 
The posterior ear, covered with very fine ribs, has its ba>e 
prolonged against the margin of the valve in a manner recall- 
ing what prevails in P. bouei d'Arch." 

Chlamys Middlemissi, n. sp. 
(Plate XI. Figs. 9-12). 

Fhe shell is higher than long and radially ribbed in both 
valves The number of ribs varies from 1(5 to 24 and it 
appears that the ribs in the left valve are stronger than those 
of the right valve and the number of ribs in the left valve is 
correspondingly smaller. The right valve is somewhat flat, 
while the left one is convex. The radial ribs in both valves 
are traversed by fine and numerous squamae. The anterior 
auricle of the right valve is traversed by a few radial ribs 
which are finely granulated ; the posterior auricle of this valve 

1 Opcit.,p. 119. I Op cit . p. 2<".!>. 

1923.] The Fossil PecMnidce, Bhavanagar State. 85 

is much smaller than the other one and shows faint traces of 
f radial plication. The ears of the left valve resemble those of 

the right val^e. 

This species may be compared with Pecten cancellatus 
Goldf.. 1 but there is a good deal of difference in the nature 
of the radiating ribs. In CMamys pusio Linn % the squamosa 
nature is rather irregular. It may also be compared with 
CMamys pallium Linn 3 which has also been found as fossil 
by Martin from Java.* but the nature of the ribs which are 
tripartite in C '. pallium distinguishes it from C. Middlemissi. 
O. varia, Linn. 5 which has also been described by Sacco 6 
can be distinguished from the Hathab species as in the latter 
the scales are of an imbricated nature, while the squamae of 
the former are more wartlike. It also resembles P obliqmis, 
J. de C. Sow 7 but C. Middlemi*$i is much smaller in size and 
lacks the riblets that are found between the contiguous strong 


nbs. P. Soomrowensis J. de C. Sow * is also comparable 
with this, in the possession of squamose ribs, but the ribs in 
P- Soomrowensis are tripartite and pentapartite. 



:i > A muss turn haihabitnsis , n. sp 


5. Chlamys tauroper striata, Sacco. var. spinosa, n. v . . Left 




,. ••Right 


■ • 

* - 

* * 

. . Ea r 






m » * * 

. . Left 

trah e. 

. .Surface 

Petref. Germ., p. 59 tav U4 fig. 5. 

* Reeve : Monograph of the genus Pecten. pi. XXXIlf , tig. 157 
' Reeve : op. cit 9 pi. XVII, 6* tt. 

* Die Tertiarsch. auf. Java, p 124 
Reeve, op. cit, pi. XXV, 6%. 102, 

* Op pit p p. 2 tav. I. figs !-7. 

Trans Geol. Soc. Loni. '2nd 8©f., Vol. \\ p. XXV. fie. \.\ 
' FMd pi. XXV, fig. U. 

86 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 1923. 

8. Chlamys sp. cf. Bouei 9 d'Arch 

9. Chlamys Middlemissi, n sp. . Left valve. 
9a. ,, „ . .Ear magnified. 

10. , r „ . . Left valve. 

11. ,, „ . . Right valve. 

Ha. >? „ . .Squamae magnified. 

12. .. . . . Left valve. 


>> 53 

(The drawings are of natural size, unless otherwise 



• V • V - 



t - 

J.P.A.S.B.,XIX ; 1923 






Plate XI 





Aft,.-: , 







A Chowdh^tr^lith 







io. On the Age of the Utatur Marine Transgression. 

By L. Rama Bad, Lecturer in Oeoloyy, Central College, 

Banged ore. 


The existence of a series of marine fossiliferous rocks of 
Cretaceous age in the eastern coast of the south of the Indian 
Peninsula has long been recognised, and detailed work ha 
been done on the stratigraphy and palaeontology of these rocks 
1 hough covering a small area, yet from the abundance of well- 
preserved and characteristic fossils, the formation has always 
been considered of much importance and interest. From a 
study of the lithologv as well as the structure and arrange- 
ment of these series, it is now universally recognised that 
these were deposited during a temporary transgression, on this 
coast, of the southern sea during the Cretaceous times. 

There is a general agreement to divide the whole series 
into three broad divisions, each of which has been subdivided 
into many zones and bands, characterised by certain genera 
and species of fossils. The present paper concerns itself with 
only the lowermost ol these divisions — the Utaturs — mainly 
with the view to determine the probable age of the marine 
transgression that gave rise to these rocks. 

The Utaturs might be generally described as a series of 
marine deposits, mostly argillaceous in constitution, composed 
of sandstones and shales usually highly calcareous or gyp- 
seous. An interesting fact is, that in most cases, the lower- 
most sediments of this series rest on a limestone which 
judged from its organic structure is evidently a portion of an 
old coral reef, so that this member is usually known as the 
' Coral reef limestone.' It is obvious that to get at a suggestion 
of the probable age of the marine transgression that gave rise 
to these rocks, it is essential that we should consider the 
stratigraphical and paheontological characteristics of the 
lowermost series of the Utaturs and see their relationship, if 
any, to other areas of similar deposits. 

It is well known that the most characteristic types of 
animals throughout the Cretaceous deposits all over the world 
are the Ammonites— a group which by the very limited 
vertical but extensive geographical range of some of its genera 
and species is of unsurpassed stratigraphical value in classify- 
ing and correlating subdivisions of the Cretaceous strata. As in 
other places so also in India, there is a large abundance and 

1 Communicated bv Dr. J. Cosain Brown, OKE., I»V. 

sS Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XIX. 

i Pal Indiea, Vol. I, Series III 

* R.G.S.I., Vol. 28, pt. 2—Kossmat : On the importance of the 
Cretaceous rocks of S. India in estimating the geographical condition- 
during later cretaceous times. 

3 M.G.S.I , Vol. IV, Stanford : On the Cretaceous Rocks of Trichi 
nopoly District. 

* Pmk Indica, Vol. I, Series III. 

b Q.J.G.S.. Vol. LXXVIII. No. 3^9—Lamplugh : On the junction of 
♦he Gault and Lower Greensand near Leijrhton, Buzzard. 

varietv of Ammonites found throughout these deposits which i 

have been figured an i described in the Pal. Itidica series. 1 

The relationships of the ammonite fauna of the Trichinopoly 
Cretaceous (a name given to the whole series of the coastal 
Cretaceous) to those of other areas both in Europe and else- 
where have been studied and discussed by Kossmat' 2 at great 
length and after a detailed study of fossils from several areas 
he finds that <; the fauna of southern India comprises the most 


important types of the two great areas (the Indo-Pacific and 
the Atlantic and thus serves as a connecting link between 
them.'' From a study of several fossils from both the areas 
he remarks: 'The fauna of the Trichinoply Cretaceous have 
remarkable affinities to the European fauna, especially if we 
have regard not onlv to identical but also to closelv allied 
forms," and he has actually shown the probable route by 
which ;t a free interchange of fauna between Europe and the 
South of India " was possible. 

The basal members of the lower Utaturs are a series 
of silts and shales containing numerous fossils, particularly 
the Ammonites. The general aspect of the cephalopod fauna 
of the Utatuvs according to H. F. Stanford 8 " recalls the Gault 
■of Europe" and he assigned to the Utaturs " a position mid- 
way in the Cretaceous — about Gault and Greensand/ The 
most abundant as well as the most characteristic Ammonite 
of the lowermost Utaturs is Ammonites inflatus, Sow., a species 
remarkable in having a very wide geographical range, identical 
forms being found in several widely separated areas, includin 
Central Europe. As Stolickza* has observed the species 
Ammonites inflatus is i£ well-known as one of the most charac- 
teristic species of the Gault in almost all the European 
provinces'' and in England it occurs in the Gault and 
Greensand. as also in the Albian of France. More recent 
studies of the Cretaceous deposits and their Ammonites have 
shown that Ammonites inflatus, identical in character with the 
Indian forms, was quite abundant even in the Lower and Middle 
Gault of England h and there is good reason to believe that 
the form had come into existence even during the times of the 
Lower Greensand. Messrs. Kitchin and Pringle. in their study 
of the Gault deposits of England find Ammonites inflatus as 
the most dominant Ammonite in the lower zones of the upper 

I92:\] Age of Utatur Marine Transgression. 89 

Gault, We might, therefore take it thtt this species had 
attained a great abundance and is one of the most characteris- 
tic fossils of the middle and upper Gault in England corres- 
ponding to half-way in the Albian period in Europe. The 
lowermost sediments of the Utaturs with the abundance of this 
characteristic species. Ammonites infialus, cannot, therefore, be 
far different from this age and it would be quite reasonable to 
assign to them an age approximately corresponding to the 
Middle Albian in Europe. 

If, therefore, the Utaturs which are always found along 
the western margin of the whole Trichinopoly coastal Cretaceous 
series are themselves Middle Albian in age. we find that the 
actual beginnings of the encroachment of the sea on land or of 
the marine transgression must have been much earlier. 
If, further, we consider, as is usually done, the coral-reel lime- 
stone underneath the Utaturs as continuous with this series, 
then we have to shift the age of the transgression still backward 
to allow time for the growth of all the extensive coral reefs, 
who*e denuded remains alone we see at the present day. Thus 
we nnd that if we have to name the transgression after the 
period in which it commenced, the term " Cenomanian trans- 
L'ression now generally employed for this encroachment 
of the sea in South India during Cretaceous times does not 
faithfully represent it in point of time and has to be modified 
so as to accord with an older age. 

Though it is usual to believe that the Cenomanian period 
was one of intense earth movements and consequent marine 
transgression over several areas, the detailed study of these 
deposits in more recent years in several places tends to show 
that the transgression in most cases took place in much earlier 
times. A recent paper ' by Messrs. Kitchin and Pringle "on 
the overlap of the upper Gault in England and on the Red 
Chalk of the Eastern Counties'' tends to show "that one of 
the most marked period of the transgressive movement was at 
the commencement of the upper Gault times " The recent 
investigations by Dr. L. F. Spath and Prof. J W. Gregory' 2 
pf the Cretaceous deposits of South Africa and their Ammonites 
led them to a similar conclusion that " a submergence of some 
extent took place before the widely recognised Cenomanian 
transgression." The evidence of the coastal Cretaceous 
deposits of Southern India also lends additional support to 
the now growing belief ' that the so-called Cenomanian tran-- 
^ression commenced long before Cenomanian times/ 9 

1 Geo. Mag., London, April-May, l«22. 

2 Nature, 26th August. 1922. 










ii. A Preliminary Note on the Ecology of Part of the 

Riverine Tract of Burma. 

By L. Dudley Stamp, B.A ., D.Sc, A.K.C., F.G.S. 

and Leslie Lord, B.A., I.A.S. 


I. Introduction . . 
IF. The Ecological Factors 


• • • • • - 



111. General Remarks on the Vegetation and Edaphic Control 94 

IV T . Description of the Plant Formations . . 96 

V. The Connexion between Agriculture. Forestry and 

VI. Conclusion 



I . Introduction. 

The area dealt with in the present note extends roughly 
from the town of Prome (latitude 18°50'N.) 120 miles north- 
wards as far as Yenangyaung. and embraces a strip of country 
on either side of the River Irrawaddy, in all an area of about 
',000 square miles. In the course of this investigation the 
authors have covered more than 1,200 miles on foot, but even 
then parts of the area have, of necessity, been left unvisited. 

The botany of Lower Burma has been studied— especially 
as regards the trees — by Kurz l and of recent years the 
economic aspects of the forests of Burma have received much 
attention from the officers of the Indian Forest Service. 
Apart from the great pioneer work of Theobald 2 , the geology 
of Burma did not even commence to be studied in detail 
until long after Kurz had completed his studies on the Forest 
Floras. Consequently any work on the inter-relationships 
between the geology, the soils and the distribution of vegeta- 
tion could scarcely be attempted until recently. Even now, 
the greater part of the detailed geological mapping on which 
the present paper is based is still unpublished. 8 The authors 
re much indebted to the Indo-Burma Petroleum Co. Ltd.. 
for permission to incorporate this unpublished geological 

Apart from the works of Kurz and the little handbooks 

1 8. Kurz. Forest Flora of British Burma ; Superintendent, Govern- 
ment Printing, Calcutta, 1877. 

* W. Theobald, A Sketch of the Geology of Pegu ; Mem. OeoL Star. 
India, Vol. X, pt. 2, 1873. 

8 For references and a recent summary m L. Dudley Stamp, An 
Outline of the Tertiary Geology of Burma ; £«•*. Mmg. Vol. LVIII. Nov. 


02 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

issued by the Forest Service 1 , almost the only botanical study 
is a paper on the Flora of the Minbu District by Colonel Gage, 
I. M.S. 2 The numerous references to the vegetation of Burma 
which appear in standards works both on Ecology — such as 
Schimper's monumental ' Pflanzengeographie "— and on 
Botany— such as Brandis' ' Indian Trees "—are largely derived 
from Kurz' earlier studies. 

The present note is., therefore., an attempt to classify the 
natural vegetation of a part of Burma and to analyse its 

connexion with the controlling factors of climate and soil. 


II. The Ecological Factors. 

It is unnecessary to remind the reader that Burma is 
essentially a monsoon countrv but that the area under 
consideration is profoundly affected by the general topography 
of the country. The rain-bearing south-westerly monsoon- 
winds are intercepted by the lofty and uninterrupted range of 
the Arakan Yoma which separates the central tract of Burma 
from the sea. The result is that the centre of Burma i- 
occupied by the r; Dry Belt " with a rainfall as low as 21 
inches in the middle (Sale), In the area under consideration 
the rainfall decreases steadily from 47 25 inches at Prome 
along the riverine stations to 25*52 inches at Yenangyaung. 
Westward from the River Irrawaddy there is a rapid increase 
as one approaches the foot-hills of the Arakan Yoma. East- 
wards there is also a slight increase towards the Pegu Yoma 
(compare Minbla, 32*85 inches and Taungdwingyi, 40-34 
inches). The low ranges of hills which border the Jrrawaddy 
from Prome to Minbu enjoy a slightly higher rainfall than the 
neighbouring lowlands, especially from thunderstorms at the 
commencement and towards the end of the monsoons. In the 
drier regions, the rain falls mainly on a few days of the " rainv 
season 5 ' and owing to the hardened, baked surface of the soil 
by far the greater portion runs off and is lost so far as the soil 
and the vegetation is concerned. There is thus a greater 
contrast between the Teak-Forests of Prome and the Semi- 
Desert of Yenangyaung than the mere difference in rainfall 
would suggest. 

Heat would not seem to be a very important factor in the 
present area. The extremes both diurnal and annual are 
greater in the drier regions. At Minbu, the only station in 
this area for which complete records exist, the monthly mean 
varies from 71 1° in January to 90*2° in April. In 1921 th 

1 A. Rodger, A Handbook of the Forest Products of Burjyia (1022): 
J. H. Lace, A List of Trees, Shrubs, etc. recorded from Burma (1912); 
C. B. Smales, A Simple Key to One Hundred Common Trees of Burma 
(1922) ; Government Press, Rangoon. 

* Records Botanical Survey of India, Vol. Ill, (1904). 

1923.] Ecology of Riverine Tract of Burma. 93 

extreme temperatures recorded in January were 48 9° and 
89'7", the corresponding figures in April being 700 and 

Variation in the amount of direct sunshine plays a not 
unimportant part in controlling the minor changes in the 
vegetation. The hill-ranges run roughly from NNW. to SSE. 
and, being formed of steeply-dipping rocks, their slopes often 
reach 30° or more. Consequently the western flanks are 
illuminated by direct sunshine for several hours less per 
day and the vegetation on these slopes is often distinctly 
richer and more hygrophilous. Sunlight often only penetrate > 
into the deeper chaungs in these hills for a few hours per day. 

In the cold season low lying tracts of clay are often 
subjected to thick morning mists, which may not clear away 
until 9*30 a m. The dew-fall in the same season is very 
heavy and these two factors seem to control to a large ex- 
tent the period of leaf-fall. 

For the purposes of this study the geological formations 
present mav be tabulated as follows : 


Alluvium of the River Irrawaddy. 
Ckaung 1 Alluvium and Hill-wash, 
Plateau Gravel. 


Irrawadian System (Mio-Pliocene) — mainly coarse, in- 
coherent sands, usually slightly ferruginous, with 
bands of coarse, ferruginous conglomerate especially 
near the base. Locally there are bands of pale grey 
or mottled red and grey plastic c Jays. 

Pegu System (Oligo-Miocene) : — 

Upper Group — alternating beds of rather line-grain- 
ed sands, locally hardened into resistant sand 
stones, and sandy or shaley clays. This group 
includes the exposed Pegu rocks of the ( >il fields 
of Yenangyaung, and Minbu ; and the Prome 
Beds, Kama Clay, Pyalo and Akauktaung Beds 
of Lower Burma. 

Middle clay -group— a thick mass of indistinctly bed- 
ded rubbly shales or stiff clay, non-sandy. 
This group includes the Sitsayan shales. 
Lower Group— -at or near the base of the Pegu Sys- 
tem, especially from Thavetmyo northwards 
there is a group of alternating sandstones 
and shales resembling the Upper Group, except 

* t >aung (Burmese), stream or stream coarse. 

94 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [X.S., XIX, 

that the shales are frequently more rubbly and 

non-sand v. 


The lrrawadian rocks — which attain a thickness of at least 
5.000 feet — are usually but slightly folded and give rise to 
plateaux or undulating tracts of soft sands. The lower-lying 
parts are extensively covered with alluvium. The hard beds 
of the Lower and Upper Groups of the Pegu give rise to lines 
of hills and the rocks are often highly folded. The shales of 
the Middle Group give rise to extensive low-lying or gently 
undulating tracts — frequently the most infertile in Burma. 
The Pegu Svstem reaches an enormous thickness, not less than 

12,000 feet* 

The normal lrrawadian sands yield a very light soil 
practically a pure sand but on level plateau-surfaces there 
is a marked concentration of the iron salts near the surface 
and a hard g pan' or cake is formed. Slope and drainage are 
thus of prime importance. The sanely groups of the Pegu 
yield loamy soils which, not unnaturally, vary greatly from 
place to place. Those of the higher group often suffer from 
an excessive amount of gypsum, whilst those of the lower 
group approach more closely the soils of the middle group. 
Provided the rainfall is not less than 36 inches the middle 
shales weather into a stiff blue clay. When, however, the 
rainfall falls below about 36 inches a type of weathering sets 
in which produces a soil known to the Burmans as Ci Hput- 
chi-mye " or "Kyatti-mye." There is a tremendous concen- 

tration of alkaline salts, especially of sodium carbonate, in 
the surface layers and only the most alkali-resisting plants 
can possibly grow. The alluvium of the River Irravvaddy 
furnishes the usual Burma paddy soil — a heavy loam. Ohaufty 
allluvium and Hill wash partake of the nature of the rocks 
from which they are derived, with a marked amelioration 
of the salient features of the hitter. 

III. General Remarks on the Vegetation and 

Edafhic Control. 

The climate of Burma is essentially a woodland climate. 
Apart from the sandbanks and some of the recent alluvium, 
which are covered with the well-known "Kaing" or "Ele- 
phant" grass there are no areas of true grassland in Central 
Burma. Even then the Kaing Grassland must be regarded 
as a serai or non-climax community, — i.e. it ha< not reached 
the final condition which it would normally attain under 
the existing climatic conditions. 

Schimper has stated that tropical woodland formations 
are of four main types ; — Rain Forest, Monsoon Forest, 
Savannah Forest, and Thorn Forest. This simple grouping 

1923. ] Ecology of Riverine Tract of Burma. 95 

is well exemplified in Burma. In the region studied, which lies 
entirely outside the wetter areas in which the Rain Forests 
' occur, there is every gradation from Monsoon Forest (espe- 

cially the Teak Forests and Indaing) through Savannah Forest 
to Thorn Forest. Thorn Scrub and Semi-Desert. Everywhere 
the principal undergrowth in grass, proving that the climate 
is not hostile to its growth, though slightly more 1 favourable 
to tree- growth. 

When working in any one area one is tempted to say thai 
the soil, and almost the soil alone, is the determining factor 
in the distribution of vegetation. There are many places in 
which may be found within a stone's throw of one another 
typical Monsoon Forest of Eng and Ingyin ; Savannah Forest 
of Tectona hamiltonii and Terminalia oliveri ; thorn forest of 
Acacia catechu and thorn-scrub of Acacia catechu or Zizyphus 
jujuba, so powerful is the edaphic factor. It is when one 
studies the region as a whole that one realizes that the cli- 
mate, especially the rainfall is really the main determining 

If one considers the vegetation firstly from the standpoint 
of the soils — that is really on the basis afforded by a study 
of the geology, the following points may be noted. 

In the south — near Pro me — the Irravvadian sands and 
gravels are covered by Teak Forest and Penlacme — Dipterocar- 
pus Forest (Indaing). Both require a well drained soil, but 
the Indaing flourishes on extremely light soils— really pure 
sands. To be seen to perfection Teak requires a rainfall 
higher than that of Prome (47*25 inches) and the Teak forests 
near Thayetmyo and Alianmyo are u stunted/' the trees having 
a girth of less than 5 feet at a height of 5 feet from the 
ground. Teak is scarcely seen north of Thayetmyo (87*34 
inches) but the Indaing stretches somewhat farther north and 
then passes into a mixed forest described hereafter as the 
Diospyros Forest. Passing further northwards on the Irra- 
wadian this type passes gradually into the Acacia catechu 
Tectona hamiltonii Forest. This in turn gives place to the 
Acacia catechu Thorn scrub, which is the characteristic vege- 
tation of the Irrawadian near Yenangyaung (2552 inches). 
It may be noted in passing that band- of clay in the Irra- 
wadian may cause local changes whilst level plateau surfaces 
are often covered with a hard ferruginous layer which only 
supports a stunted Thorn — Forest or Thorn scrub. 

The stiff, mi bedded Pegu clays are, on the whole, decid- 
edly unfavourable to vegetation. A Bamboo — Acacia Savan- 
nah Forest seems to be characteristic from just north of Prome 
to Thayetmyo and then to the north-west there are large 
areas of Tectona hamiltonii— Termu>< ilia oliveri Forest. Wher- 
ever drainage is bad — especially on level plateau surface* — thi 
gives place to the Acacia catechu Thorn orest. \s soon a- 

96 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

the rainfall falls below 36 inches the " Kyatti-mve " type of 
soil develops and the Thorn Forest passes to the Acacia catechu 
Thorn sciub. This covers large areas from Thayetmvo to 
Minhla On the clays of the Minbu and Yenangyaung anti- 
clines it is replaced by the Euphorbia semi-desert. 

Much of the chaung-alluvium and hill-wash is cultivated, 
but where level tracts have been left thev become covered 
with Zizyphus Thorn scrub, relieved near chaungs by the 
Combretum hedgerow assemblage. 

The alluvial sandbanks are the home of the Kaing grass, 
but the grassland must be regarded entirely as a serai or non- 
climax community. In time trees will appear and the land 
will become covered with forest. 

The important points to notice are that entirely different 
types of vegetation occur on different soils under the same 
climatic conditions whereas the same type of vegetation (e.g. 
Acacia Thorn scrub) occurs on entirely different soils under 
different climate conditions. In short climate and soil in Cen- 
tral Burma to a considerable extent counteract one another. 

IV. Description of the Plant Formations. 1 


1. Tectona grandis Forest (Teak Forest). Tectona gran- 
dis hylion. Teak locally forms pure forests and thrives on a 
light, well drained soil. Where the soil is somewhat heavy, 
the presence of lime is very beneficial. The stunted Teak- 
Forests studied by the writers near Allanmvo and Thavetmyo 
are more mixed and alternate with patches of Indaing. The 
undergrowth is mainly grass, of the species Andropogum 
contortvs Linn., and .4. serratus Thumb. The undergrowth 
tends to be richer on clayey patches, the Teak Forests being 
found exclusively on Irrawadian Beds in the area studied. 

2. Pentacme and Dipterocarpus Forests (Ingyin Forest and 
Eng Forest or Indaing). Pentacmc-Dipterocarpus hylion. The 
most abundant trees in these forests are Eng (Dipterocarpus 

tuberculatum Roxb.) and Ingyin (Pentacme suavis A. DC). They 
may occur separately (as 'consociations') or together (asso- 
ciations). Other common trees are Terminnlia tomentosa W* et 
A. (Taukkyan) Xylia dolabriformis Benth. (Pyinkado). Shorea 
obtusa Wall. (Thitya) Aporosa macrophylla MuelL (Ingyin) 
and Dioxpyros birmanica Kurz (Te). The principal, sometimes 
the only undergrowth of the Indaing is grass — Andropogum 
cortortus Linn, or A apicus Trim in the north and PoUinia 
artioulata Trim in the damper regions of the south (e.g. north- 
east of Prome). On certain area- of clay the trees become 

1 Using the nomenclature proposed by F. E. Clements, Plant 
Succession, Carnegie Inst. , Washington, 1916. 

a 1923.] Ecology of Riverine Tract of Burma. 97 

widely separated and the forest becomes almost a savannah. 
The Indaing covers huge areas of Trrawadian sands as far 
north as 20°.V. provided the drainage is sufficiently good. 
Whilst the forest flourishes on a ferruginous sand its growth is 
prevented by a hard surface layer of late rite or'- iron-pan." 


t 3. Diospyros Forest. Diospyros birnianica hylion. With 

decreasing rainfall the Indaing grades into a type of forest 
which consists of roughly equal proportions of Diospyros 
birmanica Kurz (Te). Termimalia tomentosa W. et A... and 
Pentacme suavis A. DC Still further north the last mention- 
ed becomes scarce and its place is taken by such trees as 

Teckma hamiltonii Wall. (Dahat), Dalbergia paniculata Roxb. 

(Tapauk) and Acacia catechu Willd. (Sha). The undergrowth 
is again almost entirely grass — Andropogum contortus Linn., 
A. apicus Trin. and A. serratus Thunb. — which tend to grow 
gregaiiouslv. This tvpe of forest occurs mainly on the Irra- 
lan, spreading also on to the sandier beds of the Pegu 
system. Poorly drained plateau portions are covered with 
a stunted forest or even a scrub especially of Dalbergia pani- 
culata, Pterospertmim semisaqittalum Ham., or Acacia catechu 

4. Vitex-Heterophragma Forest. Yitex-Heterophragma 
hylion. It is difficult to find a name for the very mixed 
forest which clothes the steep-sided ranges of hills of Pegu 
sandstones. The spurs of the hills are often covered laigely 
by bamboo (Dendrocalamus striclus) whilst the tree> in the 
chaungs and gorges grow tall and straight to considerable 
heights. Among the more characteristic trees may he noted 
I ttex cf. limoni folia, Heterophragma adenophyllum Seem. (Pet* 
than), Sterculia colorata Roxb. var fulgent, Ddickandrone 
sti >data Benth. (Mahlwa), Odina ivodier Roxb. (Nahe) Bom- 
bar insigne Wall. (Didu. conspicuous though not numerically 
abundant) and Acacia leucophlom Willd. var microcephalia 
Graham. The grassy undergrowth is more varied and often 
luxuriant, but Andropogum apicus Trin. is the most abundant 


5. Tectona hamiltonii-Terminalia oliveri Forest (Dahat- 
Than Forest). Tectona h.— Terminalia o. hylion. This type 
of forest covers considerable areas of the damper portion- of 
the Pegu clays and has been studied from Pagangan (latitude 
20 c 44') sooth-eastwards towards Thavetmyo. Growing as it 
does under the same climatic conditions as the Indaing. it is 
a splendid example of a stunted forest produced by a physio- 
logically dry soil. Tectona hamiltonii Wall. (Dahat) in these 
forests usually branches near the ground whilst Terminalia 
ol ri Brandis (Than) produces straggling ill formed trees 

The grassy undergrowth consists mainly of a poor growth of 

98 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Andropogum apicus. The poorly drained areas in these forests 
are covered with the Sha-Dahat Thorn Forest. 


H. Acacia catechu-Tectona hamiltonii Forest (Sha Dahat 
Forest). Acacia-Tec tona hamiltonii hvlion (or dryon). With 
the exception of Tectona hamiltonii — which occurs mainly 
as small bushy trees — nearly all the common plants in this 
forest are armed with spines or prickles. The most important 
are Acacia catechu, A. leucophloea Willd., A. pennata Willcl.. 
Limonia acidissima Linn and H arris onia bennettii Hook. f. 
Woody lianes and prickly climbers are abundant : grass of 
the species Andropogum contortus and A. apicus is the princi- 
pal undergrowth. Abundance of bamboo produces a modi- 
fication of this forest as on the Pegu clays west of Th&yetmyo. 


7. Acacia catechu Thorn Scrub (Sha Jungle). Acacia 
catechu drvon. Where the rainfall is less than 35 inches, the 
Pegu clays weather into the very infertile <f Kyattimye. 
These lands, together with the gypsiferous Pegu loams further 
north and the Irrawadian sands with a rainfall centering round 
25 inches ( Yenangyaung) are covered with a sparse scrub, 
of which Acacia catechu (as bushes 4-6 feet high) is the 
characteristic plant. The intervening ground is covered with 
grass of the species Aristida adscensciones Linn., Eragrosti* 
major Host.. Andropogum contortus Linn., and Cynodon dactylon 
Pers. Bare patches are frequent and colonies (societies) of 
such stunted bushes as Tectona hamiltonii, Miliusa velutina 
Hook f. et Thorns., Jatropka gossypifolia Linn., and Limonia 
acidissima occur. 

8 Zizyphus jujuba Thorn scrub. Zizyphus jujuba conso- 
cien (or dryon). This type of vegetation develops with extra- 
ordinary persistence on poorly drained alluvial tracts and 
especially on land which has been cultivated and then 
allowed to lie fallow for several years Zizyphus jujuba as 
a prickly shrub or small tree is the characteristic plant, 
associated in the south with bamboo and in the north with 
Jatropha, spp., Ricinus communis Linn. (Wild Castor) and 
Capparis spp. In damper situations Lwgerstrcemia vUIosq 
Wall. (Saung bahve) is very common. In the more southern 
regions numerous climbers assist in making a dense, im- 
penetrable and very thorny thicket. 

9. Euphorbia Semi-Desert or Thorn-scrub. Euphorbia ere- 
mion. This type of vegetation, which is characterized by 
fleshy, thorny species of Euphorbia is found on tracts of Pegu 
rocks in the heart of the Dry Zone as at Minim and Yenan- 
gyaung. Other common plants are Acacia catechu, Jatropha 
gossy pi folic. Limonia acidissima nnd Omris arborea Wall. The 





1923.] Ecology of Riverine Tract of Burma. 99 

bushes are often many yards apart, the intervening ground 
may be almost bare or covered with short grass, especially 
Aristida adscenscionis. The other succulent plants which 
one associates with the Dry Zone of Burma (Opuntm sp 
and the Prickly Pear) are largely planted, especially as 
hedgerow plants. 


1°. Combretum Hedgerow Community, There are various 
phnts which are widely spread in hedgerows and which tend 

to reappear also by the banks of streams. Combretum apeta- 
lum Wall (Nabu) is especially typical. 

11. Riverside and Village Parkland. The neighbourhood 

of villages is usually marked by large stately trees of such 

& species as Tamarindus i adieus Linn. (Magvi). Bombax mala- 

haricum DC. (Let-pan), Borasms flabellifer Linn. (Tan or 
Toddy Palm), Fiats religiosa Linn., and, in damper places 
Cocos nucifera Linn (Coconut Palm). When the intervening 
ground is covered with short turf— as frequently happens 
on stretches of Irrawadian— the effect is very pleasing and 
parklike. Whilst scarcely a type of natural vegetation, the 
selective human control which, in course of centuries, has 
produced it, is largely sub-conscious. 

1*2. Kaing Grassland. The traveller up the Irrawaddy 
River is usually struck bv the sometimes extensive sandbanks 
covered with the tall (8 to 10 feet) feathery Kaing or Ele 
phant Grass (Saccharum spout aneum Linn.). Those sandbanks 
which are just covered during the high water season and 
which receive a deposit of fine silt, are very fertile and much 
cultivated, but where the Kaing Grassland is rarely covered 
and is left untouched trees soon develop. 

13. Swamps. True swamps are rare in this part of 
Burma but small areas characterized by Nymphaea or by 
Bedabin may be observed. 

V. The Connexion between Agriculture. Forestry 

and Ecology. 

Just as the distribution of natural vegetation is largel. 
controlled by the soil, so is that of the crops. Despite the 

backward agricultural development of the country, this is 
apparent from the official crop-returns and is. of course, a 
matter of everyday knowledge to the Bunnan cultivator. 
If one takes a "charge" situated wholly on Irnwadian 
(eg. No. 16 of the Thayetmyo District) one finds that only 79% 
of the area is cultivated, that sesamum is the principal crop 
(69%) followed bv ground-nuts 19%. Another charge (No. 18 

of the Thayetmyo District) situated wholly on IViiu Rocks 

-Hows that only 72% of the area fa cultivate I— there is much 

100 Journal of the Asiatic So-, of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

of the infertile Kyattimye— and sesanium is again the princi- 
pal crop (76%) but the return for ground-nuts is nil. The 
presence of a town is at once apparent in such returns as 
there is a marked increase in the percentage of cultivated 
land. Land which would in out of the way places be con- 
dered too difficult or infertile to work is, near towns, heavily 
manured and made to grow various crops. 

Turning to forestry, at the present time Teak is almost 
the only timber which it pays to extract. In the future when 
more of the vast wealth of Burma's forests will be tapped 
great attention must be paid whether consciously or uncon- 
sciously, to the ecology. One point only may be noted now. 
Certain areas would repay a little attention such as slight 
drainage control whereas others which appear at first sight 
equally promising are in reality far from being so. It is, 
for example, doubtful whether good timber will ever be pro- 
duced from the areas of stiff Pegu clays on which the Dahat- 
Than Forest now grows. 

VI. Conclusion. 

The authors hope that the full results of their investi- 
gations, with maps showing the inter-relationships between 
the geology and vegetation, will be published at a later 
date in the Journal of Ecology or elsewhere. 1 In the mean- 
time they would be grateful for any suggestions or informa- 
tion which may help to extend the usefulness of these notes 

> t Sh ] 0e J; his Was vvritten the detailed account has appeared. Stamp 
and Lord, The Ecology of Part of the Riverine Tract of Burma, Journal 
of Ecolo ,. Vol. XI. No. 2. Sept. 192:*. pp. L29-159 


Journal and Proceedings A.S.B., Vol XIX, 1923, No. 4, 
article 12, p. 102, lino 16 from bottom: for: 100, 
read: 700. 

12. Fish Recent and Fossil* 

A Review of Some Recent American Work. 

A Bibliography of Fishes. By Bashford Dean and others. Three volumes 
(Vol. I, pp. 1-718, by Dean and Eastman, 1916; Vol. II, pp. 1-702, 
by Dean and Eastman, 1917: Vol. Ill, pp. 1-707, by Dean. Gudger 
and Henn : New York) published by the American Museum of 
Natural History in the " Science Education Series." 
The Genera of Fishes. By David Starr Jordan. Four parts (pt. I, 
pp. 1-161, by Jordan and Evermann, 1917: pt. IT, pp. 163-284, 
. 1919; pt. Ill, pp. 285-410, 1019; pt. IV, pp. 415-576; 1920 by 

Jordan : California) published by Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 
£► versity, California in the " University Series " 

A t lassification of Fishes including Families and Genera as far as known. 
By David Starr Jordan. Stanford University Publications, " Uni- 
versity Series/' Biological Sciences, ITT, No 2, pp. 79-248 (1923). 

Zoologists at the present day are almost in the position of 
the blind workers engaged in building a termite mound. Each 
constructs his little pellet of information and places it some- 
where, without exactly knowing its relation to other pellets 
but with a subconscious feeling that he is doing the right 

thing, and possiblv even with a vague instinct that his work 
is helping on some great enterprise. The wealth of material 
is boundless, the number of workers almost innumerable and 
no one worker knows what his neighbour is doing. To raise 
us from this somewhat hopeless intellectual limbo we need 
physicians and teachers who will open our eyes and instruct 
us what to see. For the training of the physician and teacher 
patience is necessarv. He must studv not onlv Nature as she 
exists but Nature as she appears through the countless facets 
of the eye- of Scarabee. To drop all metaphor, we need men 
(or women) who are willing and able to abstract and codify 
existing information. 

in this respect ichthyologists are now perhaps happier 
than the students of any other group of animals, thanks to the 
devoted labours of two 'little bands of enthusiastic students of 
the fishes, both American but working on different side- of the 
continent In New York we have Professor Rashford Dean 
and his able coadjutors, while in California Professor David 
Starr Jordan has trained a whole school of young zoologists to 
assist him in his almost equally useful work. 

The object of this review' is not to abstract abstracts 
already sufficiently concise, but rather to call attention to 

these bibliographical monographs which are of almost unique 
importance. All contain, as is inevitable, error- of detail, 
but their breadth of outlook is beyond cavil and their general 
accuracy of a very high order. 

102 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

^ Fish, as we all know, are the most ancient vertebrates of 
which unmistakable remains have been preserved and even 
the most highly developed members of the class have retained 
many primitive characters, probably because they have never 
deserted their original medium. A few highly specialized 
species are able to breathe air for a time, a few can hop about 
on land, a few can even glide through the air, but no species 
has become completely or even habitually terrestial or aerial all 
are aquatic, having their habitation and reproducing their kind 
in water. The great majority, moreover, still retain what was 
probably their ancestral home in the sea. 

Professor Jordan in his "Classification of Fishes" (1923) 
mentions all the generic names which have so far been used in 
both the true lishes, the lamprevs and the amphioxi, while in 
his "Genera of Fishes" (1917-1920) he gives the original 
references to the generic names and notes the genotype of 
each. Further he discusses the validity of certain of the 
genera in a general way. In the former work he recognises 
no less than 638 families in the three groups. Emphasizing 
his point of view that "analysis must precede synthesis," he 
has thought it " better to lay a certain stress on abberrant forms 
than to include them uncritically in expanded groups, the 
definition of which is impaired or denied by their presence." 
feeemg that all the fish genera since 1758 have been discussed, 
the vast scope of his investigations and the great debt we owe 
him are clear without further comment, but the fact that he 
deals with fossil as well as recent genera should not be allowed 
to escape notice. 

Professor Jordan's work, however, is primarily for the 
specialist and has only an indirect interest for the philos- 
ophical naturalist, the fishery expert or the pisciculturist, Pro- 
lessor Bashford Dean and his coadjutors have approached the 
subject from a still wider, if morestrictlv bibliographical point 
ot view. In two volumes, each of a little over 100 pages, they 
have given a list of the papers on recent and fossil fish pub- 

JiM ,• ° m 1758 t0 19l4 > includi »g over forty thousand titles. 
Ibis list is arranged under the names of the authors, but in 
their third volume, which is of about equal length, they have 
compiled a singularly complete and admirably arranged 
subject index to all that has been written on fish and fisheries 
since the time of Linnaeus, with an author's catalogue of pre- 
lmnaean svorks in which such as those of Aristotle and, more 
surprising, of Ovid are not omitted. Other subjects discussed 
in the volume are periodicals relating to fish and fish-culture. f 

voyages and expeditions on which fish were studied, institu- 
tions connected with fish-culture and text-books in which 
particular attention is paid to fish. 

All this, is it easy to believe, is the result of 30 years* 
work. If only the matter can be kept up to date by a -upplc- 




1923.] Fish Recent and Fossil. 103 

merit issued, say once in ten years, the gratitude of ail inter- 
ested in fish and fisheries to Professor Bashford Dean and to 
the American National Museum, which has published the three 
volumes, will be perpetual. No ichthyologist, palaeontologist, 
pisciculturist or fishery expert can afford to be without these 
three volumes which should be supplemented for all those 
undertaking ichthyological research by those of Professor David 
Starr Jordan. This is particularly true of India, in several of 
the colleges of which research on the anatomy of fishes is being; 

| undertaken with Day's volumes in the u Fauna of British 

India " and the 

'/ India " as sole 

works of reference. Invaluable as these monographs of Day 
were in their time, and indispensable as they still remain, they 
have, as is only natural, been superseded in many respects, by 
more recent investigations, and to trust to them alone is ta 
court disaster. 

N. Annandale, 
S. L, Hora. 




13- On Certain Local Names of the Fishes of the Genus 



By Sunder Lal Hora, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent, 

Zoological Survey of India. 

(Read at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Indian Science Congress 
and communicated with the permission of the Director. Zoological 
' : Survey of India.) 

The fishes of the genus Garra ( = Discognathus) are charac- 
terized by the possession of a more or less well-developed 
suctorial disc on the under surface of the head slightly behind 
the mouth. Most of the species of the genus, 1 which are 
numerous in the hilly districts of India and Burma, inhabit 
rapid-running water and protect themselves against swift 
currents by clinging to rocks and stones by means of their 
suctorial disc. This habit of the fish, its form and the mor- 
phological structure of the disc are the chief factors which are 
referred to in the local names of the species in various parts of 
India and Burma. In some species one or more proboscides 
are developed on the snout, and in some of the vernacular 
names a reference is made to this character. 

In Northern India (the Punjab and the United Provinces) 
patkar-chat is the common name under which these fishes are 
known. Literally it means " stone-lickers ? ' and obviously 
refers to the fish's peculiar mode of feeding, for it scrapes 
minute algae, etc., from the rocks and stone with the help of its 
sharp jaws. These food particles are prevented from escaping 
by loose folds of skin forming the false upper and the lower 
lips and are swallowed as they are set free. The fish as it 
feeds moves up the substratum, thrusting itself forwards by 
hardly perceptible movements of its tail, but at the game time 
clinging firmly to the substratum by means of its suctorial 
disc. Other fishes of similar habits such as the species of the 
genus Glyptothorax are also called pathar-chai. 

There are two vernacular names of historic importance, 
lamta and godyari. At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
Buchanan found these names current in the Gorakhpur and 
Bhagalpur districts respectively. He evidently believed that 
the two names referred to the same species, for he say- in hi- list 
of the fishes of the Gorakhpur district: "The Godyari of the 
Bhagalpur list is here called Lamta." 2 Moreover, he labelled 

^~~— - — niiiM —^.^^^m^-b^^^^— ^— " ■'^-i*^ | i | ■— 'ii*^— r ~" — ^* M "~~W"l tt 1 1 >pi— ■*■— 

fi ' Hora, Rec. lnd. Mus. f XXII, pp. 633-687, plates, xxh -xxvi 

8 Day's volume on the Fisheries and Botany of Bengal in Hunter'- 
Statistical Ac-cunt of Bengal, p. 103 (1877). 

106 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

an illustration of a species with the disc -character well-marked 
as Cyprinus godyari and in An account of the Fishes of the 
Ganges has described it as Cyprinus lamta. The illustration 
occurs among the manuscript drawings of this author, now pre- 
served in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. While 
gathering information for determining the specific limits of 
Buchanan's lamia, I undertook a tour to the exact localities 
whence Buchanan obtained his specimens of godyari and lamta. 
I was surprised to find, however, that neither of these names 
was familiar to the local fishermen. The name lamta or any 
similar name was quite unknown in the town of Gorakhpur 
and its vicinity, and inquiries even from the older fishermen 
elicited no information about it. Nor did thev recognise as 


local fish some specimens of Garra which I had taken with me. 
fn the hills south of Monghir (the Kharagpur Hills) whence 
Buchanan obtained his specimens of godyari, the fish was known 
under two names, gudar and pathar-chat. Gudar seems to be 
connected with godyari ; in it reference is made to the sub- 
cylindrical form of the fish, for gudar means a cylindrical object 
in the local dialect. In the Kumaon Hills all the species of the 
genus Ne.machilus, which possess more or less the same form of 
body, are called gudar. 

In the Manipur Valley (Assam) a small species (G. rupi~ 
cuius) is found in rapid-running water among pebbles and 
stones and is called nug-nga or "the stone-fish/' while the 
larger species (G. nasutus) which in often found in the sluggish 
streams of the valley i? called nga-mu- sangum. Ophioce^ 
phahis is known in Manipuri as nga-nm or " the black-fish/* 

According to some Manipuris G. nasutus is like an Ophioce- 


phalus but possesses a sangum, i.e. " an umbrella " or " a mush- 
room." This refers to the mental disc. According to others, 
however, sangum is an insect which lives in grass and by its bite 
produces a swelling — again a reference to the disc which is 
supposed to resemble the swelling. It is not the Manipuris 
i lone w ho associate species of Garra with those of Ophiocephalus, 
for in Canarese also, according to Day ] Garra is known as 
Pandi-pakke, "the stone Ophiocephalus/' 

I am indebted to Dr. B. Sundara Raj, Director of the 
Madras Fisheries, for the following information: " The fishes 
of the genu- Garra (Discognathus) are known by the following 
names in this Presidency. Tamil ' Kal Koruvai,' title from 
clinging to rocks, Kal (Tamil) » stone + Kuravai (Tamil) » short- 
ness. In the Coimbatore District, it is called in Tamil c $& 
Kaha ' or ' Kul Kaha 9 ; the etymological meaning of the words 
' Nai ' and ■ Kaha ' is not known ; Kul means in Tamil stone. 
Dr. Day's Canarese name of the fish consists of two well-known 
Canarese words ■ Pandi' and « Pakke' meaning, pig and fish 

l Day, Fish-India, p. 528 (1878). 

1023.] Local Names of Fishes. 107 

respectively. In the South Kanara District it goes by the name 
; Kal mum ' (Kal means ■ stone ' and mum probably' fish ') i.e. 
stone fish; in Tula also it is called Kal mura.'\ ; In the name 
Pandi Pakke probably reference is made to the proboscis o* the 
snout which looks very much like the snout of a pig. 

According to Mr. C. R. Naravan Rao, to whom I am 


obliged for the information, " Garra is known in Mysore to the 
fishermen as " Rathi Koraka (Telugu), i: Kal Meenu " (Kannada 
i.e. Canarese) and in Coorg " Handi Kurht " (Canarese). 

Rathi = Kal = stone. 
Koraka = sucker. 
Meenu^tish or Carp, 
Handi = pig. 
Kurlu — corrupt." 

For the name Korafi-Kooii mentioned by Day as cur- 
rent in Mysore Mr. Rao gives the following explanation: 
" Koravai — K oravan — thief ; from the habit of the fish slowly 
approaching the surface and then suddenly darting to catch 
a ir — then as suddenly disappearing below." This name is also 
applied to Ophiocephalus punctata a. Koali (Tamil) — corruption 
of Kolai — referring to 
fish. Koali is the name of Rasbora daniconias also." 

In the Khasi 

fc ^2 

of the 

tasi Hills the species of Garra are known under 
three appropriate names, viz. Sherdong, Usher-keu and XJdoh- 
arkhinut. In the first two names a reference is made to the 
habit of tlie fish, while the third means "double-nosed fish' 
in reference to the proboscides present on the snout of adult 
specimens of Garra golyla. Sherdang, which means a fish that 
circles round (Sher = Qsh. d',ng = to circle round), refers to 
the habit of these fishes, which go round and round a fisher 
man when he tries to catch them. In floods the fish are said 
to climb up rocks in rapid water in shoals, and hence the 
Khasi name Usher-keu, for keu means'- to climb up " and usher, 
a fish. 

The Inthas of the Southern Shan States (Burma) living in 
the neighbourhood of the Inle Lake know Garra as the " post- 
climbing fish" (nga taing-tet). To understand the signifi- 
cance of this name, which is applied to Garra gravelyi, it is 
necessary to realize that houses are often built by thelnthaon 
posts standing in water as much as ten or twelve feet deep. 
Dr. Annandale l describing the habit of G. gravelyi in the Inle 
Lake, says : : 'We lived for some time in a house of the kind more 
than a mile from shore in the Inle Lake, and it was possible to 
watch the ascent of the bowse posts by the fish, which wa> 

1 Annandale, Rec Ind. Mus.. XIV, p. 45 (I it IS); tor other detail* 
about Inle Lake see Annandal- Bombay Journ. Sat. Hi*. 809., XXVIII, 
PP. 1038-1044, 3 pj a (1922 . 


Journal of the Asiatic Societ;/ of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX. 

usually feeen in the first instance swimming out from a thicket 
of weeds. It then settled with its head pointing upwards. 
low down on one of the house posts and began to move up it 
slowly, browsing as it did so on the small algae and polyzyoa 
(Hislopia lacustris) with which the posts were covered The 
sucker-like structure of the lips enabled it to retain a fairly 
tight hold on the post while it remained still ; its ascent was 
effected by gentle almost imperceptible movements of the tail." 

At He-Ho, a few miles from the Inle Lake, where there 
are no posts for the fish to climb, this same species is known 
as i; stone-climbing fish/' nga kayauk-ttt. 

In the Darjiling Himalayas 1 there are two species ot 
Qarra, G. gotyla and G~ annandalei. The former possesses 
proboscides on the snout, while in the latter this region is 
smooth. On this morphological difference the two species are 
distinguished from each other by the local fishermen and prob- 
ably it is to this character that a reference is made in the 
local names of species. 

List of Vernacular names of the Fish of the genus Garra. 


Local Name. 

Meaning of Local Name. 

N. W. Provinces ; cer- 
tain districts of the 
Punjab and the 
United Provinces. 


. » 


Gorakhpur (U.P.) . 
Monghir (Behar) 

Bengal . . 
Darjiling Himalayas 

» > 

Khasi Hills (Assam) 

» * 


Dkoguru * 

Koorka * * 

Lamta. . 

Oodyari . . 

Choak-8% * 3 


Luheri . . 




Pathar- stone; c/ktf = to 
lick. Stone-licking fish. 

• * 

• • 

• • 

* • 

• • 

• • 

Cylindrical fish. 

• * 

Probably refers to the 
proboscis on the snout. 

Double-nosed fish. 

Fish that circles round and 

round a fisherman. 
Ushser^fish; Keu = to 

climb, rock-climbing fish. 

1 I am indebted to Mr. G. E. Shaw for the following information :— 
In the Darjiling Himalayas Garra gotyla is called Budena and G. 
annandalei is named Luheri. " But no one here seems to know what 
the names mean or why they are so called." 

2 Mr. Donald of the Punjab Fisheries has informed me that fisher- 
men of the Kangra District M can give no reason for, or meaning of thr* 
word Kurka as applied to Discognathus lamta. 11 (G. gotyla is found in the 
Kangra valley.) 

_ ' 6 I have not been able to find any suitable explanation for Choak-si 
This name is not known to most of the Bengalis living in Calcutta, nor 
have I been able to find its meaning. 

* The local names marked with an a-terisk '*) are taken from Day. 


Local Names of Fishes. 



Manipur (Assam) 

• • 



m t 

Inle Lake, S.S. States 

Nga taing-tct 


Ho Ho, S.S. States Nga kayauk-tet 

l 4 


* f 

• • 


Coimbatore District. . 
(Tamil) .. 

South Kanara District 



Kul-korara * 

• • 



» f 

ft • 


» * 

» * 


Rathi-koraka (Telegu) 
Kal-meenu (Canarese) 

• • 

Korafi-koali * 

• • 

• * 

Meaning of Local Name 

N ug = stone ; n g a = fish. 

Nga = tish : mw = black: 
«fln^um = ura b r e 1 1 a or 
mushroom, or refers to an 
insect. Black fish with 
an umbrella or swelling 
on the chin. 

Nga~6sh; taing=hou>e- 

post ; let = to climb. 
House posts climbing fish 

Kay auk — stones. Ston<* 

climbing fish. 
" Stone ophiocephalus u 

pig fish, 

Kul— atone. Probably 
means stone fish. 

Stone fish. 
Stone fish. 

Raihi = stone ; koraka = 

sucker. Stone suckers. 
Kal=stone ; meenw = iish. 

Stone fish. 
A thief fish with inedible 



rupt. Corrupt pig fish. 

kurlu = cov 

* The local names marked with an asterisk (*) are taken from Day. 











14. On a Peculiar Disposition of the Liver and the 
Kidney in the Fish Genera Clariaa and Saccabmtnchu s 

By Sat Kori Dcttta, M.Sc , Research -Scholar, Zoology 
Department, University of Allahabad. Allahabad. 


• ■ . * • • • • 

* • 



I. Introduction 
II. Material and Technique 
III. Position and Structure of the Liver and the Kidney . - 1 13 

(i) Clarias batrachus 

(ii) Saccobranch us toss His 


IV. Histology of the Liver and the Kidney of Clarias batrachus 116 

V. Conclusion 
VI. Literature 

• • . ■ * - 

# • 



I. Introduction. 

During the course of my work on the excretory sys- 
tem of Indian fishes, a work suggested to me by Professor 
D. R. Bhattacharya of the University of Allahabad, my atten- 
tion was drawn to a peculiar disposition of the liver and the 
kidney in the fishes belonging to the Siluroid Genera, Clarias 
and Saccobranchus. On looking up the literature on the sub- 
ject, I found that though this peculiarity had been recorded in 
Clarias neuhoffl from Sumatra bv Max Weber (19) and in 
Saccobranchus fossilis by Hyrtl (10) and Pape (13). yet some 
facts remained to be elucidated for the Indian species Clarias 
oatraekus, and Saccobranchus fossilis. I propose dealing with 
them in the present communication. 

Besides Clarias and Saccobranchus, the peculiarity to the 
disposition of the liver and the kidney has been found 
to exist and has been recorded in Plotosus by Cuvier and 
Valenciennes (5) and later on substantiated by Max Weber 
(19). Weber had also had the opportunity to invest-L ite 
Helerobranchus isopterus in which he suspected that the extra- 
abdominal liver lobe was connected with the intra-abdominal 
main mass through a stalk but the specimens in his possession 
w ere unfortunately very badly preserved for detailed investi- 
gation, and he was, therefore, unable to say with precision 
whether the liver and the kidney possessed the same peculiar- 
ity as in Plotosus and Clarias. 

Hyrtl (10) has given the following description of the 
kidney of Arius cons :— " The kidney is divided into a head 
and a body part, The head piece stretches itself lengthwise on 
the lateral pectoral im. It forms a rounded swelling which 

112 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 


forms a groove on the outer side a ad becomes covered only 
by the slimy skin of the gill opening. " Further about the 
bodv lobe of the kidnev Hvrtl says : — ,; Anteriorly it consists of 
two thick lobes partly separated from one another, each of 
which curves outwardly on the posterior edge of the swim- 
bladder to become attached in a hook-shaped way on the 
upper and outer side of the lateral process of the second 
vertebr a and thus extends on the dorsal surface of the fish 
to a point below the skin, where the latter becomes specially 
thickened." Hyrtl has not mentioned an v thing about the 
condition of the liver in Arius cous. 

This peculiarity, which is described subsequently in this 
communication, mav with a fair amount of certainty be 
ascribed to form a characteristic feature of the two genera of 
fishes Clarias and Saccobranchus, It may as well be asserted 
that this feature ot the liver and the kidnev is also found in 


a few other genera of the sub-family Clarinae, e.g. Plotosus 
(vide Cuv. and Val.) Heterobranchus (vide Weber) and Arius 
{vide Hyrtl). 

I have to offer my sincere thanks to Professor D. R 
Bhattacharya who helped me a great deal with valuable advice 
and criticisms. The work involved in this investigation has 

been mainly done in the Zoological Laboratory of the Muir 
Central College, Allahabad, under the guidance of Professor 
D. R. Bhattacharya and also partly in the Laboratory of the 
Zoological Survey of India, the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
under the supervision of Drs. N. Annandale, B. Prashad and 
8. L. Hora. My sincere thanks are due to them and espe- 
cially to Dr. B Prashad from whom [ received considerable 
aid in looking up most of the literature on the subject. 

II. Material and Technique. 

The general relationship of the various organs were 
investigated by dissection of a large number of individuals of 
the genera (Jarias and Saccobranchus obtained from different 
localities in the United Provinces and in Bengal. I have not 
been able to discover this remarkable peculiarity in the 
disposition of the liver and the kidney in any other fish 
although I have examined about fifty species of freshwater fish 
belonging to the following genera : 

Sub-class — Teleostei 6. Macrones 

Order— Physostomi 7. Rita 

Family Siluridae Family Cyprinidae 

1. Wallago " 8. Discognathus 

2. Eutropichthys 9. Labeo 

3. Callichrous 10. Cirrhina 

4. Aila 11. Oatla 

5. p8eudotropiU8 < 12. Barbu* 


1923.] Liver and Kidney in J arias and Saceobranchus. 



13. Chela 

Family Notopteridae 

14. Notopttrus 

Order — Acanthopterigii 
Family Ophiocephalidae 

15. Ophiocephalus 

Family Labvrinthici 

16. Anabas 
Family Sciaenidae 

17. Sciaena 

18. Sciaenoide* 

Order Plectognathi 
Family Gymnodontes 

19. Tetrodon 

Day's (8) scheme of classification has been followed. 

For histological work the isthmus of the liver and that of 
the kidney with fairly large pieces of extra and intra-organs 
attached on either side were fixed either in Mann's or Zenker's 
fixatives. These were sectioned by the ordinary paraffin 
method. Sections stained with borax carmine and picro- 
indigo carmine gave good result with Mann's fixation. Ob- 
jects fixed in Zenker's were stained with Delafields haema- 
toxylin which was diluted with ten times its bulk of distilled 
water, and in which the slides were kept over-Bight This 

also gave satisfactory results. 

111. Position and Structure: of the Livkr and 


1 . Glarias batrach us. — The average length of Glarias balm- 

us is 20 cm. but specimens often attain a length of 25 cm. 

or more. The average length of the coelom in a foil -grown 

specimen is about 6 cm. and its breadth about 2 mi. 

The liver is divided into the usual two 
halves of 


right and left 
figure 3, lies 

3, CI ). In Gloria^ 

equal dimensions and as shown in 
inside the body cavity or coelom (Fi_ 

neukoffi on the other hand Weber (19) describes the main mass 
of the liver which lies 

The left extends with 


the dorsal and the 

*a in the body cavity to be divided very 
incompletely into right and left halves. 

the dorsal lobe very far posteriorly, while the light is much 

To the last, the long gall bladder is attached as is 
also the case in C lariat bairachus Each half of the liver of 
C. batrachus, is composed of two lobes 
ventral lobes. The length of each half of the liver in the 
interior of the body cavity does not exceed more than 20 
«*m. The ventral lobe of each half of the liver sends out on 
its outer and lateral side an outgrowth— a long solid tubular 
structure about 6 mm. in length and 1 ram. in diameter 
which p3L*<t>> through an aperture in the body-wall and ex- 
pands into a solid lobe like portion of the live n lying outside 
the bodv muscles just underneath the skin. (Figs. 1. ^. :*. *, 5, 
RBCLy Tle« perforation in the body* wall is lined by the 
'inatie layer of the eoelomic epithelium which is also oon- 
inued over what may be called the " extraeoelomic " portion 

"f the liver described above. Thus, when the muscles are 

I U Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

bored through a peritoneal sac is formed underneath the skin 
closely investing the extra-abdominal liver lobe which is quite 


structure measuring about 13 

mm. in 


8 mm m breadth, with a thickness of about 5 mm. It is 

situated at the base of the pectoral fin 

in close proximity 

-- r -v,w^xcvx mi in liu.>C IJIOAJII1UV 

to the pectoral spine and pressing against the body-wall form's 





CL --- 


■T C ^ 


GO.N ^ 




Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. 

Lateral view of Glorias batrackus with the skin cut open to 

e p& the extra-coelomic lobes of the liver and the kidney. 

fLCTF pectoral fin; PECTS, pectoral spine; RECL, right 

extra-coelomic liver; RECM, right extra-coelomic kidney 

Lateral view of Saccobranckus fossilis with the skin removed 
to expose the extra-coelomic organs. Lettering as in Fig. I . 

Clanas batrackus, dissected with the viscera in silx. CL.coelo- 
mio liver; GON gonad: HPV\ hepatic portal vein: INT, 
intestine ; LECL, left extra-coelomic liver ; LECM. left extra- 
coelomie kidney lobe ; PCARDV, posterior cardinal vein: 
>PL, spleen ; STC, stomach. 

tor itself a cap-shaped pit or depression in it. The body-wall 
is quite thick and muscular measuring about 4 mm. in thick- 
ness. The slender -talk of the liver substance joining the 
coeJomic liver with the extra-coelomic liver may be called the 

'• isthmus " of the liver. Jt lies inside the canal lined by the 
parietal peritoneum of the body-wall. The isthmus of the 

1923.] Liver and Kidney in Clarias and Saccobranchua 

I Lo 

liver ie somewhat longer than the thickness of the muscle 
through which it bores through. The liver lobes and th 
isthmus are covered by the usual visceral peritoneum. 

Posteriorly and in close proximity to the extra- coelomic 
liver lobe lies a round mass of kidney of a dark brown colour 
(Pigs. 1, 2, 3, 4 ? RECM). This mass, which is also situated 
outside the bodv-wall and close beneath the skin, is connected 
by a short branch to the anterior corner of the kidney which 
liesin the usual position. This portion of the kidney is only 
slightly smaller in size than the adjoining extra -coelomic live* 
lobe. Its histological structure shows that it is a degenerate 
portion of the mesonephros which has ceased to perform its 
function, the excretory function being chiefly carried on by 



-- py-. 











The liver of Clarias batrachus ; ventral view. OLB, gall 
bladder: LCL, left coelomic liver lobe; LECL, left extra- 
coelomic liver: RCL, right coelomic liver lobe : RECL, right 
extra coelomic liver. STC, cut end of stomach. 

The liver of Clarias batrachus ; dorsal view. CSTC, cut end of 
the cardinal end of stomach ; PCARDW posterior cardinal 
vein: LHV, left hepatic vein: RHV. right he] tic vein: 

other letters as in tig. 4. 
1 J S- 6. The kidney of Clarias batrachus; ventral view. CM, kidnev 

proper: LECM, left extra-coelomic kidney lobe : PEN, head 
kidney or pronephros; RECM, right extra- atomic kidney 





side the body-cavity. It i 

ney proper 
1 mm. in length. 6 mm. in breadth and 4 mm. in thickness. 
The connecting isthmus of the kidney is much shorter and 
Pouter than the isthmus of the liver and measures onlj aboof 
: > mm. in length. The isthmus of the kidney lies dorsal to 
the isthmus of the liver. Since the kidney as a rule lies out- 
ride the peritoneal cavitv a protrusion of this peritoneal sac of 
the kidney is not necessitated by ir< outgrowth. Immediately 

ffter the emergence of the kidnev through the punctured wall, 

it swells up to form what I call the " extra -abdominal " or 
,: subcutaneous" portion of the kidney. The isthmus in thi> 
case takes i , ,,rigin from the anterolateral side of the kidney 
Proper. There is no such peritoneal covering as is found in 
the case of the liver outgrowth. It Is also noteworthy that th<- 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N,S., 

inner surface of the skin in this situation just above the extra- 
coelomic kidney is not smooth owing to the outer surface of 
the organs which it covers being irregular. It shows numerous 
projections of tatty tissue which fills up the interstices or 
furrows between the lobes of fchs extra -coelomic liver and the 


2. Saccobranchus fossilis. — The remarkable peculiarity in 
the disposition of the liver and the kidney described above is 
also to be found in Saccubranchus fossilis The arrangement 
in the two fishes is exactly alike. 

The length of an adult Saccobranchus fossilis varies from 
[2 to 13 cm. and the breadth is a little more than 2 cm. The 
lobes of the liver and the kidnev are accordingly much smaller 


in size. The coelomic liver lobes of Saccobranchus fossilis are 



*£CL - 

Bap - 

VMJS - - 



p C - RD>j STC 

SKIN --____ 

DMLtf - .. 



CM - - 

v*us . - 




. N 

, AQR 


Fie. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Transverse section of the body of Glorias batrachus, through 
the region of the isthmus of the liver AOR, dorsal arota; CM r 
kidney proper: DMU3. dorsal muscle; LCL, left coelomic 
liver -lobe ; LECL, left extra- coelomic liver lobe; LMUS, 
lateral muscle; NOTC, notochord ; POARDV, posterior cardi- 
nal vein ; RAP, aperture in the body-wall ; RCL, right 
coelomic liver lobe; RECL, right extra-coelomic liver ; SPC, 
spinal cord ; STC, cut end of stomach ; VMUS, ventral muscle. 
Transverse section of the body of Clarias batrachus through 
the region of the isthmus of the kidney. CL, coelomic liver; 
LECM, left extra-coelomic kidney lobe ; RECM, right extra- 
coelomic kidney lobe ; Z, fat ; other letters as in fig. 7. 

each 15 mm. in length and 8 mm. in breadth and the con- 
necting isthmus is not more than 5 mm. The extra-coelomic 
liver lobe is 5 mm. in length and 4 mm. in breadth. The 
extra-eeolomic kidney is still smaller in size being 4 mm. in 
length and 3 mm. in breadth and is connected to the main 
mas- of the kidney by a very short branch of about 2 mm. in 


Histology of tab livir and the kidney in 

Clarias batrachus. 

I The Li vi;r,— The liver is compos d of the usual type of 

polygonal hepatic cells. A careful examination of a series of 


1923/ Liver and Kidney in CJarias and Saoeob ranch us. 117 

transverse sections of the isthmus with portions of the extra- 
and intra-coelomie liver attached to both ends shows that the 
general appearance of the liver cells is exactly alike throughout 
the series, there being very little modification in the cell structure 
of the portion of the liver lying outside of the body-cavity. That 
the outside portion of the liver is quite as functional" as the 
intra-coelomic liver is clearly proved by the similarity of the 
microscopical structure of cells and the general arrangement of 
the blood vessel therein. The hepatic vein originates in the extra- 
coelomic liver and passes through the isthmus, runs upwards 
being imbedded in the dorsal wall of the lobes of the intra-coelo- 
mic liver. It finally leaves the liver at the back of the organ and 
opens into the heart. The hepatic artery, slender in size, enters 
the liver at the union of the right and left halves of the liver. 
The endothelium of the blood vessel is represented by very 
definite and conspicuous cells which are cubical in shape and in 
several instances are seen detached from the underlying mus 
cular fibres. There is a great development of the muscular and 
elastic tissue both in the artery and the vein and specially in the 
smaller blood vessels. 

2. The Kidney. — The entire absence of any uriniferous 
tubules. Malpighian capsules and glomeruli, is the most 
remarkable feature in the histology of extra-coeloraic kidney, 


(Fig. 11). Microscopic 

under high power shows that the extra-coelomic kidney consists 
of compact cells or groups of cells connected by connective 
tissue fibres. Each cell has a definite cell-outline and a 
nucleus ; scattered here and there are groups of cells whose 
protoplasm is extremely pigmented, and these evidently impart 
the characteristic dark brown colour to the organ. 

The fact that there is absolutely no trace of any uriniferous 
tubules, definitely and clearly indicates that this portion of the 
kidney is a non-functional and degenerate organ. It has been 
established that the pronephros which is found in the embryo- 
of almost all teleostean fishes is purely a larval organ and 
never performs any active part in the adult excretory system. 
Since the extra-coelomic kidney is a degenerate structure it 
cannot be regarded as the remnant or the last trace of the 
larval head kidnev. because there happens to remain the 
vestige of the pronephros inside the body just anterior to 
the functional mesonephros (Fig. 6). Moreover, the extra- 
coelomic kidnev is connected to the kidney inside the body by a 
-hort isthmus. " .All these facts tend to show that it is a portion 
of the mesonephros which has become degenerated at a later 
stage of development. 

An examination of a series of transverse sections of the 
isthmus of the kidney show- that the uriniferous tubules and 
the associated structures gradually disappear as we proceed 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

I.X.8.. XIX, 

— fO>v 


_- im 


c --- 




•c ~-^ 

V --UT 



UT -// 




— au 


Fie. i). 


Fig. 10. 

fig. II 

Fig. 12. 

henl i, if! ° n ° f the istf »»«s of the liver showing the 
showing 1 - 8tr " e *" l "f' ^d the section of the hepatic vein 
»hou ing the endothelial lining detached from the musculature 

END «n2° d i % , eSSel - ,T DV ' adventitia of the hepatic vein; 

media o t > ? "'"• ° f hepat '" C Vein i HC, hepatic cell- : ME, 
mecua or hepatic vein. 

''iK >:e f° n of ? e iathm us of the kidney afaowin, 

lo S «; : . l,ctl,re 1 ,n *• u PF>er and degenerate structure in tl, 
tfve M- ? . ' ? elU - of degenerate kidnev j CETH, connec- 

PigmenTeir UT m, % epithe,iUm; 0L ' f^erulas: PGC. 
i giueuc ceils . UT, urimferous tubules 

'da^HSH SeCtl ° n ° f the extra-coelomic kidnev showing the 

ubuW? a Btr « cta «> i the entire absence of urimferou- 

Cf££JEZ c,,arac tenstic. 0, cells of degenerate kidney 

Transverr 7 **"? fi . breS: PGC ' P<- T ment cells. 

no maf G r fi t eC . ? 0t the "^racoelomic kidnev showing the 

Bl Lnm^ Structure - BLA, capillarv of" renal artery , 

faraSEfiT ° Ten>Xl V6in: GL ' Glomerulus: UT, urini- 

1923.] Liver and Kidney in Clarias and Saccobranchus. 11!) 

from the intra to the extra-eoeclomic portion of the kidney. 
Figure 10 represents the transverse section of tlie isthmus of 
the kidney which shows that the upper part has retained a feu- 
scanty and much scattered uriniferous tubules whereas the 
lower portion presents a degenerate appearance. 

Sections of the internal kidney (Kig. 12) or the kidney 
lying inside the body, exhibit typical renal structure. The 
glomerulus is covered by flat epithelial cells, the cell outline of 
which is not very distinctly pronounced. The tubules are 
fairly large and have the usual epithelial lining, the cells of 

which are conspicuously large in size. 

V. Conclusion. 

This unusual position of the liver and the kidney can be 
regarded with a very fair amount of probability to be due 
to the smallness of the body-cavity in which the comparative- 
ly larger liver and the kidney do not find enough space and 
are thus thrust outside. Obviously, the principal internal 
organs such as the liver and the kidney, if they do not find 
sufficient space in the coelomic cavity for their full development 
must either become stunted in size or find room for their proper 
development elsewhere. The outward displacement of the por- 

tion of the liver and the kidney may be looked upon as a pheno 
men on analogous to the descent of the te>te* in mammals. 

Weber (19) offers the following suggestions as regards the 
above : — •' Owing to the compression of the lateral surface, the 
swim bladder lies directly under the skin ; and the laterally 
growing swim bladder carries along with it the small lobe of 
the liver and the kidney which come to lie ill the special 
peritoneal cavity outside the coelom. The lateral develop- 
ment of the swim bladder in its turn depends on the working 
of the Weberian apparatus." From this view, I am inclined 
to disagree since there are instances (e.g. in /?//". Sciaenoides 
etc.) where owing to the general shrinking of the body cavity 
& portion of the gas bladder has taken Dp a subcutaneous 
position but has not carried along with it the small lobes of the 
liver and the kidney. The fact that the lateral part of the 
swim- bladder leaves the bodv-cavitv and lies in between the 
ventral and dorsal portion of the dorsolateral muscle is well 
known in the ease of many Siluroids Sagemehl (14) made a 
ort of division of the Siluroids upon the extent of the lateral 
outgrowth of the gas bladder. It does not seem to be very 
likely that in all these cases the gas bladder cariies outside 
dong with it portions of the liver and the kidney, and the 
hypothesis does not appear to fit ill for each and every case. 
However, the real significance and a clear explanation either 
Tom the physiological or morphological point of view of this 
extraordinary position of the organs outside the body-wall c\n 

120 Journal of the Asiatic Sac. of Bengal. [ X.S.. XIX. 1924.] 

■only be ascertained by a study of the development of the 
fishes which owing to lack of material I have not yet been 
able to accomplish. 

VI. Literature. 

1. Bohme, B. — Dberden Intestinal trach is von CI a was mel- 

anoderma, Bleeker. Inane/. — Dissert , Bern. 

2. Burne, R. H. — On the Aortic Arch of Saccobranchus 

fossilis, Joum. Linn. Soc. London ZooL 1894* 

3. Boulenger. G. A. and Bridge, T W.— Fishes, in Cambridge 

Nat. History, Vol. VII, London. 1904. 

4. Boulenger, G. A. — Revision of the African members of the 

Sub-family Clariinae. Proc. ZooL Soc. London. 

5. Cuvier et Valenciennes. — Historie nat. des Poissons (Arti- 

cle Plotosus), Vol. VI 1, Paris, 1831. 

6. Cuvier et Valenciennes.— #n// Mus. Hist. Sat.. Set*. 0. 

Vol. I, 1895. 

7. Edinger. L. — Uber die Schliemhaut des Fisehdarms nebst 

Bemerkungen znr Phylogenese der Drusen de < 
Darmrohres : Arch. Mikrosk. Anal. Bd. XT 11. 

8. Day. — Fauna of British India, Fishes. Vols. 1 and II. 

9. Goodrich. E. S. — Fishes, Lanke*ter\s Treatise on Zoology 

Pt. IX. 

10. Hyrtl, J. — Zur Anatomie von Saccobranchus Singo, C V. 

Sitz.-Ber. d, Akad. d. Wissensch. Wien, (Math.- 
naturwissensch. Klasse) Bd. XI. 1854. 

11. Hyrtl, J. — Anatomische untersuchung des Clarotes (Gono- 

eephalus) Hengline. Kner. Denkschr. d. k. k. 
Acad. d. Wiss Wien : CI. XVI, p. 14, 1859. 

12. Gunther. — An introduction to the study of Fishes. 

13. Pape, 0.— Beitrage zur Anatomie von Saccobranchus 

fossilis. Jenaische Zeits. Natur. LI I, p. 445-520 

14. Sagemehl, M.— Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Anatomie der 

Fische III, Morph. Jahrb. Bd. X. 1885. 

15. Schulze, F. E. — Epithel und Drusen/.ellen. Arch. 

Mikrosk. Anat. Bd. Ill, 1867. 

16. Studenicka, F. K., — Vergleiehende Untersuchungen uber 

die Epidermis dev Vertebrata, Analom. Hefte, 
Abt. I Bd, XXX [X. 1909. 

17. Sorensen. W. — On the Anatomy of Clatias macracanthu- 

Gthr Naturhistorisk. Tidsschriit, (Copen- 
hagen), 1883. 

18. Schafer, E. A.— Essentials of Histology. 

19. Weber, M.— Eigentvnnliche lagerung de leber und Niere 

bei Siluroiden (Clarias), Zool. Ergeben. Reise 
NiedcrJ.-Indien, Bd. 1. 1891. 

15. The Sources of the Material for Hamilton Buchanan's 
Fishes of the Ganges, the Fate of his Collections, 
Drawings and Notes, and the Use made of his Data, 

By E. W. GuDOBB, Associate in Ichthyology, American 

Museum of Natural History, New York City. 



" An Account of the Fishes Found in the River Ganges 
and its branches," l by Francis Buchanan afterwards Hamil- 
ton, is one of the outstanding works on the fishes of India. 

' It is the earliest work on Indian fresh- water fishes as Patrick 

Russell's " Fishes of Vizagapatam " (1803) is the earliest for 
the marine fishes. And it is interesting to note that both 
works are indirectly the outcome of the activities of the old 

I Fast India Company, products of the interest in natural 

I history of two of its surgeons. 

I Recently there have come to me certain facts bearing on 

the sources of Buchanan's data, and I have been enough 
interested to take the trouble necessary to go into the matter 
fully. Having the facts at hand it has seemed worth while 
making of them a definite record in order even at this late 
day to give Buchanan the credit for good work which has for 
a hundred years been denied him. 

Sources of Buchanan's Material. 

Francis Buchanan (1762-1829) entered the services of the 
East India Company in 1794 as surgeon in the Bengal Esta- 
blishment, and in the next year began his exploratory and 
surrey work on being sent on such a mission to the court of 
Ava. During the years 1796, 1797, and part of 1798 he was 
stationed at Lukhipur and at Baruipur in the Ganges delta in 
south-eastern Bengal where he began his work of describing 
the fishes of the Ganges. Later in 1798, he was employed by 
the Board of Trade of Calcutta to make a survey of the district 
of Chittagong in the ancient kingdom of Tripura. 

His exceptional ability as a keen observer being recog- 
nized, he was employed to make various other surveys. At 
the behest of Lord (then Marquis) Wellesley he made in 1800 
nd 1801 a survey of Mysore, Canara and Malabar in southern 
Jndia, his results being published in his 'Journey from 
Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara and Mala- 

1 Edinburgh, 1822, 405 pp., 59 pis. with 07 figs. 4°. 


122 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX 

bar/" etc., 3 vols, London, 1807, 4°. Daring 1802-03 he 
spent 14 months in Nepal and later two years on its frontier, 
in sections lying among; the head waters of the northern 
tributaries of the Ganges. The results of this survey were 
published as his " Account of the Kingdom of Nepal.*' 
Edinburgh, 1819, 4\ 

In 1803 he was appointed surgeon to the Governor-Gene- 
ral, Lord Wellesley, and during 1804 and 1805 had charge of 
the menagerie established by the latter at Barrackpur 15 miles 
north of Calcutta. Next Buchanan went to England with 
Wellesley late in 1805 but returned to India after a year's 


So successful had been Buchanan's work of making 
general surveys of the agriculture, arts, commerce, resources, 
religion, manners, customs, natural history and antiquities of 
these countries, and so highly was his work approved by the 
authorities of the East India Company, that its Court of 
Directors, in 1806, authorized a statistical survey of Bengal 
by him. Specific orders were given him by Governor General 
Lord Minto in September 1807, and he at once began his 
work. His travels in Bengal occupied the remainder of 1807 
and the years up to and including 1814. He made minute 
surveys of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Puraniya, Bhagalpur, Behar 
and the city of Patna, Shahabad, and Gorakhpur, and even 
then covered only part of the Bengal Presidency. The total 
cost of this survey was £30,000. 

On each district noted above, Buchanan submitted lengthy 
reports accompanied by statistical tables, maps, and draw- 
ings. Included in these (as will be seen later) were extensive 
notes and drawings on the fishes and fisheries of Bengal. Hi- 
notes filled 21 manuscript volumes of large size and in addi- 
tion there were 7 of statistical tables. 

In 1814 following the cessation of his exploratory work 
in Bengal, Buchanan, whose primar}- interest seems to have 
been in Botany, in which he had had special training, was made 
Superintendent of the Botanical Garden in Calcutta upon the 
death of Dr. Roxburgh. This post, although very congenial 
to him he resigned after a year because of ill health and by 
reason of family affairs which took him to England in 1815. 1 
He was succeeded at the garden by Dr. Nathaniel Wallich. 

1 A few Hne3 may be in order concerning Buchanan's change of 
name. Fn 1815 he returned to England for the last time, and, both his 

parents having died, he fell heir to the extensive property of his mother 
' a liidfl Hamilton), and in recognition of this assumed her name. For a 
number of years he was known to English and Indian writers as Francis 
Buchanan Hamilton, but at the suggestion of Cuvier in ichthyological 
literature he is ccmmonly referred to as Hamilton Buchanan. It is un- 
fortunate that in scientific literature he should be designated in th«» 
two different ways. 


1923. J Material for Hamilton Buchanan's Fishes. 123 

The Fate of Buchanan's Collections, Notes 

a>d Drawings. 

Buchanan took to England with him and presented to 

the Court of Directors of the East India Company collections 

of plants and minerals, Indian drugs, various geographical 

notes and genealogical tables, notes on natural History sub- 

j jects. a few drawings, 900 Indian coins, and 20 Indian RISK. 

(Chambers). These we must presume were his own personal 
property or else were duplicates, for he wished to take from 
India all his notes and drawings for deposit ia the East India 
Company's museum since he considered this ' : the most prob- 
able means of rendering them useful to science." Objections, 

however, were made which frustrated this design, as we shall 
see later. 


Tti 1820, Buchanan published in the Transactions of the 
Koyai Society of Edinburgh a paper giving with special refer- 
ence to his botanical collections a resume of his journevings 
m India. Of the transfer of his collections and drawings he 
saya that : 

I " While preparing for the journey [to England], I was de- 

prived by the Marquis of Hastings of all the botanical draw- 
ings w hich had been made under my inspection during my 
last stay in India [since 1805]. otherwise they would have 
heen deposited, with my other collections, in the Library of 

the India House. By this ill-judged act of authority, un- 
worthy of this Nobleman's character, the drawings will 
probably be totally lost to the public. To me, as an indivi- 
dual, they were of no value, as I preserve no collection, and 
as I have no occasion to convert them into money. In 
February. 1815, I embarked for Europe, and in September 
presented my whole [personal ?] collections to the Court of 

As to the details of this matter, we find the follow ing 
interesting data in the correspondence relating to this propos- 
ed transfer. Jn a communication (dated July 27, 1816) from 
Dr. Hare (who seems to have been ad interim in charge of the 
Botanical Garden before Dr. Wallich took it over) to the Chief 
Secretary of the Indian Government, we read : 

" In a letter from, .the Governor General [Lord Hastings] 
of the 5th January, 1815, His Excellency says : 'by a letter 
from Dr. Buchanan received here, it appears that he pro- 
poses to carry to Europe all the drawings of animals and 
plants collected by him during the tour which he was em- 
ployed to make in' this country. Dr. Buchanan states that 

it is his object to request the Court of Director! to accept 

this collection as a present from him. Now, I apprehend 
that these drawings are aire idy the property of the Hon ble 

124 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Court, the services for which Dr. Buchanan was employed 
and paid having specifically been the furnishing of Govern- 
ment with a knowledge of the animal and vegetable produc- 
tions of this country, delineations are essentially included in 
this service. 

? > > 

Dr. Buchanan's answer shows that permission to take the 
drawings to Europe had been asked for by him and granted 
by the Honourable Vice-President in Council, and now having 
been withdrawn by Lord Hastings, the President of the Court, 
he returned the drawings with the following statement : 

" - -my object in requesting that 1 might be permitted to 
present the drawings to the Court of Directors, did not ori- 
ginate in a view of claiming the merit of making a present 
to the Company of its own property, but arose from a con- 
viction that their being deposited in the collection at Tndia 
House was the most probable means of rendering them use- 
ful to science. " 

Let us now go into as careful and detailed a consideration 
as the data at hand will allow of the fate of Buchanan's other 
collections, (i.e., those which were the property of the East 
India Company). First he states (I 826) that his earlier botan- 
ical collections were from time to time sent to Sir Joseph 
Banks, to Dr. Roxburgh, to Sir J. E. Smith, and to Mr. A. B. 
Lambert. Notes of course went with them, while either the 
original notes or duplicates were generally if not always depos- 
ited with the East India Company, either in Bengal or in 
London. As to the fate of Buchanan's zoological collections, 
practically nothing is known. It will be remembered that he 
states that he kept no collections whatever. The interest of 
this article, of course, centres most in his fishes. These, in 
part at least, were certainly sent to England, for Giinther in 
volume III of the Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum 
(p. iv of preface), in acknowledging receipt of certain collec- 
tions says : '•' 6. A Collection of Fishes from Bengal, believed to 
contain many typical specimens of Buchanan-Hamilton's work, 
presented by G. R. Waterhouse, Esq." As to how these col- 
lections of fishes got to England, absolutely no record exists. 
Day (1877) states that he personally made inquiries at the 
India House, but could find no records of the transfer of these 
fishes to it by Buchanan. However, he does tell us (1877) 
that some of the labels on these fishes in the British Museum 
were in a handwriting very similar to that of the transcriber 
of Buchanan's manuscript and ''identical with that on original 
drawings, which differs widely from that of Dr. Buchanan 
himself, as shown in his personally kept Journal." 

The ultimate fate of Buchanan's manuscript notes and 
drawings is a matter the history of which is also of much in- 
terest. His earlier botanical notes and drawings had gone to 



Instructions for Bind big. 

*t the following Errata after page 42 of Journ. Proc. As. 

Soc. Bengal (n.s.) XIX, 1923, No. 1. 


I 2. On the Anatomy and Bionomics of the Red Cotton 

Bug, Df/silercus cingiilatus (Fabr.). 

By Hem Singh, M.Sc. (Punjab), Assistant Professor of 
Entomology, Punjab Agricultural College, Lyallpur. 



Instead of 




41 from 

CLY. Figs. 8e, 8/. 

CLY.F. Figs. 8e, 8/. 










graph 4. 

c gula ' and the pro- 
nouns and verbs for 

20 37 (Fig. 61) (Fig. 6b) 

22 20 pleuron pleura. 

i, 24 pleuron propleuron 

42,43 the scuto scutellum this 

44 SL SI/ 

23 33 post scutellum scutellum 

i ? 





J J 


5 > 

it in the singular, 
not in the plural. 

35 coridae coreidae 

24 2 are long and of con- are long, of consider- 

siderable strength able strength, and 

consisting of the consist of the coxa 

coxa. . . . (Fig. 5c). . .. 

32 being and is 

28 18 chitinous chitin-Jined 

19 7 rows row 

37 a rectum the rectum 

30 3 (S.D.) (S.D., Fig. 13) 

4 (A.SD, Figs. 9 & 13) ( A.S.D., Fig. 9) 

delete — chitinous 



38.39 The latter supports The latter besides 

below the afferent the efferent duct 
duct and above the also supports the 
pharyngeal duct .... pharyngeal duct . . 
31 2 latter former 

5 and in . In. . 

10 anterior interior 

24 ■ v ' of the V-shaped 











Instead of 
being: small and giv 

rag one. . . . 
and four small. . . . 


patches on 


is small and gives 

one .... 
and to four pairs of 

small. . . . 
and shows 
Delete the words : on 

the mesothorax 
patches can be made 

out on 




> J 






Instead of 

A 7 . A* 
A 2 - 

A b 


A'— A" 


10a & 106 A* 5 — A* 


(inc) ? 


Ua, lib A*— A 9 
& He 


A', A" 
A 8 - 

A 10 





Eps. 3 (near Epra 3 .) 
Arrows of MX & MN 

should reach the 
internal & external 
stylets respectively 

A 1 — A 10 


A 7 — A 6 . (Thesclerite 
labelled A 8 already 
is done so cor- 

1923.] Material for Hamilton- Buchanan s Fishes. 125 


the persons elsewhere noted, others as we have seen were depos- 
ited by him in the India House, and still others were left in 
India. However, it is reasonably certain that all his notes 
and drawings existed in duplicate. These, after the fashion of 

' notes made by many scientific men today, may possibly have 

consisted of rough notes and drawings made in the field and 
of more finished and permanent ones intended for preservation. 
At any rate there were duplicates made. 

We first learn of these in the preface to the volume on 
Dinajpur published along with 6i Gleanings in Science " by 
Herbert at Calcutta in 1833 (see this later). In the preface to 
this volume, which seems entirely unknown to all students of 
Buchanan's work (including Hunter and Day), we read on of the preface that : 

11 The original records [of Buchanan's exploratory work in 
Bengal], occupying twenty-five folio volumes in manuscript, 
were transmitted by the Indian Government to the Honour- 
able Court of Directors, a copy of the whole having been 
* previously made and deposited in the office of the Chief 

Secretary at Calcutta. Duplicates of [all] the drawings and 
maps, however, where unfortunately not preserved with the 
rest, probably from the difficulty at that time of getting 
them executed in India. It is a matter of surprise- and re- 
gret that these valuable documents were not given to the 
public when stamped with the interest of originality and 
immediate applicability to the actual circumstances of the 
districts, and when they would have proved of great utility 
to the public officers of Government. 7 ' 

These volumes of manuscript notes and drawings seem to 
have been put in charge of the Asiatic Society of Bengal to be 
published in its Journal as the successor and continuation of 
iC Gleanings in Science ," in connection with which the Dinajpur 
section had appeared. (This, however, was never done, it may 
be said parenthetically.) Actually and physically they were 
in the Library of the Botanical Garden at Calcutta, to which 
they had been transmitted by Buchanan before his departure 
in 1815 as noted above. 

McClelland (1839) had heard of these drawings but had 
supposed them to be the oris 

iginals of published figures and had 
n. However, in 1836, while finish- 

paid little attention to them 
*ag his monograph on the "Indian Cyprinidae" he made in- 
quiry about them and received from Dr. Wallich a collection of 
150 beautifully done and for the most part unpublished draw- 
ings of fishes with their specific names written on the margin- 
m Buchanan's own handwriting, so that there was no difficulty 
found in referring them to descriptions in the ■ Gangetic Fishes.' 
Further investigation at the Botanical Garden in 1^33 brought 
to light two other folio volumes of drawings on general zoolog- 


126 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.. [X.S . XIX, 

ical subjects consisting of 5 species of Simiadae, and I 
Ursus, 6 Cervidae, several Muridae. an Ichneumon, a Hystrix, 
3 Oaproidae, several Tortoises, 2 Flying Foxes, 2 Lacertae, 2 

Paradoxuri. and 285 birds. 

Summing up. McClelland says of these drawings— * 'all of 
which, in addition to the fishes, are drawn in duplicate, thus 
amounting to about 1)00 drawings." In addition McClelland 
found that two quarto volumes of Buchanan's zoological 
manuscripts (relating to these figures we may conjecture) had 
been retained in the Botanical Garden since 1815. Thus all 
this work was lost to the world and our author deprived of its 
credit, while other men were refiguring and redescribing these 


Ju.-t here an apparent discrepancy may be cleared up. 
The preface of the 1833 Dinajpur volume refers to 25 volumes 
of Buchanan's manuscript transmitted to the Court of Direc- 
tors, a duplicate set being left with the Indian Government. 
Elsewhere in this paper reference is made to 21 folio manus- 
cript volumes plus 7 of statistics. Now McClelland speaks of 
2 manuscript volumes of fish drawings and of 2 other volumes 
of drawings of general zoological subjects, making 21 +2 + 2 — 
25 as stated in the Dinajpur volume. This seems to be in 
error, however, in saying that duplicates of all the 25 volumes 
were sent to England. For as we shall see later, not all the 
drawings in these 4 volumes had duplicates in England. 

Cantor (1849) says on the vexed subject of Buchanan's 
fish drawings : " They consist of 144 coloured figures of fishes 
executed by native painters, and they form a portion of the 
series of Zoological Drawings which on Buchanan Hamilton's 
departure from India were deposited in the Library of the 
Honourable Company's Botanic Gardens, Calcutta." 

Cantor quotes Griffith (1843) that these drawings consisted 
in 1843 of 144 fishes, 19 reptiles, 349 birds, and 36 quadrupeds. 
Griffith then adds, "For many of the originals, copies appear 
to have been substituted. There are in addition 18 folio 
sheets containing copies of some of the drawings of Fish 
executed apparently in Dr. Wallich's time. Of Birds, etc.. 
there are also similar duplicate copies 22; and of unfinished 
and unnamed 14." ' 

Next we hear of Buchanan's fish drawings in 1869 when 
Dr. Giinther says in a footnote on page 127 of the Zoological 
Record that"., those drawings exist in triplicate, one copy 
being in the British Museum where their free use is allowed. 
Unfortunately he does not give his authority for this state - 

I regret that 1 have been unable to find in this country a copy of 
Griflith'a "Report," and hence have had to quote him from Cantor's 
account. Griffith was Director of the Calcutta Botanic Gardens fron 
1842 to 1844, during one of Wallich's absences. 

1923. j Material for Hamilton-Buchanan's Fishes. 127 

ment nor does he state where the third set may be found 
Possibly the set in the British Museum (which seems to be in- 
complete) was that used by Buchanan in illustrating his 
' Gangetic Fishes 7 , and was the third, the other sets being in 
India House and in Calcutta. 

Cantor (1849) says in his preface (p. xi) that Valenciennes 
had through Horsfield access to Buchanan's drawings in the 
Library of the East India House, London. However, on p. vi 
of the 'avertissement', of vol. IVofCuvier and Valenciennes, 
we read that while Horsfield showed Valenciennes Finlay son's 
drawings of Siamese fish in the East India House, Gray showed 
r him in the Hardwicke Collection the Buchanan drawings of 

fishes described but not figured in the -Gangetic Fishes/ 

— — ..g,,-^ — . — -„„ .. — _,„„.„ _ — „ — 

For the major part of our knowledge of the fate of Bucha- 
nan's scientific remains we are indebted to the initiative of 
Francis Day. In 1871 he examined the folio volume-; of draw- 
ings and manuscripts of Dr. Buchanan on deposit in the li- 
brary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta. In two of 
■> these he found " one hundred and forty-nine original coloured 

delineations of fish and forty-five copies. " And he quotes 
-McClelland (who knew Buchanan's wiiting well) that on the 
former "the specific names in Dr. Buchanan's handwriting 
[are] marked under the figures, so as to leave no doubt or 
difficulty in referring them to corresponding descriptions in the 
'Gangetic Fishes.' " McClelland, it will be recalled, in refer- 
ring to these, says that he also found 2 quarto volumes of 
manuscripts, but Day, however, makes no mention of these. 

Uses made of Buchanans data. 

Having given all the information obtainable as to the fate 

of Buchanan's collections, manuscript notes, and drawings, let 
»s now take up an investigation of the use made of his rations 
data, particularly that relating to fish and fisheries. 

In J 822. Buchanan published at hi- own expense his 

' Gangetic Fishes ' under the following title: " An Account 
" the Fishes found in the River Ganges and its Branches. 
By Francis Hamilton (formerly Buchanan) Ml)., etc. With a 
Volume of [59] Plates in Roval Quarto. Edinburgh, 1822. ' 
4.°? This work comprises 40"> pages, describes 269 species 
of fishes, and is illustrated by 97 figures. Many of these 
figures, however, are in duplicate— i.e., there will be a beauti- 
ful drawing of the fish on stone in lateral view, and next and 
bearing the same number an outline sketch showing the fish 
from above. Hence the total number of drawings is much 

greater— 173 in all. 

-Now conies the question as to the drawings used in the 
Plates of the • Gangetic Fishes.' Certainly the nucleus was 

composed of drawings belonging to him personally. While at 

128 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Lukhipur and Baruipnr in 1796-1800, he had drawings made 
of the fishes, Chaudhuri (1918) quotes a letter from Bucha- 
nan to Roxburgh dated Nov. 30, 1797 :— " 1 have given my 
old painter a gold mohar a month and have him emplo3 T ed on 
fishes " Later, while in charge of the menagerie at Barrackpur 
in 1804-05, he continued his researches and had drawings 
made — presumably at his own expense (Chaudhuri). 

Whether Buchanan had had drawings made for every 
species of fish studied in Bengal is a matter of conjecture. But 
he certainly had great numbers made and it is equally certain 
that, while he made use of some, he did not have access to all. 
Of this we have his own testimony. On pages 315-310 of his 
" Fishes of the Ganges" in speaking of Cyprivus titius, he 
says: — "' in the north-east parts of Bengal, I saw another fish 
railed by the same [native] names, and procured a drawing, 
now in the possession of the Bengal Government . . . therefore 
until I recover the drawings I cannot give the fish a specific 
character. " As further evidence of the fact that he was 
not permitted to use all his drawings, it may be stated that 
while he described 80 species of the family Cyprinidae, he only 
figured 21. 

On this point McClelland speaks explicitly (1839) when he 
says that in 1836 he found in manuscript collections in the 
library of the Botanical Garden at Calcutta 150 beautifully 
executed drawings of fishes of which 52 alone were unpublished 
figures of Cyprinidae. Later Day (1 87 1 ), as we shall see further 
on, found 146 figures and 48 duplicates, of which at least 124 
had not been utilized in the " Fishes of the Ganges." These 
124 unutilized figures, plus the 97 published bring the count up 
to 223 known figures out of 269 species described. 

But not only was Buchanan deprived of the use of the 
greater number of the drawings of the fishes of the Ganges, 
but it is evident that he did not have at hand all hia notes 
made during his survey of the Bengal districts. This will be 
made clear to anyone who consults the Dinajpur volume or 
Day's papers (1873 and 1877), wherein are contained data not 
found in the ' Gangetic Fishes/ On this point Day again 
explicitly says (1878) : iC He appears to have been refused 
access to his original MS. report, when he desired to publish 
at his own cost, the ■ Fishes of the Ganges. ' " At the time 
that he wrote this work his report in 28 manuscript volumes 
was reposing in the India House, London, where it had been 
brought in 1816. 

Now as to the further use of the data so laboriously col- 
lected bv Buchanan and entirely withheld from complete 
publication, certain interesting facts mav be given. First of 

23 .-^^^ .*»v* , ~— -. 

all I have found that some use was made of various mis- 
cell meous data in papers by C. Mackenzie and Henry T. Cole- 
hrooke in the Asiatic Transactions between 1807 (vol 9) and 


1923.] Material [or Hamilton-Buchanan's Fi«hes. 129 

1816 (vol. 12). Also there is a short paper bv Buchanan him- 
self in "Gleanings in Science, " 1832, vol. ii'i, pp. 1-8. The 
first extensive use, however, was by Hamilton, as noted next. 

In 1820. Walter Hamilton published at London his '« Oeo- 
i graphical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hin- 

dostan and the Adjacent Countries " in 2 vols. 4°. Jn this 
work of solid worth, Hamilton says that his purpose was to re- 
duce the geography, etc. of Hindustan to a more definite and 
systematic form than had been done before. On page x of 
his preface in his vol. 1 he says that he has drawn almost 
exclusively on the manuscript records deposited at the India 
■Board, and very largely upon Buchanan's 25 manuscript folio 
volumes in which he found the latter's task " executed with 
such singular ability and success.'' that he greatly regretted 
that it was not immediately published since Buchanan's report 
were " models for future investigations of a similar nature. " 
Throughout his work he constant!}- quotes our author, giving 
him the fullest credit. However, the data printed on fish and 
fisheries is very abbreviated and of little value. 

During the years 1830-34 John Edward Gray brought 
out in London in 2 large folio volumes " Illustrations of Indian 
Zoology ; Chiefly selected from the Collection of Major-Gene- 
ral Hardwicke, " consisting of 202 coloured plates without any 
text or even preface. Among the other animals portrayed 
are 10 turtles and one Paradoxurus, all drawn or lithographed 
(with one exception) bv Waterhouse Han kin-, and labelled 
''From Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's Draw ings, India " En addi- 
tion there are 77 species of fishes shown in 137 figures (see 
explanation above of two h 

tmn of their origin. Ho , 

Cyprinidae ." made a careful comparison of these figures with 
those found in the library of the Calcutta Botanical (Jarden 
and found that 2 species in 37 figures were copic- of Bucha- 
nan's figures on deposit there— all of which I have verified by 
comparing the ' Lustrations' and Day's list to be referred to 
later. And these drawings were used without ghing Bucha- 
nan a word of recognition. On this point. Day in the preface 
(P- Hi) to his '• Fishes of British India " (1878) writes : " The 
late Dr. J. E. Gray observed (in a letter to myself, dated 
January Huh, 1872). ' Hamilton and Hardwicke were great 
friends, and he allowed his artist to make c<< pies of .ill his 
fishes from Mysore and other drawings for General Hardwicke, 
in whose collection of drawings new in the Museum they are 
to be seen. Mrs Grav engraved a large number of the small 
«infi<f Ure d species from that serr-s but thev have not been pub- 
lished ' i ln ,v add that 1 obtained a sel ••£ these figures along 
"ithsom.- of the late Dr. Jerdon's MSS. ; the- are >ix Ho. 
plates containing 40 figures." A large number of the Hard- 
wioke'a figures it should be noted are. however, reprodactioiw « 

igares to a fish) without any indica- 
wever, McClelland in his '• Indian 

130 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S. 5 XIX 

the Calcutta manuscript collection over which Buchanan had 
no control. 

Concerning these unacknowledged or "pirated" figures 
of Hardwicke's, McClelland notes that the colours are exagger- 
ated in some cases, wronelv shown in others, omitted in still 

. *---— © 


? ' 

others, while Buchanan's erroneous names are retained in some 
cases and names and drawings changed (criss-crossed) in others, 
and finally remarks are added lacking in the original draw- 

The next work to contain Buchanan's material is curiously 
enough an almost unknown hook bearing his own name, a 
work of which both Day and McClelland make no mention al- 
though it was published in Calcutta. This is ; A Geographi- 
cal Statistical, and Historical Description of the District or 
Zila, of Dinajpur, in the Province, or Soubah of Bengal. By 
Dr. Francis Buchanan's Buchanan (Hamilton), Calcutta. 1833. 
8°. This, which is a verbatim copy of Buchanan's report on 
Dinajpur, was published posthumously with the issues of the 
% - Gleanings in Science." 

This publication was arranged for by Capt. J. D. Herbert, 
editor of the ;i Gleanings," with a view to securing circulation 
free of postage in the territories of the East India Company 
for his journal, the quid pro quo to the Company being found 
in the stipulation that he published from time to time t; valu- 
able public documents having reference to public utility." This 

was done to the extent of completing the report on Dinajpur 

but without any illustrations. The copy supplied was appar 
ently a duplicate one, for in the preface to vol. I of the 
-Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" (1832) (the suc- 
cessor of the "Gleanings") it is stated that " the drawings 

alluded to [as not yet published] are in possession of the 
Honourable Court of Directors, along with the original manus- 
cript." In the preface to the Dinajpur volume it is stated 
that the types were set up from the duplicate manuscript 
text, and that the references to the figures as set by Buchanan 
were retained, so that in case the Government should ever 
decide to publish the illustrations, these could be added to the 
published volume or if bound separately the references would 
still apply. 

At first T presumed that these Dinajpur data were pub- 
lished in the ' ; Gleanings," but inspection of the three volume- 
of this journal shows their absence, and in the preface t 
volume I of the <; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" 
it is stated that these were' 4 printed in detached form " and as 
such sent to the subscribers of the f< Gleanings" and to others. 
In 1833. the separate issues in parts of the Dinajpur report 
were collected and bound in volume form with the title page 
given above. Fish and fishing are found on pages 137 -145, 
64 -per-ies of fishes being listed. 


1923.] Material for Hamilton-Buchanans Fishes. 131 


Just here it must be explained why this publication was 
not continued. In 1832 the " Gleanings in Science" had its 
name changed into "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" 
under the editorship of James Prinsep, although the Asiatic 
Society was in no wise responsible for it. In the preface to 
volume II of the Journal we learn that a second volume of 
Buchanan's notes was begun and 50 pages and 3 plates printed, 
and that the Government had place! in the editor's hands 
the remaining volumes of Buchanan's manuscripts with s: an 
intimation of its desire that the printing of these records 
should be continued/' However, a notice from Government, 
dated December 2, 1833, was later received, withdrawing the 
free-of -postage privilege after June 1 following, but giving no 
explanation whatever. This seems to have put an end to the 
printing— at least I have not been able to find that anything 
further was done. Such are the vagaries of Government. 

Chronologically, next in order, we find Buchanan's mater- 
ial utilized by Montgmery Martin in the preparation of his 
three volume work entitled " The History. Antiquities, Topo- 
graphy, and Statistics of Eastern India; comprising the dis- 
tricts of Behar, Shahabad, Bhag ill poor. Goruckpoor. Dinajpoor, 
Puraniya, Kungpoor and Assam. .Collected from original 
Documents at the East India House, London, 1838." The 
original documents were mainly Buchanan's manuscript-. 
These were examined by Martin and found to be so valuable 
that he sought permission to place them before the British 
public. 1'his granted, he prepared his book directly from the 
manuscripts, making no change in the arrangement of the 
surveys, reproducing some of Buchanan's original drawings 
and in large part retaining Buchanan's very language. I have 
compared the Dinajpur section with Buchanan's Din a j pur 
book of 1833, and find it an almost verbatim copy. While 
Martin gives Buchanan the fullest credit, the book is so nearly 
&n exact reproduction of Buchanan's work, that its title 
should, in my judgment, read "The History, Antiquities, etc., 
of the Districts of Behar. etc.! by Francis Buchanan edited 
by R. Montgomery Martin/' Here again, however, the fishes 
and fisheries are so briefly referred to as to make the reference 
of no value. 

The next man to utilize Buchanan's materia! was Mc- 
Clelland in the preparation of his ; - Indian Cyprinidae M 1839). 
After labouring for about three years and at times almost in 
despair to identify the ruUfigored Cyprinidae in the 'Gangetic 
Kahea/ he finally succeeded. Furthermore, he had had two 

series of finished (coloured) drawings made of these Cypri- 
Bids, when, hearing of drawings by Buchanan in the library 
of the Botanical Garden, he examined them and found among 
them 52 unpublished drawings of Cyprinidae of the 'Ganges' 
McClelland used 39 of these drawings giving Buchanan the 

132 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

fullest credit, his name appearing on every plate which 
includes one of his figures. 

Not only had Buchanan been unable to make use of these 
figures in his ; Gangetic Fishes,' but for 22 rears they had lain 
bidden, and McClelland had gone to the "time, trouble and 
expense of identifying Buchanan's unfigured Cvprinidae (which 
would have been made easy by the use of the figures) and had 
also had these refigured. One hardly knows how to charac- 
terize so culpable a situation. 

Just here is the place chronologically to clear up a long 
obscure point, namely when were these "drawings and notes 
transferred from the Library of the Botanic Garden to that of 
the Asiatic Society. For a long time I thought that this had 

been done when the manuscripts were put into the hands of 
Herbert and of Prinsep for publication, but this was negatived 
by McClelland's statement that in 1838 he saw the drawings at 
the Botanic Garden. However, the matter is cleared up on the 
authority of Cantor who says that " Mr. [Wm.j Griffith while 
superintending the Botanic Gardens transferred these drawings 
to the Library of the Asiatic Society, Bengal," in 1842 or 1843. 

Day has done more than any one man to make use of 
Buchanan s literary remains. In 1871 he examined the draw- 
ings in the Library of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, with the 
following results. 

He listed by number the drawings in the volume marked 
IV and gave the unpublished names written on them by 
Buchanan. He then went to the great trouble of identifying 
them according to the determinations of species in the " Fishes 
of the Ganges." and the "Catalogue of Fishes in the British 


Museum. Next he identified these drawings with the pu 

ed figures in the « Gangetic Fishes.' in Hardwicke's 'III 

turns, and m McClelland's ' CyprinidaV And lastly he added 
some notes of his own to the list in the article, while on the 
drawings themselves he placed the numbers used in his list. 

there are 146 (not 144 or 140 or 150) figures in his list, of 
wnich Nos. ,0 and 71 are duplicates of No. 64, Mngil boqon, an 
undesenbed form. In passing it may be remarked that No.128 
is Lyprinus titme, to which Buchanan refers on page 317 of the 
Ganges Fishes as being in possession of the Bengal Govern- 


1 have been at the trouble to analyse Day's list of 146 
(uaw.ngs with the following interesting results : as noted above 
- drawings are duplicates of a third ; excluding these 2, there 
are j other drawings of fishes never described, and the draw- 
rags never published ; 24 only of these drawings were used bv 
Buchanan in the '■ Fishes of the Ganges "; 17 were reproduced 
in Hardwicke's "Illustrations," and 2 others were deposited 
with the Hardwicke collection in the British Museum but never 
reproduced; McClelland utilized in his work 30 figures of 

r A 


1923. | Material for Hamilton-Buchanan's Fishes. 133 

Cyprinidae out of 52 found ; this leaves 53 figures as yet remain- 
ing unpublished anywhere. 

In another volume Day found 48 drawings of fishes, all of 
which are duplicates of the preceding except 4 One of these 
has been reproduced in the Hardwicke volume, one is a dupli- 
cate of which the original has been lost, and only one of the 
four has had the fish described in the 'Ganges Fishes.' The 
duplicate, of which the original is lost, was reproduced as to 
its head and dorsal fin by Gunther in 1872. and the same 
ichthyologist in 1871 had reproduced the figure of Cypritius 
bctiu, No. 114 of Day's list above. 

As has probably been noted, there are some discrepancies 
in the counts of these drawings. McClelland says that there 
were 150 sent him by Dr. WalJich. Day (1871) reports first of 
149 drawings and 45 copies in 2 manuscript volumes., but he 
lists 146 in vol. IV and 48 in vol. I, and later says: 'This 
volume IV contains 50 coloured illustrations of fish." Again 
(1877) Day speaks of four volumes of drawings which were 
never transmitted to England and notes that two of these 
contained 149 drawings and 45 copies. Day's 149 drawings 
plus 45 copies equal 194 numbers. Analysed, there are 146 
originals in one volume plus 3 originals and 45 copies, in 
another volume, altogether amounting to 194 pieces. 

In 1873 Day announced " that the long missing papers of 
Dr. Buchanan on natural history have at last been discovered, 
and that 1 have been permitted to take copies of those relating 
to the ichthyology of Bengal/' These were the 2H manuscript 
volumes taken to 'England in 1816 and brought back to India in 


1873, as we shall see later. He then published (187.$) a note 
based on these manuscripts, correcting a number of errors in 
the " Fishes of the Ganges." The great pity is that for nearly 
60 years these notes and drawings had been hidden in govern- 
ment archives to the great loss of credit for Buchanan and of 

valuable data for ichthyology. 

For the final knowledge and use of the large amount of 
data collected by Buchanan in his Bengal survey we are indebt- 
ed to Hunter and through him Day. In 186«». Dr. William 
Wilson Hunter, having been made Director-General of Statis- 
tics to the Government of India, was directed by the Governor- 
General of India to prepare a statistical account of Bengal. 
In preparation for this work he carried back to India with him 
the 28 manuscript volumes of Buchanan's notes elsewhere re- 
ferred to. The magnificent outcome of Hunter's work was the 
20-volame 'Statistical Account of Bengal," London. 1*75-1877. 
'"preparing this. Buchanan's work was constantly used against 
which to check the progress of <>0 years in those parts of India 

which he surveyed in 1807-1814. " Th^se manuscripts brought 


from London were submitted to Day in 187.'$ with the rcqu t 
•fiat he look into them to ascertain how the fresh-water fisher- 

134 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

ies were carried on in the early 1800'sas well as how the coloured 
figures in the Calcutta (collection were referred to. This Day 
did with alacrity and at once published (1873) a preliminary 
report, saying in part: "I was quite unprepared to discover 
that his manuscript notes on fishes, which have now lain 
upwards of 60 years in the (Government Archives, contain 
many remarks and much information not existing in his work 
[i.e., the c Gangetic Fishes ' ]. These papers, in fact, form the 
key to the unpublished drawings, and several errors in the 
1 Fishes of the Ganges ' may now be corrected from the author's 
own notes 

; j 

Later (1877) Day published (with suitable introductory 
and concluding sections) in verbatim form Buchanan's ci Fish 
and Fisheries of Dinajpur" with (34 species, Rangpur with 126 
species, Purniah with 134, Bhagalpur with 7(5, Behar and 
Patna with 62. Shahabad with no list 1 and Gorakhpur and 
North-West Provinces with 79: a total of 541 species listed, 
many of which are of course duplicates (identical species). 
Buchanan gives for these fishes the native name followed in 
some cases by the scientific name transliterated into French, 
as st Vagari, Pimelode." To these he frequently adds notes as 
to the habits, properties, identity with fish found in other 
districts, or other data relating to the fishes. Jn a series of 
footnotes Day identifies each fish with the corresponding one in 
the i6 Fishes of the Ganges " and in the unpublished manuscript 
drawings which he found in Calcutta. Occasionally he adds 
notes of his own, but these are always set in the footnotes. 

Thus the greatest student of Indian fishes has sought to 
give due credit to the pioneer student of its fresh-water piscine 
fauna, a credit denied him for nearly two-thirds of a century, 
to the great loss of Indian ichthyology. It should be noted in 
passing that Day found in 1877 that a number of drawings seen 
by McClelland in 1838 had disappeared and that others had been 
damaged by termites. It would be a valuable contribution to 
the history of Indian ichthyology if some of the able student- 
of this science in Calcutta would see if these drawings are still 
in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, would inspect 
them and would publish the facts. Thus possibly there might 
be cleared up the discrepancies in the count of the volumes of 
manuscript and of the number of drawings, as well as of the 
matter of the handwritten names on the margins of the latter 
aid to be Buchanan's by McClelland (1839), but stated for som 
drawings to be that of another by G (hither (1872) and also by 
Day himself (1877). 


] Buchanan explains the absence of a list for Shahabad as due to the 
fact that while surveying that district he had no fixed abode (where speci- 
mens could be stored), and further that these fishes were the same a- 
those found in Patna. 

102:! j Material for Hamilton- Buchanan 9 8 Fishes. 135 



With regard to the grievous wrong done to both Buchanan 
and Ichthyology by the long withholding of the scientific results 
of his exploration of the Bengal presidency, I cannot do better 
than quote McClelland (1839) who with a very exact knowledge 
of the situation wrote as follows : 

"Had such an injury to the advancement of information resulted 
from an oversight in an ordinary public office, the circumstance would 
excite less surprise : but that the works of a naturalist should be so treated 
in a public Institution expressly intended for the promotion of science, is 
ao unaccountable to me, that I cannot presume to express an opinion on 
the subject. But as the case stands, perhaps the best remedy that can 
now be applied in justice to Buchanan, as well as to others who are still 
engaged in scientific pursuits, would be to give a complete edition of hi- 
labours, botanical and zoological, to the public; at the same time it is 
right to say that no atonement can now make amends for the injury that 
has been inflicted on Buchanan as a naturalist, or for the time that has 
been lost in allowing others to go over unnecessarily the ground which he 
investigated, instead of beginning where he left off." 

Sources of Data for this Article Additional to 

that cited in the text. 

Buchanan (Hamilton), Dr. Francis. 

1833. A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Descrip- 
tion of the District, or Zila, of Dinajpur, in the Province, 
orSoubah of Bengal Calcutta, 1833, 342 pp. 

Buchanan (afterwards Hamilton), Francis. 
i 1877. The Fish and Fisheries of Bengal (edited by Francis 

Day). Li Hunter, William Wilson, A Statistical 
Account of Bengal, London. 1877, vol. XX, pp. 1-120. 

Hamilton (formerly Buchanan), Francis. 

1822. An Account of the Fishes found in the Hirer (ranges 
and in its Branches. Edinburgh, 1822,406 pp., 30 pis. 

[97 figs.]. 4°. 

Hamilton (formerly Buchanan), Francis. 

1826. Some notices concerning the Plants of Various 

Parts of India, etc. Transaction* Royal Society, Edin- 
burgh, 1820, vol. 10, pp. 171-186. 

Cantor, Theodore. 

1849. Catalogue of Malayan Fishes. Journal Ariake 
Society Bengal, 1849, yol. 18, preface, pp. HXi. 

1 'hambers, Robert. . 

f 1836. A Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious and Dis- 

tinguished Scotsmen. Glasgow and London, 1836, vol. 
1, pt. 2, pp. 393-397. 

Chaudhuri, B L. _ ^ , . 

1^18. [History of Indian Ichthyology] Presidential ad- 
dress, Section of Zoology and Ethnograpy, Fifth 

Indian Science Congress, Lahore. Jan. 1918. Proeee* 

136 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

dings and Transactions Asiatic Society Bengal. 1918, 
vol. 14, pp. cxxxviii-cl. 

Day, Francis. 

1871. On Hamilton Buchanan's Original Drawings ot 
Fish in the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 



1873. Extracts from the late Dr. Buchanan's ' Fishes of 
Bengal/ with Remarks. Proceedings Zoological 
Society London, 1873. pp. 743-748. 

1878. The Fishes of India, etc., London, 1878-88, vol. 1, 

preface, pp. ii — iii . 

Day, Francis (Editor). 

1877. The Fish and Fisheries of Bengal by Francis 
Buchanan (afterwards Hamilton). In Hunter, William 
Wilson, A Statistical Account of Bengal. London. 
1877, vol. 20, pp. 1-120. 

Gray, John Edward (Editor). 

1834. Illustrations of Indian Zoology; chiefly selected 

from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke. 
London, 1830-1834. 2 vols, great folio.— pis. of fishes. 

Griffith, William. 

1843. Report on the H on 'ble Company's Botanic Gardens. 
Part V, Library Department, p. 96. Calcutta, 1843. 

Giinther, A. C. L. 

1861. Catalogue of Acanthopterygian Fishes in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum. 1861, vol. Ill, preface, 
p. iv. 

1870. [Note on Hamilton-Buchanan's MS. drawings ot 

" Fishes of the Ganges "] Zoological Record for 1869. 
1870, vol. VI, p. 127. 

1871. Examination of certain u Remarks on Indian 
Fishes" made by Mr. Francis Day in the M Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society." Proceedings Zoo- 
logical Society London, 1871, pp. 761-766. 1 fig. 

1872- Note on a Hitherto Unpublished Drawing in the 

Hamilton-Buchanan Collection, Representing Barbus 
heavanL Proceedings Zoological Society London, 1872 
(pt. 2), pp. 875-878. 2 figs. 

McClelland, John. 

1839. Indian Cvprinidae. Asiatic Researches [of the 
Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal]. 1839, vol. 19, pt. 2, 
pp. 218-223. 451. 26 pis. 

Prinsep, James. 

1832 [Dr Buchanan's Statistics of Dinajpur] Journal 
Asiatic Society Bengal, 1832, vol. 1, preface, p. »*• 
Ibid. 1833, vol. 2. preface, p. vii. 

16. The Adhesive Apparatus on the Toes of certain 

Geckos and Tree-frogs* 

By Sunder Lal Hora, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent. 

Zoological Survey of India. 

, (Communicated with the permission of Director, Zoological Survey 

of India.) 


While recently engaged in the study of the adhesive 
apparatus of the fish and tadpoles of mountain torrents and 
of the mechanism of adhesion of the cephalic disc of Echeneis 
or its allies Remora, 1 noticed great similarity in outward 
torm between the digital discs of our common house Gecko 
(H emidactylus flaviviridis) and the so-called "sucker" of the 
"sucking-fish." After going through the literature J found 
* 'hat the adhesive pads of Geckos have received sufficient 

attention and that various theories have been advanced to 
account for the property of adhesion possessed by them. 
With a view to study the validity of the various theories, 
I have made observations on living and fresbly-killed Geckos. 
The minute structure of their adhesive pads has been 
thoroughly studied from earlier accounts and from specially 
prepared preparations in order to elucidate the same problem. 
The finger-discs of the tree-frogs have also been similarly 
examined and a note on their probable mechanism is given 
towards the end of this paper. 

I am greatly indebted to my colleague, Dr. Baini Prash&d 
for translating certain papers in German into English for me. 
T>r. N. Annaudale has gone through the manuscript with me, 
for which my best thanks are due to him. 

Before passing on to the observations on the mechanism 
of the finger-pads of Geckos, I propose to give a short account 
of the structure, both macroscopic and microscopic, of these 
organs. For a detailed account of the same reference may be 
made to W.J. Schmidt's 1 paper on the integument of the 
Geckos. In the same place will also be found all earlier 


references on the subject. 

flaviviridis consists of a number 

of paired lamellae which run parallel to one another. Both at 
the anterior and the posterior end of the pad there are a 
few unpaired lamellar pieces. The lamellae are regarded as 
modified scales and as such show great similarity in their 

1 W. J. Schmidt, Zool.Jahrb. Anat. Abt. Jena, XXXVI, pp. .{77- 
464, pie. xxxiii-xxxvi (1913). 

138 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

arrangement to the scales on the under surface of the corres- 
ponding digit. At the end of each finger there is a strong, 
recurved claw. The arrangement of the lamellae and the 
shape of the adhesive pads is different in different genera 
of Geckos ' but the main feature, e.g. the ridge-and-groove 
pattern appears to be shared by all of them, or at any rate by 
all of those genera in which an adhesive apparatus is present 
on the digits. From the histological account of the disc 
published so far it appears that the minute structure of 
the lamellae is more or less similar in almost all Geckos. In a 
transverse section each lamella is found to consist of four 
chief elements from outside inwards, (1) a horny layer beset 
with innumerable, branching, setose processes and resting 
on, (2) a layer of few tiers of elongated horny cells. (3) the 
third element consists of large rectangular cells, with deve- 
loping setose processes in the outermost layer. These are the 
mother-cells of the setose processes of succeeding generations 
(4) the last layer is the stratum malpighii. The outermost 
layer bearing setose processes is periodically cast off and 
even in the laboratory it can easily be removed with a needle. 

The vacuum theory of the adhesive action of the pads of 
Geckos held sway till 1902 and it was commonly believed that 
small and numerous vacua " were produced in between 
the lamellae. The explanation, as can readily be seen, was 
similar to that advanced for the adhesive property of the 
cephalic disc of Erheneis or its allies. In the case of the fish 
the raising of the usually recumbent lamellae was attributed to 
the muscular action on the part of the animal, but in Geckos 
the creation of a series of vacua is accounted for by Gadow 2 
in the following manner : u The pressing down of the foot 

upon a smooth surface causes the lamellae to spread asunder 
and to drive out the air: partial retraction lets them return 
to their original position by virtue of their elasticity ; and 
little vacua are produced." The same author has, however, 
attributed a small portion of adhesion to the horny, setose 
processes described above, for he says that M each lamella 
is further beset with tiny hair-like excrescences, which secure 
adpression to even the slightest irregularities of surface and 

«t the same time enhance the elasticity of the pads." In 
1902 Dr. Weitlaner* made extensive observations of great 
value on Himidaciylus platyurus at Singapore. By subjecting 
the discs of this lizard both in the living and the dead animal 
to various tests, Dr. Weitlaner came to the conclusion that 
pure suction, at any rate, was not the only cause of adhesion. 
Though this author negatived the suction theory so ably, 

1 Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Iml. Re<pt. Datrachia, pp. 80-106 (1890) 
« Gadow. Cambridge Xat. HiM. VIII, p. 505 (190l). 
Weitiane:, Verhandl. zool.~bot. Ges. Wien f III, p. 32S (1902). 

1923.] Adhesive Pads of Gecko, etc. 139 





i he had no alternative suggestions to make to account for 

the adhesive action of the foot of the Geoko. 

Kunitzky ' in 1903 after dealing with the anatomy of the 
pads of Plychozoon homalocephalus pointed out two possibilities 
regarding the function of these pads, (1) the vacuum theory, 
which he himself dismissed with the remark that when after 
being pressed flat on the opposing surface the lamellae were 
raised again, there was no mechanism to prevent air from 
going in again, (2) the pressing of the lamellae against the 
opposing surface in such a way that the whole of the air 
was pressed out from between the lamellae. Under these 
circumstances according to the author the pad would stick 
by the sheer force of the atmospheric pressure. He has 
further described an elaborate mechanism by which the air 
betv ?en the lamellae could be pressed out. According to him 
a number of blood spaces found below the cutis and communi- 
cating with one another performed this function by regulating 
the flow of blood in them. When blood flows into them, they 
become distended and press the grooves on the pad so that 
t the whole of the pad becomes even and smooth and the air 

is pressed out. On the other hand when blood flows out 
of them, the irregularities appear again on the under surface 
of the pad and air is thus let in. The author has, however, 
attributed a portion of this action to a muscular effort on 
the part of the animal. 

In 1904, H R. Schmidt 2 also doubted the vacuum theory 
and suggested that adhesion was brought about by the electri- 
fication of the setose processes when the pad rubbed against 
-an opposing surface. Unfortunately I have not been able 
to consult his paper, but from its short synopsis as given 
by W. J. Schmidt (loc. tit.) I have been able to follow his 
chief arguments. The short synopsis runs : " H. R. Schmidt 
sieht das wirksame Prinzip der Anheftung in den Borsten 
selbst. Da eine Wirkung des luftverdunnten Raumes auszu- 
schliessen ist, bleibt ihm nur die Annahme, dass bei der innigen 
Bertthrung der Tausende von Kleinen Endflachen der Borsten 

mit der Unterlage ebenso viele elektrische Doppelflachen 
gebildet werdern. auf welche letzten Encles das Haften der 

Zehen zuruckzufiihren ware." W. J. Schmidt (loc. cit. r 1913) 
after alluding to the views of the previous authors concludes 
that the true significance of the action of the pads of the 
Geckos still awaits solution. 

I propose to give here a brief account of my own ob- 
f nervations on both living and freshlv killed specimens of 

1 Kumtzky, Bull Acad. Imp. SeL St.-P'tersbourg, XVIII, p. 22 

3 H. R. Schmidt, Zur. Anatomie nnd Physiolofie der G ckopfote, 

Z Sr?c her Diss. Jena (1904). 

140 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

H emidaciylus flaviviridis. It may. however, be pointed oat that 
some of these are mere repetitions of those already made by 
Weitlaner (loc. pit.). Towards the end I will discuss the 
various theories of adhesion in the light of my observations 
and will conclude by pointing out my own views on the 
subject. The observations on living specimens were made 
by keeping the animal in a glass dish with a smooth glass 
cover on it. A portion of the cover was occasionally lifted to 
renew the air inside the dish. 

My observations are as follows: 

(1) It was observed that the Gecko could conveniently 
>tick to a smooth, vertical surface. When in motion on such 
a surface the whole of the weight of the body was supported by 
the digital discs, but when at rest, the limbs were stretched 
outwards and the belly was pressed against the opposing 
surface. Under these circumstances, it so appeared, that 
a part of the weight of the animal was supported by the belly. 

(2) It was found that the adult Gecko could not hang 
from a perfectly smooth surface back downwards. A youn 
individual about 30 mm. in length without the tail was, 
however, able to suspend itself back downwards from a smooth 
surface. In this condition its belly was pressed against the 
smooth surface and its limbs were stretched considerably 
outwards. It was found on irritating this young animal that 
it was not able to move about freely in this position since 
almost every attempt at movement on the part of the animal 
resulted in a fall. 

(3) The above experiments were repeated by substituting 
a piece of blotting paper for the glass cover and it was found 
that both adult and young Geckos were able to move about 
freely along the rough surface of the paper back downwards. 

(4) The claws from all the fingers were removed from 
a living Gecko and it was then subjected to the above des- 
cribed experiments. The behaviour of the animal against 
smooth surface was similar to that described in 1 and 2, but 
against rough surfaces, such as a piece of blotting paper, 
it was totally different. The animal under these circumstances 
was not able to climb up even a vertical rough surface. 

(5) It has been found that even a single claw of the 
animal is sufficiently strong to bear the whole of its weight, 
provided that the claw had previously taken a firm hold on 
the opposing surface. 

(6) It was observed that the pads on the fingers of the 
Gecko were not quite so efficient on vertical smooth surfaces, 
winch had been wetted, for the animal was found to slip even 
on those which had an inclination less than a right angle. 

(7) Considerable friction was felt below the pads when the 
animal was drawn backwards bv the hand, but when it 

Adhesive Pads of Gecko, etc. Ul 

was lifted vertically upwards or was drawn forwards very 
little adhesive power was apparent in these structures. 

(8) A dead Gecko with all its claws removed could be 
made to adhere to a vertical, smooth surface even with 
the help of the digital discs of one foot. But when the 
cutjcular layer bearing setose processes was removed from the 

lamellae of a lost its adhesive properties to a verv great 
extent. l 1 ' 6 

j Even from a cursory perusal of the above observations 

it is clear that in the foot of the Gecko there are two distinct 
; types of clinging organs, (1) the claws are functional when 

the animal progresses or hangs from a rou^h surface, and 
(-) the digital pads help the animal in climbing smooth vertical 
surfaces. The fact that a Gecko with all its claws removed 
can run up a smooth vertical surface just as easily and 
efficiently as with the claws, and that the same animal cannot 
climb up a brick wall clearly proves my contention. The 
grasping power of the claws is too well known among lizards 
to need any discussion here. It is with the action and 
junction of the pads that we are chiefly concerned. It may, 
however, be pointed out that both types of clinging organs 
found on the foot of the Gecko are in constant use, but the 
relative efficiency and usefulness of each depends upon the 
nature of the opposing surface. It follows from the above 
argument that when a Gecko sticks to a surface which is 
neither very rough nor verv smooth both types of clinging 
organs are equally in evidence. 

Before passing on to the discussion of various theories 
regarding the mechanism of the digital pads of Gecko-. I think 
it proper to explain here a marvellous feat of our house Gecko 
which has given an erroneous idea of the suction theory of 
the pads. It is known that a Gecko can run along an apparently 
smooth, white-washed ceiling back downwards, but such a 
ceiling is not really so smooth as a piece of glass is. It is 
clear from the above observations that such a feat ie only 
possible against a comparatively rough surface and that in 
J ts performance claws on the feet of the lizard are the 
chief organs of adhesion. But in spite of all this the feat 
seems to be fairly risky on the part of the animal. It is a 
matter of every day experience in tropical countrie- that 
Geckos often fall from the ceiling on to the floor or table. 
It appears, however, that the Geckos are amply provided 
for such mis-adventures. No sooner does a house-lizard 
touch the floor after a fall than it runs away, apparently 
none the worse. I have never seen a Gecko fall when climb- 
ing a wall, but can recollect at least a dozen in nances when 
one fell from the ceiling on to the floor. Let us now pass on 
to the discussion of the various theories advanced to account 
for the adhesive property of the Gecko's foot. 

142 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

(1) The suction theory has been very ably negatived by 

Dr. Weitlaner. He has clearly shown by his experiments 

(such as placing long threads between the lamellae to avoid the 

creation of vacua and subjecting the animal to a vacuum, and 

finding in both instances that the pads acted efficiently as 

in normal circumstances) that a vacuum or a series of vacua 

have little to do with the adhesive property of the pads. 

Moreover, the facts that a dead animal (freshly killed) can be 

made to stick to a smooth vertical surface and that a wet 

surface renders the pad relatively inefficient, also point to the 

same conclusion. As has been demonstrated bv Kunitzky 

there is no definite structure in the lamellar pads which 

could prevent air from entering between the lamellae when 

they were raised after having been pressed flat against an 

opposing surface. 

(2) The adpression theory of Kunitzky, which chiefly 
rests on the action of certain blood spaces, is directly nega- 
tived by the fact that a dead animal in which these blood 
changes are not conceivable, can be made to stick against 
a smooth vertical surface. The structure of the pad clearly 
shows that the deep grooves between the lamellae cannot 
easily be filled up by the distension of internal blood spaces. 
It can, moreover, be readily seen in the foot of a Gecko 
clinging to a vertical glass surface that the grooves between 
the lamellae are open at both ends and that they are fairly 
deep and spacious. 

(3) H. K. Schmidt's theorv of the electrification of the 
setose processes b}^ rubbing against an opposing surface is 
rather imaginary than practical and does not bear close 

My own views regarding the adhesive action of the pads 
are similar to those already advanced to account for the 
adhesion of the cephalic disc of Echeneis and of the striated 
apparatus found on the under surface of certain fish of 
mountain torrents. 1 In the ridge-and-groove pattern on the 
digital discs and in the presence of innumerable hair-like 
excrescences found on the lamellae I find mere mechanical 
frictional devices, which help to prevent the animal from 
slipping. The importance of the setose processes is apparent 
from the histological study of the pad, for we find several 
layers of cells whose only function is to produce these pro- 
cesses and to replace them as they are worn out. The same 
fact is clear from observation 8 recorded above. The feeling 
of stickiness, which is caused by the typically padded adhesive 
digits when a Gecko hangs from one's finger, is probably dm 
to the clinging action of the setose processes. Friction depend- 

* Hora. Nature, p. 008 (Mav 19, 1923); Bee. Ind. Mu*.> XXV, pp. 
5S7-591 (1923). 

1923.] Adhesive Pads of Gecko, etc. 143 

upon two chief factors the coefficient of friction and pressure. 
The coefficient of friction, as is apparent, is very high in the 
foot pads of Geckos, and, therefore, a slight pressure on the 
pads results in a very high value of friction. When an animal 
adheres to a vertical surface the weight of the animal itself 
causes pressure on the pads and makes them efficient. On the 
other hand, when a Gecko is made to hang back downwards 
from a smooth surface, the pressure is negative, and hence the 
Gecko falls clown. In a case where the limbs are stretched 
outwards, the weight of the body instead of pulling the pads 
directly downwards causes them to slip along the smooth surface 
for a short distance before exerting a vertical pressure on them. 
It is due to this fact that an animal can hang from a smooth 
surface when its limbs are stretched outwards. The pressing 
of the belly against the opposing surfaee is directly correlated 
with the position of the limbs, and is probably an additional 
advantage, since its scaly surface must help in increasing 
friction. Advantage may also be taken of atmospheric 
pressure by adpression. 

Observation 7 clearly shows that the digital pads are 
merely frictional devices. 

The digital-pads of the house-lizard are in certair 
respects more highly specialized than either the thoracic 
apparatus of the fish of mountain torrents or the cephalic disc 
of Echeneis. Whereas in the fish the resulting friction under 
the pad is greatly enhanced by the pressure exerted by the 
flow of water, in the Gecko there is no such external aid. in 
short, in fishes both the coefficient of friction and the 
pressure play an almost equal part in the production of the 
necessary amount of friction, whereas in the house lizard 
the friction chieflv depends upon a very high coefficient of 


The finger discs of Hyla and of such Kanid genera as 
Khacophorus and Ixalus consist of thick, cushion-like, almost 
rounded or elliptical pads of skin on the extremities of the 
fingers. Gadow {loc. cit., p. 187) has pointed out that the disc 
li is furnished with unstriped, smooth muscular fibres, the 
contraction of which produces one or more longitudinal 
furrows on the under side." It is clear from this that under 
muscular action the plain finger disc is converted into a 
ridge-and -groove type of adhesive apparatus, the efficiency 
of which as a friction device has been explained in several 
places in my recent work (loc cit). A transverse section 
of the disc shows under a high power of microscope that the 
outermost layer consists of long columnar cells with their 
free margins arranged on the exposed surface as thick, closely 
set -pines. In my opinion the ridire-and-groove pattern- of 

144 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

the disc and the presence of these spines account for the 
adhesive action of the finger pads of the tree-frogs. 

Gadow writes, " Various suggestions have been made to 
explain the function of these discs. Suction, adhesion, and 
glueing-on have been resorted to. Suction, through produc- 
tion of vacuum, is quite imaginary and does not exist." 
According to this author the functioning of the discs depends 
upon adhesion, which, he says, is greatly enhanced by a 
stickv secretion from the glands of the animal. He further 
observes that " tree-frogs, when hopping on to a vertical 
plane of clean glass, slide down a little probably until the 

secretion stiffens, or dries into greater consistency. After 

a few davs I find the glass-walls of their recently cleaned cage 
quite dirty, covered everywhere with their finger marks. 1 

•*..- ; g h •• 



i'ranaverse section through a finger-disc of Hyla annecten* 

(Jerdon): x 487. 

have not made any observations on living tree-frogs which 
would enable me to criticise the above statement, but on a 
careful study of preserved material a few points have occurred 
to me which are worth recording. 

In the first place I can find no trace of glands in the 
finger-pads of Hyla. The accompanying figure clears this 
point. The fact that a tree-frog slides down a little when 
hopping on to a vertical plane of glass may be due to the time 
required for adjusting minute epidermal excrescences on the 
pads into corresponding irregularities on the opposing surface. 
I make this suggestion on the analogy of the Gecko, in which 
there are certainly no glands to secrete a sticky substance. 

The second point observed by Gadow, that the recently 
cleaned glass -walls of the cage are rendered dirty in a few 
day's time, may prove no more than that the^e frogs ioil their 

1923.] Adhesive Pads of Gecko, etc. 145 

fingers with their own excreta or other substances and deposit 
this extraneous matter on the glass walls. 

In any case the observations made by Gadow do not 
exclusively prove that the adhesion of the finger discs of the 
tree-frogs is due to the secretion of a sticky substance in 
the pad itself. There is moreover, no statement to the effect 
that the tree-frogs have been observed to exert any special 
effort in pulling their feet free when they jump away from a 
surface to which they have been adhering, as would be neces- 
sary if they were tightly glued to the surface by their 

A somewhat similar phenomenon is illustrated by the 
heel-pads found in the nestling of certain birds which are 
reared in holes on the bare ground or in hollow trunks. " In 
moving about the nest-hole, particularly when wishing to 
move to the edge of the cavity the young bird does not use 
the toes, but pushes itself forwards by means of the rough 
surface of this heel-pad. " ] The heel-pads of birds are formed 
by the modification of skin, which is greatly thickened and 
" which is studded with obtusely conical tubercles. " I believe 
that the nature of these pads will ultimately be found to be 
directly correlated with the type of nest which various species 
of birds select for their nestlings. I quote below from 
Mr. Chasen's account of the heel-pads of certain Malaysian 
birds which entirely confirms my views regarding the action of 
adhesive pads of Geckos and certain fishes. He writes: 
" Seth-Smith in recording the presence of well-developed pad- 
in a young Toucanet {Pteroglossus aricari) remarks that the 
function is doubtless to enable the bird to climb up the side 
of the hollow cavity in a tree in which it is hatched, the pads 
forming, as it were, a second set of claws. The theory is sup- 
ported by the fact that young parrots which have no well- 
developed tubercular padsare stated to use their beak> when 
moving about in their nest," 2 

1 Giinther, Ibis, p. 411 (1890). 

1 Chasen, Jonrn. Malayan Branch Boy. As. Soc, I, p. 239 (1923) 




17- Observations on the breeding of some Common Birds 

in the vicinity of Calcutta. 

| By Satya Churn Law, M.A., B.L., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

In this paper I propose to record my observations on a few 
nests of four of our commoner birds discovered during Februarv 
and March 1924 in the neighbourhood of Calcutta in the 
district of Twenty-four Parganas. These observations would 
show that the birds breed very much earlier than what is stated 
in the writing of accepted authorities. 

Oriolus luteolus luteolus (Linn.). 

In my wanderings for birds' nests I did not count on find- 
ing any nest of the black-headed Oriole in the month of March, 
for ornithological books do not indicate that month as its 
breeding season. In fact such ideas are scouted as unbeliev- 
able. In Hume's " Nests and Eggs" (Gates' edition, Vol. I, 

p. 360) a note is quoted from Buchanan Hamilton who says 
that this species " builds a very rude nest. * * * * * * 
In March I found a nest with the young unfledged " Regard- 
ing this note Hume adds: il I confess that I believe this to 
be a mistake : neither season nor nest correspond with what 
I have myself seen about Calcutta. The nests, so far from 
being rude, are very neat." I might mention that the two 
volumes of MSS. notes bv Dr. Hamilton, from which the above 

ft. ' ^ 

extract has been quoted, are preserved in the Library of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Now it happens that Nature has in her store many sur- 
prises for over confident authors and so ; on the 9th March this 
year, in the village of Debandipore, a couple of miles to the 
north-east of Sodepur and about a dozen miles from Calcatta, 
I chanced upon a nest of Oriolus 1. luteolu* with three live (and 
lively) and unfledged youngsters : I lost no time in photograph- 
ing this nest with the nestlings. 

On the 30th of March, I discovered another nest of this 
species in a mango-tree iti the village of Natagore-Krishnapur, 
a village between Agarpara and Baraset. The parental duties 
of the possessors of this nest were over and the younger genera- 
tion had gone out into the wide world to seek their fortune. 

Poor Dr. Hamilton, whose record had been so unceremoni- 
ously brushed aside by one stroke of the sturdy pen of Mr. 
Hume, appears to be after all right ! What is more. Hamilton's 
description of the nest being rude appears to be also correct. 
Both the nests I have discovered are also rude, without the 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX. 

neatness and compact finish which some people generally 

associate with the handiwork of this species and about which 
Hume was so positive. Though the characteristic ingenuity is 
there, both the nests lack finish and are rather clumsy. 

The first nest was discovered on the 9th March with three 
newly-hatched chicks. Taking into consideration the period of 
incubation and the time taken to construct the nest, we may 
safely presume that the building operations commenced very 
likely in the middle of February and other preliminaries, e.g 
courtship etc. took place earlier still. 

The second nest which I brought away on the 30th, was 
found to contain, on the 27th, three fledgelings. The eggs of 
this nest must have been laid in the first week of March and the 
nest building operations, etc. must have taken place towards 
the end of February. 

In the Ibis of 1804, p. 46, we have a contribution from P. W. 
Muihl "On the Birds of the Calcutta District", in which he 
speaks of having " shot a young of 0. melanocephalus on 
April 13th," but as to the bird's breeding season he writes 

° - - 99 

" They usually have eggs at the beginning of May and June. 

These cases of mine, therefore, would be the earliest records of 
the breeding of 0. L luteolus. 

I paid occasional visits to Debandipur to take photo- 
graphs of the above noted first nest. During such a visit on 
the 23rd I found that one chick had disappeared and the other 
two had left the nest, which I brought away with the young 
ones. This nest was placed in the fork of a branch of a mango 
tree at a height of about 20 feet from the ground. It was 
attached to the two branches with fine scalings of barks, 
cotton and fibres. Grass stems, verv thin flexible tendrils of 
creepers and fibres formed the inner lining with one or two 
small pieces of (mango) bark. Fine strips of bark, cotton and 
fibres woven together formed the exterior walls. There was no 
cobweb anywhere. 

The second nest, from Natagore, was also placed in 


mango tree, but was at a height of about eight feet only from 



the ground. This nest was more solidly built than the last, 
cotton having been freely used to fix the nest firmly to the 
branches. In addition to the materials of the last nest, it 
contained scalings from bamboo and one or two spider's e 
bags but there was no cobweb. 

The following are the measurements of the two nests : 
Greatest diameter including the 


• • 

Diameter of the nest cavity 
Height top to bottom 
Depth of the nest cup 
Thickness of the surrounding walls 

1st vest. 


<i nesi 

4| inches 



3 1 


: f 



: f 

2'. „ 



% inch 



1923.] Observations on breeding of some Common Birds. 14!> 


Dicrurus macrocercus macrocercus (Viell.). 

On the 16th of March, while photographing the nest of the 
Oriole above referred to, squeaking* from a neighbouring 

mango tree attracted my attention and, to my surprise, I found 
that the noise came from the nest of a Black Drongo or the 
common King-Crow with four perfectly hale and hearty chicks 
clamouring for rations. This also was another surprise for 
me because I— and I do not think any other Ornithologist 
could have dreamt of finding a nest of this bird at so early a 
date. This is what Hume says about the breeding season of 
this bird : — 

' : A few eggs may be found towards the close of April, and 
again during the first'week of August, but May, June and July 
are the months." (Oates in Hume's Nests and Eggs, 2nd 
Edition. Vol. I. p. 198.) Munn, in the article above referred to 
writes, "It breeds during the end of April and in May." 

Considering that on the 16th March there were four young, 
the nest was very probably built at the end of February, 
and the preliminaries to nesting, e.g. courtship, etc. must 
have taken place earlier. This instance, therefore, is certainly 
unusual! v earl v. 

« * 

On the 21st and 23rd March I went to the locality again 
to photograph the birds. By this time the youngsters were 
quite grown up and had come out of the nest. I took their 
photographs. In the evening when I was preparing to return 
t noticed the mother bird feeding the young They allowed 
me to approach within a few feet of them. As my film-supply 
was exhausted I was unfortunately unable to photograph this 
interesting and hitherto unphotographed scene. I brought 
away the deserted nest. 

The nest was placed in the angle of the fork of an outer 
branch, strongly attached to the branches on three -ides with 
thin pieces of bark, fibres and cobwebs which composed also 
the exterior of the nest. The interior had a few pieces of very 
thin scalings from plantain trees and fine fibres of palm or 
cocoanut leaves. It is a very neat, well-made and compact 
nest. The ecrg-cup is smaller and shallower than that of the 
above described nest, viz. of 0. I hiteolus. But peculiarly 
enough though the Oriole is noted for its architectural perfec- 
tion, it was found that the King-crow's nest was neater and 
cleaner than that of the Oriole. 

The following are the measurement- of the nest : — 

Greatest diameter, from one branch of the 

fork to which it was attached, to another 3.1 inches 
Diameter of the egg-cavity . . • • 2f 



ft M 

1 1 

1 f >t 

Height, top to bottom .. •• -1 » 

Thickne>- of the walls * i inch. 

150 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

On 30th March I discovered another nest of this bird in 
the vicinity of Sodepur. The nest seemed to have been 
recently completed. It would appear therefore, that this 
bird is an early breeder in our district. 

The heat this year (1924) has been excessive in March, in 
which month the average departure of temperature from 
the normal was + 6°F. It may be argued that this abnormal 
heat is responsible for the early breeding, of both the 
King-crow and the Oriole. But. really speaking, the birds in 
question began their breeding activities in February in which 
month the average temperature was not more than 2° F. in ex- 
cess of normal. This slight excess could not have influenced 
the birds to breed so much earlier than their normal breeding 
season. The maximum day temperature of the atmosphere in 
Bengal when the Orioles and King-crows are usually known to 
breed (i.e. betwten the end of April and June), is always above 
100° F. In Northern India and Rajputana the King-crow 
generally lays from May. In the former region the temperature 
in that month is nowhere less than 110° F. and in Rajputana 
never less than 118° F. The Oriole lays from April, when the 
temperature in Northern India exceeds 105° F. Now, the 
highest temperature recorded at Alipore this year in February 
was 90-6° F. This is less than the temperature in which these 
birds are usually known to breed. 

Aegithina tiphia tiphia (Linn.). 

On the very same day i.e., the 16th March, when I dis- 
covered the nest of the King-crow, I was fortunate in catching 
sight of the nest of the common lora in another mango tree 
close by. This finding also was no less a surprise to me. In 
Hume's " Nests and Eggs" we read, 4i The Common lora 
breeds in different localities from May to September." In 
the recently published second edition of the Fauna of British 
India (Birds), Mr. Stuart Baker, however, puts the period a 
little earlier, " from April to July." 

The nest of the lora, I discovered, was a tinv thin-walled 
cup placed in the fork formed by a few vertical twigs of a 
mango tree at a height of about twenty-five feet from the 
ground. There were three eggs in the nest. This aest must 
u\ve been built early in March considering that on the 16th 
there were three eg^s. 

This also la therefore an unusually early record. 

Otocompsa emeria emeria (Linn.). 

The red-whiskered Bulbul {O, emeria) is one of the two 
common species of the BulbuU of the plains of Bengal. The 
other is the Bengal Red-vented Bulbul — Molpastes haemorrhous 
bengatenri*. The latter bird is not only commonly met with 




J.P.A.S.B., XIX, 1923 

Plate XII 


fc * 




1923.] Observations on breeding of some Common Birds. 151 


amidst the hum and roar of this city but it also breeds here. 
But I have never seen Otocompsa e. emeria in the city proper. 
It prefers wood-lands and places with plenty of foliage. For 
this reason it is quite common at Alipore which savours more 
of the country than of the town. 
I But 0. e emeria appears to be more plentiful in our 

district than Molpastes h. bengalensis. The reason probably is 
that there being a great demand for the latter in Calcutta as 
fighting bird ; large numbers being annually caught by bird- 
catchers. Otocompsa e. emeria, not being in such demand, is 
less molested. 

Of the three nests 1 have found during February and 
March, two were placed in rather uncommon situations. One 
was in a haystack and the other was placed in a banana 
tree in my garden house at Agarpara. This tree is not gener- 
ally known to be selected for nest-building by this or any 
other bird. The latter contained three eggs on the 24th 
February and was my first Bulbul's nest of the season 
I observed the building of the nest and the breeding 
preliminaries taking place about the middle of February. Of 
recorded instances this would probably be the earliest, for in 
all ornithological works, its breeding season has been stated to 
commence in March. 

This nest was placed just where the trunk of the banana 
tree ends and the leaves begin. Here the nest was firmly fixed 
in position by being bound to the stems of two leaves bj T 
means of fine tissues extracted from the tree's bark on a founda- 
tion of one or two very dry leaves, a few thin twigs and a 
bit of down. The outer wall was made of fibres of the banana 
bark, dry leaves and cobwebs. The inner lining consisted of 
palm-leaf fibres. It was a -mall, round and compact cup. 
The measurements were : — 

Height top to bottom . . . . 3J inches 

Diameter including walls . . 3 J ,, 

Diameter of the egg-cup . . 1 ] m °h 

Depth of the egg-cup . . . . 2 inches 


Fig. I. — Nest with Nestlings of Dicrurus m. macrocercua found on the 

16th March 1924 ; locality, Debandipur, 24 Parganas. 
Fig. 2. — The nestlings in No. 1 photographed out of the nest on the 23rd 

March, 1924. 
Fig. 3 —Nest with Nestlings of Oriolus I. luteolus found on the 9th March 

1924 ; locality, Debandipur. 24 Parganas. 
Fig. 4.— Young Oriolus I luteolus out of the nest (No. 3) age 2k weel on 

the 23rd March 1924. 
Fig. o.— Nest and Eggs of Otocompsa e. emeria in a hay-stack found on 

the 9th March 1924 ; locality, Agarpara, 24 Parganas. 
Fig. 6.— Xest and Eggs of Otocompsa e. emeria on a banana trf^ photo- 

graphed on the 24th February 19 24 ; locality, Agarpara, 24 


i8 # St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore 

j By the Rev. H. Hosten, S.J. 

Apparition* of St. Thomas and other legends. 


Among the many surprises which the study of the legends 
about St. Thomas had in store not the least surprising was 
the allusion to St. Thomas' apparitions on the day of his feast. 
I had not found at first any mention of this except in Father 
Guy Tachard's letter of 171 I, 2 and had shoved it aside a 
meaningless. However, I gave way to wonderment when 1 
discovered that I could read the same thing in an ancient 
Latin hymn republished by iMgr. Zaleski s from the Analectu 
Bollandiana> Vol. 6. pp. 403-404 

Like some of the Malabar songs * (should we not say like 
the Malabar songs?), this Latin hymn said nothing of King 
Mazdai, but appeared to place King Gondophares and his bro- 
ther Gad. both of whom became converts, at the town where 
St. Thomas lay buried. There, we were told, a wonder occurs 
which no other Saint performs. On the day of his feast, with 
those fingers which touched Christ's sacred side, St. Thomas 
gives to the worthy the Sacrament (of the Holy Eucharist) 
and refuses it to the unworthv. Moreover, he is so averse to 
unbelievers that, in the town w here his bodv truly lies, there 
lives neither heretic, nor Jew, nor pagan. What was this ? 
Had we not here the wonder alluded to by Father Tachard :. 
" No one is found nowadays who speak- of the apparitions of 
St. Thomas on the day of his feast "1 

To let the reader judge of the hymn for himself, we give 
of it here a literal rendering. 

1- Holy Thomas, prince of the world, grant. J beseech 
bee, that 1 may not be confounded because of the weight «»f my 
offences: grant that I may ever extol worthily thy dignity 
&nd piously invoke thy name. 

2. Thou lovedst Christ -o dearly that thou longedst to 

This paper constitutes the first of a new series. The first series, 
published in The Catholic Herald of India. Calcutta, 192I-1'2, d ^cussed 
tentatively a number of lithic relics disct vereti at Mylapore during my stay 
there in January-February 1921. Those articles have to be recast, and 
published with photographs. 

2 Lettres idifiantes et carieuses, Paris. 1781, vol. 12. p. 22. 

3 Mgr. Zaleski. The Apostle St. Thomas, pp. \MA<MK 
* Msrr. Zaleski. The Saints of India, pp, 129-137. 


154 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. "N.S., XIX, 

die with Him, saying : Let us too go forth and die with Him. 
Thou seekest what thou knewest not before : the way, the 
truth, the life. 

3. Disbelieving in Christ's wonders, thou findest true 
life: touching His Humanity, thou confessedst His Deity, 
whence our strength grows stronger and our happiness. 

4. Having thus discovered truth, thou becomest Christ's 
staunch witness, a great preacher to the world, the baptiserof 
three kings. 1 

5. With His own lips Christ speaks thy praise, saying 
thou wilt be His servant true : for, whatever thou gainedst, 
thou broughtest to Christ without reserve. 

6. At the nuptial feast, O heavenly muser, thou eatest 
and drinkest naught ; but, looking always up to heaven, 

7. Thou afflictest thv flesh and blessest chastity.' 2 With 
the treasures given thee, kind father of the poor, 

8. Thou buildest a palace and raisest to life the King's 
own brother, and thus presently thou winnest over the King 
himself and his people. s 

9. Thus, curing all the sick, thou passest preaching 
everywhere. Next, thou art pierced with lances and art 
crowned a martyr. 

10. Thou despisest error ; thou destroyest unbelievers : 
for, in the city where thou truly liest, there never lives any of 
the heretics, Jews, or pagans.* 

1 The kings referred to may be : the King of Sandaruk (Cranganore ?) 
and king Gondophares and his brother Gad. King Mazdai seems to be 
out of the question. The very early texts place his conversion after the 
Saint's death.— Or, according to the Malabar legends: the king of the 
Coromandel Coast, the king of Malabar, and the king of ' Pandi/ or of 
the Pandyans. This would leave out king Gaspar, o^ the Pervnnal of 
Jaffna, one of the three Magi. 

2 The Bollandist text places a comma after benedictor and a full stop 
after egenorum. It should be the reverse. 

For the allusions see Mgr. Medlvcott, India and the Apostle Thomas, 
pp. 255-256 ; Mgr, Zaleski, The Apostle St. Thomas, pp. 1< 8-109. The king 
of Sandaruk (Andropolis) was celebrating the marriage of his daughter (Pe- 
lagia with Denis ?) ; St, Thomas, invited to the feast, M did not eat of the 
dishes that were set before him. nor drink of the wine which had been 
brought from Syria, but from the bottom of his heart he invoked upon the 
guests the blessing of the Lord " (Zaleski, op. cit., p. 108.) After the 
repast, the Saint blesses the married couple : and, according to the text- 
which have been spoiled by the Gnostics in favour of their tenets against 
marriage, he makes them vow chastity. 

6 Cf. Mgr. Medlycott. op cit., pp. 257-258 ; Mgr. Zaleski, op. cit., pp. 
109-123. Gondophares gives order to St. Thomas to build him a palace. 
During the king's absence, St. Thomas spends the money on the poor. 
The king returns and is angry. His brother Gad dies and finds that the 
Saint has built a palace in heaven. Gad returns to life and asks of hi- 
brother to sell him the palace which St. Thomas has built in heaven. Both 
are converted, and, on one occasion, after preaching from Mt. Ga/.i, St. 
Thomas baptises 9,000 of their subjects. 

* Tf the reference is to Mvlapore. the St. ThoHMM Christian-, consider- 


1923. j St. Thomas and San Thome, M via pore. 155 

11. With those same fingers with which thou didst touch 
Christ's sacred side thou givest to the worthy the Sacrament 
and refusest it to the un worth v. 

12. And this happens openly every year at thy feast ' 
Truly, such wonder as thine chances from no other saint. 

13. prince so glorious, thou pre-electcd, and dear to 
me,* grant that, though steeped in sin, I yet may be devout 
to thee. 1 honour thee and love thee ; I seek thee and call on 

14. Strengthen me in chastity, in faith, in hope, and 
charity. Obtain that I may so serve God that from perdition 
1 be saved. 

15. By the way of truth lead me to the life of light. As 
won as my last breath I yield, may God, sole true, grant me 
this boon. Amen. 

Mgr. Zaleski states that the Bollandists published this 
hymn without any indication as to its origin and date. Thi- 
is not correct. They sav that the hymn was found in a co- 

dex of the Bollandian Museum, the codex being an apograph 
or copy coming from the Monastery of St. Saviour's of the 
Cistercian Order. Written in the 17th century and collated 
with the original, it contains a Kalendarium Sanctorum Or<li- 
nis S. Benedicti P. N.. collected in the lnth centurv, and 
-ome hymns, one of which (Salve, Abba monachorum) , appear- 
to be ancient, while the others were written at the end of the 
Uth century, " as will be seen below from the names of tin 
authors." No names of ' authors ' are given, but only the 
names of the Saints forming the object of the hymns, so that 
the question of the antiquity of our hymn to St Thomas is 
not, as far as I can see, touched. 8 

Mgr. Zaleski iudo;ed that our hvmn is not older than tht 

end of the 9th centurv. 4 and that the stanzas which we have 


} ng themselves orthodox, might have boasted that there were none but 
orthodox Christians at Mylapore, even Jews, of whom there were many 
in Malabar, not being admitted. Less natural would be the supposition 
fcnat all who settled at Mylapore, heretics, Jews, and pagans, yielded fco 
r -ne belief of the once unbelieving Apostle. 

1 Et (not ex) hoc fit in manifesto, says the Bollandist text. 

9 Mgr, Zaleski misses the punctuatim of the Bollandist text in 
Lanzas 13 and 15. 

* Analecia Bollandiana. Vol. 6 (1887), p. 354. 

* Some people will blunder with their eyes open. In spite of Mgi 
aIo ^ kl ' s clear statement that the hvmn is M not older than the 9th centurv, M 

toe Rev. Francis A. Judd, Chaplain, Dehra Dun, publishing in the Calcutta 
™v*ew (Febr. 1922, pp. 222-232) a dramatic composition of his own on 
»** Thomas, and reproducing part of the Latin hvmn translated above, 
sayn it is of the 9th century. It is not his only fault. In a prologue lie 
ompilea all the legends, old and new. which lie finds in Mgr. Zaleski's The 
Apostle of India, adopts all Mgr. Zaleski's fanciful derivations and reno- 
TOtod spellings of the proper names in the Acta, misprints some, and 

156 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. | X.S.. XIX, 

numbered 10, 11, 12, were interpolated, probably in the last 
decades of the 13th century, or later. He states further that 
the hymn is a summary of the legend as made known in Eu- 
iope by the Anglo-Saxon monk ^Elfric. .Elfric translated 
the Acta S. Thomae from the Greek in A.D. 880, three years 
before Alfred the Great sent to India Sighelm, Bishop of 
Sherbourne, and iEthelstan. 1 

The reason then why Mgr. Zaleski assigned the hymn to a 
date not earlier than the end of the 9th century seems to be 
that he regarded it as posterior to ^lfric's translation. 
Why he considered stanzas l(j. 11, 12 as interpolated, or Wie- 
the interpolation should have taken place in the last decades 
ot the 13th century or later, we are not told. 

Mgr. Zaleski gives for the different translations of St. 
lliomas body the following dates: from India to Edessa, 
A.l) iil-235; from Edessa to Chios, A.D 1!44: from Chios 
to Ortona m Italy, A.D. 1258.* All these dates fall before 
the last decades of the 13th century. Yet. the town where 
the body ot St. Thomas is said to be truly resting must be 
one ot four : Edessa, Chios, Ortona, or Mylapore. Did Mgr. 
zaleski think that the town meant is Mylapore, and that the 
miracle, if it happened there, could have been alluded to in 
Europe only after the visit to Mylapore of Marco Polo (1293) 

fn V . r\ ? ° nte Corvino (1292-93)— their dates falling 
in the last decade of the 13th century-or after the visit of 

sune later missionary like Bishop de' Marignolli and Friar 
< mono ? Perhaps. 

We may suppose, indeed, that Ortona is not meant. The 

Th?, 1 mU8t . , h * ve been entirel y Catholic, centuries before 1258. 
i ere could have been no pagans there in or after 1258. 

' TL m ust . be \ n the ««" ^se as regards the date 1 1 U Edessa 
sl.l V!! tJ ! e P ° uer of the Saracens long before the Ou- 

\f hLf i b ,° aSt ° Ughfc t0 have bep » »b<>ut the absence of 
lviuha m madans. 8 

Pnr,?^ ai - v,a Po re , ha ve been meant ? In India, in the early 
^ortugue^e period, the Christians lived generally close together 

-'n'l^cv'^And^rr 01116 fur J t,,er Ubertiea with «»« *»' -tratum of fact 
even J?^ X SSL!!* J******?* lea ^ of all. is that he does not 

drama entiti °tv £ ° Pre l afce whoin he take « »* his sole guide. The 
"•-•2 ban n the In" , R ° Se u 0t Fmiia ' continued at pp. 458-465 (March 

- Rebuilt f? EmlL ^ !!*;„ ^'rf"' T "*• PP - l12 - 1I4 ' 297 - 
retaken by Heraclhw Z i J" ; taken D * the P«siau8 (609), soon 

»v hold by the Greek? tlii-V L/ etaken by the Arabs, and successive- 

-ho o.tablished ther^t I, 'o JUk F^i 1087 *' and the Crusaders (1009,. 

when it M-a, aeain tTl k T y ' ° f Ede ^ a and k ^ the citv till 1144. 

>■ Rdes^H 8 tHken ^ the Turks.-Cf. Cath. Bncyei., New York. 

192:} ] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 157 

for mutual protection near their churches, and the Portuguese 
did boast at times that, as in Portugal, only Catholics lived in 
their fortresses. Mylapore had a Portuguese fortress only 
from 1611 or 1624; but, even before that date, from after 
1523, when they settled at Mylapore, the Portuguese lived 
close together and formed a European settlement, the na- 
tives living in a separate town further away. When St, Fran- 
cis Xavier was at Mylapore in 1545, there were already about 
100 families living there, and, as there was no other church 
yet than that of the tomb, and perhaps the Luz Church of the 
Franciscans, 1 they must have lived close to the tomb. Was the 
case similar for the Nestorian Christians in pre-Portuguese 
days ? In Nicolo de J Conti's time (1426-30) there were there 
as many as a thousand f Nestorians ' Did they too congregate 
round the tomb ? Very likely ; especiallv as we hear of no 
church at Little Mount or at St Thomas' "Mount in Nicolo de' 
Conti's time. In earlier times, when the church at St, Thomas' 
Mount still existed, there would have been probably a small 
Christian settlement in that direction too. 

Before I saw in stanzas 1 I and 12 of the hymn an allusion 
to apparitions of St. Thomas on the day of his feast, I thought 
stanza 10 applied to Mylapore in Portuguese times, that is be- 
fore 1640. when the English settled at Madras, or before about 
1610, when the Dutch tried to get Paliacate.* On the other 
hand, since we never find allusions to such apparitions before 
1650, and since Father Tachard said that none had taken place 

An inscription at the Luz Church, M via pore, runs thus: Fre Pedro 
da AtougiaJ Reh° Observ^ a\e S. Franc / Edificou esta Igrejade Nossa Senhr* 
da Luz em 1516./ This means "Friar Pedro da Atougia, an Observan- 
ce Religious of St. Francis, built this church of Our Lady oi Light in 
1516." From a photograph in Report of the fourth Centenary Celebrations , 
fhe Luz Church, Mylapore, 6th August, 1916, Madras, Good Pastor Press, 

A wonderful inscription, if correct. Its correctness is rejected by 
Col. Love in his Vestiges o/ Old Madras, I. 289-200, and I think rightly 
so. A Church at the Luz emplacement in 1516 would mean a Christian 
community there at that date or even earlier, with a Missionary in attend- 
ance. But why should the Christians not have turned into a Church 
the ruined Church near the tomb rather than build a new one? Why 
was the Church near the tomb left in ruins till 1522? Simply because 
there were no Christians yet. The first Portuguese visitors to Mylapore in 
1614, 1517, 1519, 1522-23 are ominouslv silent about the Luz Church, and 
about Franciscans at Mvlapore. So m St. Francis Xavier in 15-15. The 
Franciscans do not appear to have settled at Mylapore before 1510. Thi- 
»8 not the place to work this out more fully. Besides, Nossa Senhora da 
L*z is such a common title that the legend of the mariners attracted bj a f 

mysterious light must be taken as a popular explanation of the title in- 
vented post factum, Fr. Francisco de Souza, S.J., in his Oriente Con- 
qui*tado gives somewhere a similar story for a Church of N.S. de Luz near 
°oa, and that storv would seem to have been carried to Mylapore. 

* A letter by "Father Francisco (Pvicci ?), dated Cochin. 2 Nov. 1812, 
npoaks of Pulicat (Paliacate) taken from the Dutch by the Portuguese- 
< Collection of M8S- in St Joseph 'f <ollego, Trichinopoly.) 

158 Journal oj the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX, 

w it hi n people's memory before 1711, it was to be suspected 
that the application to Mylapore referred to the pre-Portu- 
guese period. In the Portuguese period, after 1547, the great 
wonder at Mylapore was the sweating of the stone cross of 
St. Thomas' Mount, to which the hymn could not be understood 
to refer ; besides, the sweating happened generally on the 18th 
of December, 3 days before the Saint's feast, and that with 
intervals of years. 

If Mylapore was the place which the pilgrim Theodore 
visited before A.D. 590 (and we may think it was) equally 
wonderful notions were current about it then. Let us trans- 
late fully the account of Theodore as we have it in St Gre- 
gory of Tours. 

The Apostle Thomas, according to the story of his pas- 
sion, is said to have suffered in India. His blessed body after 
a Jong time was brought to the town which the Syrians call 
^dissa, and was buried there. So then, at the place in the 
country of India where he fust rested, there is. besides a 
monastery, a temple of wonderful size, and carefully adorned 
and at ranged (dihgenterque eromatum atque composition). Now. 
by divine interposition. God shows in that temple a great 
nmacle : for a lamp i placed there and lighted burns continually 
frnm 1Ug i th * place of se Pu!ture. though it receives 

hp vi°H° ne eitlerml ? Uick:i neither kit extinguished bv 
;VT d ° eS Jt fal1 dow " accidentally, or diminish in 

t P r^^L ming - , And ' thl0u g ft the Povir of the Apostle 

to rh! I mCTe T^ ^ 1Ch - th0 "3 h a mystery to man. is known 
very nl^ ^ 6 ", / ? 0± This > T ^odore, who went to that 

al ihif H r if, 6d !°, ' ,S ' In fcbo above-said town, where we 

?C f th . e ble f ed bo «es had been buried.* there is. when 

f nm n ! aCe ' a great c °ncourse of people, who come 

Horn divers countries for vows and trade, and during thirty 

\ ^V : n r u 8 g h r ; bSh ott ' op - Mfc * p *»~> re *> resents l *»»™ 

kept' hunifnJ'hpfr!^ T da u took care of the lam P »"«* wa9 ***** 
ChristiM™of 8 Ea,t«? >° ° mb u° f M yl*P<** We know how particular 

one ArmenbnTeau! r r ? ?■ the ? [ >' la P°^ Diocesan Archives more than 

the tomb in fulfilment T 1.1 ' / d ? Zen ' amps are ahvayS burnin * at 

* Vbi beat?* an. 'J- ' ° f f Uth ancient charitable bequests, 

if the writer £„°S »w?.' *»»«*«a. would mean ' had been buried,' 
carried to E<W* • • - k j, S * the £ reater part of the body had been 

still m the oriSal tomb w'/' ^ ^^ that the 8 reatel ? a,t ** 
Gregory of Tou« hnMa f ,^ e t transIate by 'had been buried,' since Sr 

To..™*™™ n~Th ' " Ws n ° teS ° n this dia P ter * f St - Gr ^ or - v of 

a. In aSfSS oZt\ - ap , Ut m °° lb - tot " et semel c »™ 2 seqq. in Clar. 

Wll MSB. caput hoc ,n duo dividitur : alterius titulus est ? De virtute 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, My la pore. 159 

days they are free to sell and buy without paying any tax. 
On those days, which fall in the fifth month, great and unusual 


boons are granted to the people : no scandal (sccmdalum) . 
arises among them ; no fly sits on putrefied meat, nor is water 

wanting to slake one's thirst. For, whereas on other days 

water is drawn from a depth of more than one hundred feet, 
now, if you dig a very little, you will find water welling up in 
« plenty : which favours, there is no doubt, are granted by 

the power of the Holy Apostle. Now, when the days are over, 
taxes are again imposed on the public ; the flies which had 
disappeared return, and the water, which had been quite near, 
recedes. After that, there is such a supernitural downpour of 
rain, that the entire court-yard of the temple is swept so clean 
of all dirt and divers kinds of defilement that you would think 
the place had not even been trodden." " 2 

Mgr Medlycott took much pains to show that the climatic 
conditions do not suit Edessa in July, the 5th month according 
to the ancient Roman reckoning, and that, whereas the depth 
of the wells is exaggerated for Mvlapore, 5 toll-free fairs are 
yet common in India. 4 We might add that the tale of 
wonders sounds peculiarly Indian. It reads like the manifes* 
tos which the priests of Hindu temples or their recruiting- 
agents make when they want to bring the people to some 
famous shrine on a great pilgrimage. This would only show 

basilicae in <jua postea translatus est." Cf Mimie, P. L. /loin. 71, col. 733 
(S. Gregorii Episcopi Turonensis Miraculorum, Lib. I , de Gloria Martyrum, 
Cap. XX XII). Some MSS. attribute therefore to Edessa the stories of the 
lamp and of the festival, but on the authority, may be of those who 
devised the headings of the chapters. This only shows how guarded one 
must be in discussing such texts, and how Mgr. Medlycott would have 
done well to discuss more fully the different variants of the text, a piece 
of work which it is impossible to undertake here in India. 

1 The meaning seems to be * no quarrel arises "; * no one gets hurt.* 1 - 
there not a notion among the Hindus that at certain places of pilgrimage 
no one die3 during the festivities ? 

* Mgr. Medlycott. op. cit., p. 80 n. 

s W. R. Ph'ilipps (Ind. Antiq., vol. 32, 1008, p. 151): "His [Ore- 
gory's] description of the depth ot the wells could hardly apply to Myla- 
pore." I helievo that the depth of wells at Mvlapore is from 40 to 
60 feet, 

4 Ruinart (in Migne. P. L., torn. 71, coL 733 n. i) writes: "Ac- 
cording to the reckoning of the Syrians, who began the year with No- 
vember, this is the month of March, when the Syrians celebrated the 
ast of St. Thonms, as appears from their Calendar, which Genebrard 
published at Lyons in 1615 with his Commentary on the Psalms ; the La- 
tins, however, celebrate on the 3rd of July, or of the 5th month, the fe«> st 
of St. Thomas, i.e of his Translation." Mgr. Medlycott (op. cit, p. 76) 
notes that the season of the rains at Urta or Edessa is in the months of 
January to March inclusive, which, if Ruinart is right, would go against 
identifying with Myiapore the place where the scene is laid But is Rui- 
nart right! Certainly the Syrian! in India celebrated St. Thomas feast 
(they object now to its having commemorated his translation to Edessa) 
on July S, and I suppose that was anciently. »nd perhaps iiill, in th*4* 
Calendars, the 5th month. 

160 .Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX 

that the Christians of Mylapore would have it that their shrine 
Besidl, if?' not f ,nf ™' fco the most famous' in the land. 

de "erinti o n Wl ° " ^ the C ° ntext oUi *» « to apply the 

UvlZtr" '' a P° re S and as we know that the Christians of 

we XLTf ^ l T V Were stiI1 mastprs of th? harbour, 

S3^t?w™ they wh0 ren,itted the CU8toma on th( ' 

•™-5?' ^fl ™ Father Tachard heard ( > r ^ad abou, 

-anpar tions o St. Thomas on the day of his feast ? No one in 

or irili 00 ^ J e 5 e 5 bw at Mvla l-ore that anything like it had 

LI ad F t thcr Tachard ,,ee » ^ked questions about 

dressed to Father de Trevou. S J.. Confessor to His Roval 
Highness the Duke of Orleans. 

■.. } had c : o, 1 ne khus f «r with this discussion, when a visit to 
the Indian Library of St. Mary's College, Kurseong, put me in 
possession o a text whence Father Tachard might have had 

his information. 

The Carmelite Friar, Father Vincenzo Maria de S. Catha 
una d, Siena in his Viaggio fcW Indie Orientali (Roma. 1672:. 

ofT^Qf £u y desc /J bin 8 th * author's labours for the reunion 
Z X Ihomas Christians in Malabar, consecrates a chapter 

u» the miracles with which God favours this Christianity [of 

A a Jabarj and some prodigious tokens of St, Thomas' protec- 
wm. M At the end of that chapter (p. 153), we read :- 

tW fZl??- theSe Signs one can know how much God loves 

A n< 1 l! ! an \ ■'* m ! d h ° W great is the Protection which the 
apostle extends tn tlm™ . «* A :*u__ .... t , . . , , 

one i! 11 ^ aUC,ei ; US and St Meton write is true, in the fear 
P tri ,ro ' " d t one r h"» d ^ d ^d twenty-six [1126], .John," the 

• 1 i,1„ , i A' c " lieS re,ated hl P» blic consistory to Pope 
< dto .ti s and the Sacred College of Cardinals that St. Thomas 

1,1 otn V V T y year visiblv in P riest] v vestments and with 

Futhf, Ti ^^'""ni'^ed those Christians, giving to th 

oWW r/ l< ^-disposed the Sacrament of the Altar, and 

fault Tl I ° Se Wh ° were stained with some grievous 

every «M 1 ^^ t0 sh ° W how th ev are privileged above 

"n iem uTh" , -' 1 a, L d how God and th * Saint look down 

n inem With special affection " ' 

apparkion'^r T IT the *»**■■*«« about St. Thomas' 

f- r t e ni, f hHl1 at beSt *»» d '" "ke a pious legend, it was 

then omen t ,,.. .to superseded in my mind bv the marVellou« 

m »«£! a Patriarch of the Indies should have been in Rome 

Before long, I received from Malabar two small English 

' Wo 

' •'••Pe 8 '< ..Hto„°J Ifr tha * *! •"• ° n the S-'^'a feast. 

' »»*«• II. signed from Pebr. 1st, 1119. to Dee. 13th. 1124. 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore 161 

studies on St. Thomas and the orthodoxy of the St. Thomas 
Christians, in which further references to the travels of John 
were contained. 1 His visit to Rome was there set down in the 
year 1122, which falls correct! v in the reign of Callistus II 

Our Uniate priests in Malabar had not been slow in availing 
themselves of the information to show that, if John went to 
Home to receive the pallium, he could not have been a 
Nestorian, but was in communion with Rome. 

The question of his orthodoxy ought to stand over till we 
have satisfied ourselves about his identity and veracity. Let 
us quote first some of the authorities which we have secured. 
To say the least thev are extremfelv extravagant 

The Rev. Horace K. Mann writes : — 

£i A thirteenth century chronicle,' 2 while giving an account 
. more or less mythical of one ' John, patriarch of the Indies.' 

furnishes a curious addition to our knowledge of this attempt 
•: a t reunion. 8 Professing to quote from the ' records of Ca - 

lixtus/ its author relates that in the fourth year of that 
Pope there arrived at Constantinople, after a journey of a 
whole year, the patriarch of that part of India which form- 
the end of the world (1122) He had come, we are told, for 
the pallium,* and he found at the imperial city envoys whom 
' Calixtus had sent to promote concord between the Romans 
and the Greek emperor.' Learning from these envoys 'that 
Rome was the head of the whole' world,' he returned with 
them to Rome. There, in reply to questions put to him 
by the Pope and his cardinals/ he said that the name of 
the city whence he had come was Ulna (or Ultima, according 
to another reading), s the capital and ruling city of the who!** 

Therefore, either tl 

wrong. After Callis 

he vear 1126 or the name of the Pope civen above i- 
istu* If. reigned Honorius II. (Dec. loth, 1124-Febr 

, 1130), and Innocent II. (Febr. 14th, 1130-Sept. 24th, 1143). 

1 Father Samieh .4 conclusive proof of the St. Thomas Christians adh 


ence to the true faith, revised and reprinted trcm the Malabar Herald, 
printed and published at the 'Union Press/ Cochin. 1919. See p. 3 
quoting Le Quien, II, i27~>, and a long arrav of other namf- taken from 
Kaolin. Father Samiel died since. His pamphlet was sent to me by an 
anonymous friend. 

The Rev. Joseph C. Panjikaran. MA.. The Syrian Church in Mala- 

w : A historical dissertation submitted for the Matter of Arts Degree of the 

University of Madras. Reprinted with a few additions, Trichinop >!y. 
printed by Rev. Bro. Joseph, S J., Supt., St. Joseph's Industrial School 
Press, 1914, pp.66. Sec p. 33. quoting Rev. Horace K. Mann, The Lives 
of the Popes in the Middle Ave*. London. V.>1. Vllt (1910), pp. 219-220. 
and referring to Le Quien. II, 1270-1277. 

* M As wo have it now, it is the work ot Alberic. a monk of the Cis- 
Mercian Abbev of Trois Fontaines, in the di.K-ese of Chalons sor-Marne. as 
interpolated bv the monk of Neo-Moustier (Hoy)- Alberic died aft*r 

1252*'— IB. K. Mann). 

1 At the Council of Lateran ill 1123 ? 

♦ From whom was he to receive the pallium, if hi»gOif*g to Rome WU 

like an after- thought ? 

162 J ox ran 1 of (he Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX, 

Kingdom of India.' It had a circumference of four days' 
journey and two Roman chariots could run abreast alone 
its walls were so high that even the towers of 
Rome looked small beside them. Phison, one of the rivers of 
I aradwe. flowed through it, most limpid, and Welding *old and 
J::, , Not far /™ «- <** on a fountain surrounded by a 

\\«L ! f^ TT m ° ther Chuich ° f St Thomas the A P^tle. 

hp n ' < >T r \ mo " asterifcs of the twelve Apostles. In 

bv Vi ' . thC (hUrC u h - '^vercase (wneHa)* suspended 

enti, ' i , ia ' nS ' !2? the b0d - v of th * A P° s «e whole and 

„£ ,m ch \f CCO " dlng fc ° J ° hn > did the 1 most marveliom 
tnmps (luring Mass. 1 

and 'iM ^T " T ch fa this »™tive that is mythical 
will Jr r^ the U ° ndr0US * tories of P ™<*' J° h " 

a grain of truth." * ' " incidentally preserved 

civc^L^\ e - nh u\^ e 8ame writer 8l »ws under what 
^^^^^^sT^^' the Pope's envoys 
of the iH^oc n /n ,v; V would nofc have been a true heir 

to ^unt^ C^ ty 7}h U he had fai,ed *> mak * a » eff ^t 

made 1 ei l?T k n and Latm Chur ches. j n 1122 . his envoys 
C^r o 'n°p 0nStanfcinOp!e With letters f or the Greek 
Pope' Tetto flr 'i Co f rai ! eniM - ° n the Sub J' ect of reuni <>n. The 
extant ™ri° S SJ mt the Ern P^or's reply to them is 

thTcauseof ll h y - aftel ' P ! eadin g his Eastern campaigns as 

, S ti r ! ■ m reF>lving to the P °P e ' s overtures he 
t S! 1 H7' lllm 7! ion of the P^sents. vestments. 

came to ^ wHh SSJ ^ ^ (J ^ H24) " " If J ° hn 
above that he did Z T- * 6nV ° y - U would seem from the 

11-4 Th , L iu rnve exee P fc some tii ne after June 

i;, pai ^t k ha Y t0 be borne in n »" d *« explain the 
furnish chronology which the different accounts 

the vear°l 1 -> h T U ^^ 57 do6S ** W^ » ie »tion under 
•hTiii2jfr^i^^ J* - this John, about 
what i* rilloH aiu •',-.,' We t;lk es his information from 

among the acts of P ope Pallix „, IT ' T w &e / ear . 1,ZZ ' 

the vpir 111*. •.. ' , lalllxt u3 II.. who began to reign in 
^^_H19 it „ related that a certain Patriarch of the 

Ho»n.i a internolata an H ' F ^tnm, a monacho Novi-Monasterii 

' CI.H.K Mana 7W P , Y' ° " SS " *"""-<B- K. Mann) 
Vol. VH1 (1910) pp Vlj! 2 20 0/ °*" '****• U<ddU A f* 9 ' London - 

, , \ K M »nn, iWd. f Vol. Vlfl silt ->. 7 

Orievali*, 4 foIiovXme!!.-Iff r £ feren< * to hi ' n » Armani's Biblioiheca 

1923 J St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 163 

Indies, called John, came to Constantinople in the 4th year of 
Callixtus' Pontificate, to receive the pallium, and that he came 
thence to Rome with the Pope's legates. There, before the 
Pope and the Cardinals, he narrated among other things that 
he resided in the Church of India where the body of St. 
Thomas was kept entire (illaesum) and standing, his clothe- 
also being intact (vestibus etiam illaesis) ; and that every year. 
\ on his feast, the Patriarch, kneeling before him with the 

Bishops, offers the consecrated hosts, with which St. Thomas 
himself communicates with his own hand one by one those of 
the people who approach ; but, if an unbeliever or one guilty 
of sin approaches, he withdraws and closes his hand. Such is 
the story of that Bishop. 

"And, though we look upon stories ( narr ati unc ulas) of the 
kind with no less caution and scruple than Le Quien. yet we have 
read this very thing, with a few changes, quoted with approval, 
not only by Monk Helinand, St. Antoninus. Bellovacen^is. 
Gesner and Nauclerus, whom Stapleton (writing about St. 
Thomas at p. 942 of his volume 4) agrees with, but also by the 
Author of. the Synchronon, i.e. Odo, x4bbot of St. Remy's, in 
a letter to Count Thomas, among the Vetera Analecla of 
Mabillon (p. 464 of the Paris edition of Montalant, 1723). In 
this letter he writes to Thomas 'what I saw and heard (says 
he) at the Roman Court this present year (Mabillon thinks he 
wrote about 1135), to wit, on the Friday after the solemnity 
of Ascension Sunday.' Then he recounts that a certain Arch- 
bishop (which I think more correct than what is reported by 
Alberic, namely that he was Patriarch of the Indies) presented 
himself with the Legates before the Pope, and that, alter 
exposing the reason of his arrival, he related almost the same 
things which we copied above, except what Alberic writes 
about Communion ; however, he advanced at the Court some- 
thing similar, asserting that every year, when the Archbi-hop 
with the companions of this Order (Bishops) approaches to 
make offerings to the Apostle-, he opens his hand, and receives 
gratefully the offerings of the faithful, whereas he declines the 
presents 'of heretics, withdrawing and closing bis hand He 
adds that the Pope, on hearing of this from those of his 
household, ■ summoned the Bishop to his presence and forbade 
him under anathema to continue spreading false rumours in 
the Palace ; but the Bishop, with the Lord Pope ? s consent, 
proved that it was so bv -wearing on the Holy Gospel 
Finally, the Lord Pope and all the Court believed him ' But. 
as we were not then at the Court, we gave our opinion on fchia 
matter above, where we related these things (at the end of 
Dissertation 2V 

— * 

This last .sentence must be Abbot Odo's. I do not Bud it at the 
»d of Document 2 to be mentioned and translated presently. 

104 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

"From all this it seems to be clearly proved, however, 
that, as we wanted to show, this John must be set down in the 
series of Bishops and Metropolitans of India. I leave to others 
the chronological difficulty of conciliating the 4th year of 
Callixtus II, with the year 1135, when Innocent II. sat in St. 
Peter's Chair after Honorius II." l 

Having written to Europe for the texts of some of the 
authors mentioned by Raul in (LeQuien, Alberio. Helinand. St. 
Antoninus. Bellovaeensis, Gosner, Nauclerus, Stapleton, and 
Vbhot Odo) and expecting but little help. I considered myself 
particularly lucky when I discovered in the Bollandists two 
texts of considerable import. One is a shorter recension than 
Alberic's Chronicle quoted by the Rev. H. K. Mann ; the other 
by Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, is the same as the account ascribed 
by Raulin to Odo, Abbot of St. Remv's. Both deserve a 
place here. 

Document I. — Our first document is from Catalogus Codi- 
cvm H agiographicorum Bibliothecae Regiae Bruxellensis, Pars I, 
Codices Latini Membranei, Tom /. Ediderunt Hagiographi Boh 
landiani (Anahct Boll, torn. IIV), Bruxellis, 1886. 

At p. 122 (op. cit.) is mentioned Bibl. Reg. Bruxellensis 
Cod. No. 206. This Codex resembles Codd. 98-100, which are 
attributed erroneously to the 12th. instead of to the 13th. cen- 
tury. See p. 108 (Calal Cod. Hag., op. cit.) : " On the verso of 
the last leaf is added the Miracle of St. Thomas, written by 
another hand of the 13th century. " 

At fol. 189v of Codex 20P, there is a text entitled : " Mira- 
ntlum S. Thomae Apostolic This the Bollandists reproduce 

{ P*» !ong reference was sent us by Father Brocard of St. Thomas, 
I.Oa: D. # St. John's Monastery, Mutholy, Travancore. We have tran- 
latecl it from the Latin, and have since secured a copy of Raiilin's H%*~ 

toria Ecclesiae Malabaricae, Romae, 1745, where see the original text at 
pp. 4:35-430. 

Why should Raulin himself place Mar John TII.'s visit to Rome 
4 about 1129 ' since Callistua II., had died in 1124, and the authorities h 
quotes (Le Quien and Alberic's Chronicle) are said to give the year 1122 : 
Atp. 377 {op. cit.) he assigns Mar John's coming to Rome to the year 

» qU ?- tmg P^NPfcton** De tribus Thomix, Vol. IV. p. 942. 
r k T aul J n s 1,st of Indian Bishops (op. cit., pp. 432-486) mentions as 
John I the Bishop who in A.D 325 is common! v believed to have assisted 
at the Council of Nice; he has no particulars about John II, who ruled 
jbout A.D. 800; John III. is the Bishop mentioned in the above text ; 
■John IV. reigned in A.D. 1490. 

Alberic's Chronicon was written about 1241 ; he died about 1252 

( ,; o - HC! L £' New Ymk •'•««*); Helmand died either in 1223, 1227. 
or 123, (ibid.. VII, 2066); Bellovaeensis is Vincent of BeauvaU, the 

author of Speculum mains, who died in 1264 {ibid.). 

1923.] St Thomas and San Thome, M via pore. 165 

at pp. 132-134, in an Appendix which we translate below 
under Document I. 

Two recensions of this text are indicated by the Bollan- 
dists in Bibliotheca llagiographica Latina autiquae et mediae 
aetatis ediderunt Socii Bollandiani (K.-Z.) $ Bmxellis, 1900- 
1901, p. 1180, No. 7 (or Nos. 8145. 8140). The two recension^ 
are entitled by the Bollandists : "Miraciila facta in India. De 
adventu patriarchae Indoruni ad urbem sub Cailisto papa 

In the longer recension the prologue begins thus: " Tern- 
poribus antiquis consuetudo fuisse legitur." The beginning 
proper is : " Temporibus itaque Calisti papae II." The end is : 
'Qui talia tantaque miracula per s. suum apostolum Thomam 
operari non desinit, cum Patre. . . . Amen." ] 

The shorter recension begins: u Patriarcha regionis Indo- 
rum orationis gratia unius anni in spatio Romam," and ends 
in the same way as the longer recension. 2 This is the short- 
er text which we translate below under Document I. 

Document II. — Our second document is from the same 
. CataL Codicum Hagiographicorum . Pars 7, Tom. II (Analect. 

r Boll, torn. V-VIII), Bmxellis, 1880. 

At p. 18 (op. cit.) is mentioned Bibl. Reg. Braxellensis 
Ood. Xo. 7461. This MS., like Codex 7460, belonged to 
' monasterium Vallicellense/ in the diocese of Cambray, as is 
shown by a note of the 13th or 14th century. 

In Codex No. 7461 (pp. 290-300), Xo. 45 speaks of " Passio 
Sancti Thomae Apostoli, quae est XI 1° Kl. Januarii." This 
was published by Membritius, torn. TI. Xo. 46 (p. 300) contains 
'* Expositio officinarum aulae regiae." This too was published 
by Membritius, torn. I, pp. 252-253. The Bollandists notice 
some variants in the Brussels MS. Xo. 47 (pp. 300-301) is en- 
titled : "Narratio domni Odilonis Cluniacensis Abbatis. de 
quodam miraculo Sancti Thomae Apostoli." And the Bollan- 
dists remark : " Since this letter relates a miracle which much 
resembles the one we published above (torn. I, pp. 132-134), we 
shall edit it in Appendix." It appears accordingly at pp. 29-31 
as an Appendix. This is our Document II translated below. 
All the copies begin with : "Salutare est omnibus," and end 
with : "maiora impetrari posse acclamabant." 

We must notice still that the Bollandists remark elsewhere 

{Biblioth. Hagiographica Latina (K-Z.), Bmxellis, 1900- 

[iM) l 7 p. 1181, No. 7. II, or Xo. 8147) that in other copies the 
letter is attributed to Odo, Abbot of St. Remy's at Rheims. 
In still other copies (cf. ibid., p. 1383, No. 8148a) the letter be- 

1 It is a great pity that I do not possess a copy of this longer rectn 

f I omit the numerous bibliographical referecces given by the Bol- 
landiftta for both the longer and the shorter recension. 

166 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX, 

- ns : ' Dilecto suo frater 0. salutem in Domino. Salutare 
est. where Brother 0. appears without any qualifications. 

Document I. 

[P. 132:] The Miracles of St, Thomas the A postle. 

The Patriarch 1 of the country of the Indians,' travelling for 
a year with oars and sails, came to Koine to pray. 1 Ques- 
tioned by the Sovereign Pontiff about St. Thomas and his 
miracles, he related before the whole clergy and senate the follow* 
mg, according as he knew it to be true. ' 

The reader will remark that the Bishop's name, John III., doe- 
Dot occur in the two texts we translate from the Bollandists. The term 
patriarch may have become extensively used bv the Xestotians at tin 
time, as among the Armenians. (A. Fortescue, The lesser Easter*, 
I flinches, pp. 40o, 43(M. 

Bishop John do Marignolli mentions a ' Patriarch of St. Thomas' in 
the account of his travels in the East (1339-53), which is found in his 

P li y nn *?££? { ^T bl \T' Monumenta historic** Bohemias, Prag, 1768. 

wW iff. ->-V, , . Ir l the cha P ter °" th« sending of the Holy Ghost. 
when at p. 259 he asks the question whether the supper is to be eaten 

T nm! Tf% ,° T Unleaven ? d b 'ead, he was told by the Patriarch of St, 

. aZi ^ r. t 11 j a fi Thoma ^> according to their clear and beautiful 

i'^'f h . e Lord celebrated the Supper with unleavened bread, 

ho,^ f * \ UU ' 'f "*»*»<* have found leavened dough in the 

lea v n«H hZJT" ?Z' bUt that the A P° stl ° [Thomas?] used common 
The ni lt t ^ a , Pont f cost the Jews would eat only common bread. 

atCm here-who this Patriarch of St. Thomas was. He may 
their P i,r,h h ,Sh ° P ° f the Thomas Christians in Malabar, or also 

•is t J l IZn !! m 6 C f Untfy ° f the Euphrates, which Marignola also 
Chnstian of ?nH„ ^/f^f 1 " CBse ' the <P'« stion Aether the Thomas 

I dden in ,1 « d Blsh ° pS in Ma "gnola's time must be answered 
PatrlafcLTtS Tk mna f»V f ° r S " re1 ^ ,f Marignola could meet the 

- , i < w t h rT aS J*"**". l "e latter would also have maintained 
hi sel m , vhns mn communities, if he did not actually reside 

D 2 IS fr n „ /-, U - Germann - ^ Kirche der T homaschrisl en , 

text is in £ M.J? ^f,^ the above withoilf knowing how much of the 
text is in < Mangnolh's wording. H 

MariinolH''^ 86 qi : ot f d , i3 not ^ dole's extracts (Cf. Cathay) from de* 

I n '^ EaSt He must h »™ overlooked it 

pore ulit '7 ght i mve met the Patriarch of St. Thomas at Myla- 

• of w cl?^ r? V i* y i ( ' 349 ?) - He describes the Mylapore shrine 
StT ,il ? a ? md been Bwhop" and the vinery planted by 

Roman, rem ! 1' r f« 10nis Indorum orationis gratia onius anni in spatio 
-. on T^„ ?° P rovef>tU3 advenit. " A contusing sentence. The 

-pet wi"ho 'i.nn.^" 6 £°? ld mean fchafc ' tho »S»> he Ravelled with all 
?whoto vea R,S y ^w tlmt he Came b * sea ' 5^ his ^vtraey had listed 
- % to?SJJ!&;£^"* - ■*■ ■** *« not fend itself so 

- f V hatThe Si™"* 1 ? ' n W " ,na - V trust H - K Ma ™ a " d W. Germann, 
oS2»L , ^f 3 ' ^one^tinople had taken a whole vear. 

tomb but 1? '" -',' "" Jan that he ca '» e to P«y at the Apostk- 
--.e ^rcumstaTc: ! J*™ 11 ' "" ta < *™ f " *™' ^ ^ dM 



1923. | >S7. Thomas ami San Thome, Mylapore. 167 

"The town itself/' [P. 133] he said. 6: where the body of 
the venerable Apostle Thomas rests in the Lord, is called 
Ulna. 1 It is the capital and ruling city of the whole of our 
kingdom. 2 Indeed, the size of that city is so great that it 
takes a four days' journey to go round. Such is the thickness 
of the walls encom passing it that at least two chariots can go 
abreast on its summit ; but its height surpasse^ that of a high 
tower. 2 The Phison, one of the rivers of Paradise, flows 
through it* Its waters, which are most limpid, throw up 

1 Ulna might be a copyist's mistake for Melia (Meliapur). One of 
the variants, as remarked by the Rev. H. K. Mann and W. Germann, has 
Ultima. Some medieval writers do indeed speak of Mylapore as a sort of 
Ultima Thule for India; but it is not likely that that fact produced 
Ultima.— In case Mar John III. referred to Mesopotamia, sometimes in- 
cluded in India by Syrian writers, Ulna might be a mistake for CFrfa 

2 In 1122 Mylapore might indeed have been still one of the most im- 
portant towns of the Coromandel Coast. However. Marco Polo (A.D. 
1293) says that it was not much frequented by traders. 

8 Some of our ancient Indian towns were enormous. Think of 
Mandhu and Delhi. Think of our modern Calcutta with its suburbs. It 
is not said that the whole area of the town was walled in. As for the 
thickness and height of the walls, we might condone the exaggeration, if 
any there was, in view of the fact that our Easterner was perhaps bent 
on making himself interesting, as much as on humbling the Romans. 
But. after putting the mildest construction on the text, we do not see 

1 how the passage was ever applicable to Mylapore. The Mylapore of our 

medieval travellers, less than 200 years after Mar John III., doe, not 
appear to have been walled. 

\ 1 he Portuguese never allude to walls anterior to their arrival (1517 or 

1522). S. Thome was walled at least twice, in 1611 or 1624, and about 
1690. The walls were dismantled the second time about 1697. Ct. 
Love, Vestiges of Old Madras, I, 576. Xow no traces of walls are risible, 
except near the shore, close to the flagstaff. . 

It would require much good will to see in the four days circum- 
ference of the town an allusion to the four leagues of toad donated bj 
Bukka Raja to the Mylapore shrine. , 

* We find the name Phison applied by the Syrians to the Indus; 
perhaps also to the Ganges. A geographical fragment m ihe Liber ' alt* 
pharum published by Land in his Anecdota Syriacu (Lugdum- Bitovoran 
Vol. I, 1862. p. 122) has : » And these are the biggest rivers: Urn Iridic 
or Pison. the Nile or Genon, the Tigris or Phrat, the Jordan, the Gepht* 
sua, the Tanais(?) . . . . " Cosmas Indicopleust em (A.D. M8) • -. 
<4 The river Phison [Indus] divides India from the h uns. . . . O the* 
(rivers of Paradise), the Phison is the river of India winch some rail Indus 
or Ganges It flows down from regions in the interior and tails by mam 
mouths into the Indian ,ea." Cf. J. W. McQmdfe, Anaem India 
A. Constable, Westminster, 1901, p. 165. Pseudo-Kalhsthene>, wh 
wrote about A.D. 420, and whose treatise belongs to the LaiiMac tuto- 
rial of Palladium, writes: •• This river Ganges is in our opinion that wmcn 
is called in Scripture the Phison, one of the rivers which are said to go out 

f from Paradise." (Ibid., p. 178). .. , . , , ., ¥uhIs 

See also on many other identifications W. S. Smith , DtCt. of *tht 
\ ;nd ed., Vol. I, Pt. i! pp. 847-8, *. v. Eden. See also M««gi*f s -trang 


of thePhisoA in Yule's Cathay, II (I860), 9£*^£°. , ft n ,,. 
What of the Adyar of Mylapore ? Would Ihe Phwo* > fit Edm^ re 
tbe Euphrates? The rest of the story does not apply to Edessa mot. 



168 .Journal oi the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, j 

the richest gold and the most precious gems, whence our people 
become passing wealthy. The whole of this city, as behoves, is 
inhabited by faithful Christians. No heretic or infidel can live 
among them without either repentirg at once or dropping dead 

suddenly. 1 

11 At a small distance outside the ramparts of the town 
there is a lonely mountain surrounded on all sides by a very 
deep lake. 2 On it rises a high tower, on the top of which 
stands the mother-church of the most blessed Apostle Thomas. 8 
Around the said lake, on the outside, there are XII monasteries 
in honour of the XII Apostles, 4 The aforesaid mountain, on 
which the Church of the Apostle Thomas is situated, is not 
accessible to anyone during the vear, nor does anvone rashly 
venture to go to it. Only once a year does the Patriarch, 
whoever he be. enter it. with those who come from all sides to 
celebrate the sacred mysteries: for. when the day of the 
Apostle's feast approaches, eight days before it and as many 

tan to Mylapore, and; as Edesr>a was so much nearer Rome, and in the 
hands of the Crusaders, and pilgrims from Mesopotamia might easily 
have refuted the story as applied to Edtssa. we may suppose that the 
1 Indian Patriarch ' would lay the story in real India. Who could verify 
it then ? But the only place in India claiming the tomb of St. Thomas 
would have been Mylapore. 

According to Indian or Syrian notions there would have been nothing 
extraordinary in making tlio Phison issue from Paradise (Ceylon), re- 
appear at Mylapore. and continue elsewhere as the Indus. See infra 
note (under Prester John's letter). 

1 The meaning of this sentence appears from the seque Neither 
document speaks of Jews, as does the Latin hymn translated at the 
h _ inning of this chapter. 

* A deep lake around (Great) St. Thomas Mount. Mylapore, must 

sound incredible to anyone knowing present conditions. Only the shallow 

Adyar flows close to the foot of the Great Mount. In the middle of 

January. 1923, I noticed a large number of lakes in the neighbourhood 

of St. Thomas Mount, but no one would have thought, if he wished to be 

xact. of describing the Mount as surrounded on all sides by a very deep 

J > There might have been on the Great Mount in pre -Portuguese times 

a >ort of light-house. I have in my collection? some texts to that effect. 
There had been on the Great Mount a Church going back to at least the 
7th century and probably a monastery too. But who can understand a 
I 'hurch on top of a tower ? And who will believe that that Church held 
the tomb of the Saint ? What about the tomb at the Church nearer the 
sea ! The confusion would be bad enough for an Indian Bishop who had 
not visited the place. How shall we quality the statement, if it comes 
from an ■ Indian Patriarch/ who we must suppose had presided at the 
yearly ceremonies ? 

* Less than 200 years later, there was no trace or souvenir of these 
twelve mom rteriee round the lake. None of the medieval travellers 
refers to them. There was not even a tradition about them or the lake m 
Portuguese times, and yet the Portuguese picked up at Mylapore so many- 
id traditions. I could understand a Church at Mvlapore with icons of 

he twelve Apostles, for even now both the Church of the Luz and the 
Church at the Great Mount have each a collection of such paintings, 
both the cift of Armenians. 



1923.] St Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 169 

after it, the abundant waters surrounding the said mountain 
decrease to such an extent that one hardly remarks there had 


been water there. 1 Hence, there flock thither, from all sides, 
Christians and infidels coming from afar, and sick people of all 
sorts, who, through the merits of the blessed Apostle Thomas. 

expect undoubtingly the remedy and cure of their illness. 

" Within the holy of holies of the said Church, there is a 
magnificently wrought ciborium, 2 covered with silver, and 
adorned with the various precious stones produced by the 
river of Paradise called Phison. Within [the ciborium] there 
hangs, suspended by silver chains, a most precious silver 
concha, 3 and, however precious it be, as the story of the 
Apostle himself also 4 says, it is much more precious for the 
treasure within it. In truth, the most holy body of the Apostle 
is yet preserved in it, intact and entire, as on the day of his 
death, and he is seen standing in it erect, as if alive. 5 Before his 
presence hangs, from silver ropes, a golden lamp filled with 
balsam. Once it has been lit. the balsam does not decrease from 
year to year, nor does it get extinguished ; but, God willing it so, 
and through the Apostle's intercession, all things are found the 
next year just as they were, as is proved by the greater 

1 Is the Adyar dry on the 3rd of July, when the feast would have 
been celebrated at Mylapore ? Father Tachard says in his letter of 1711 
that the Adyar was formed by the bursting of the dyke of a distant 

ank. When he says that this had occurred at the beginning of the 1 7th 
century, owing to heavy rains, we have reason to suspect he is not ac- 
curate. I have not met any other allusion to such a bursting, and we 

iiould think that the Adyar is as old as Mylapore. The reminiscence 
may have been about a much older fact. 

* The idea of a ciborium, or dais above the high altar, seems to h 
borrowed from the Greek and Roman Churches which John III. woul- 
have visited on his journey. Would Edessa still have had a ciborium in 
1122? The old Malabar Churches do not appear ever to have had a 
ciborium. There are none now, as far as 1 know, in the tton-Uniat** 
Churches of Malabar. 

% s M In the year [A.D.J 442-443, Anatolius the General (in commam 

* the troops) made an offering of a silver casket to hold the Bones of 

the Apostle St. Thomas." (Medlycctt, op. at , pp. 103-10*.) It was 

pended by a silver chain, says another text, ibid., p. 102.' Unfortu- 
nately for our case in favour of Mylapore, this was at Edessa. 

* In what story of the Apostle docs this occur ? 

6 We should think that the greater part of the body was at Mj la 
pore rather than at Edessa. It could not have been entire at either 
place, if some of the many relics of St, Thomas shown in different 
Churches of Europe are genuine. Be that as it may, for neither place ar 
we prepared to believe that the bodv was preserved In a conch or shell 
like vessel, and was standing in it erect, as if alive. Did not the slab 
°f chalcedony winch covered tho Apostle's relics at Chios (from 1143 or 
****)» and which has been at Ortona sin 1258, come from Edessa ? JF 
Mar John III. speaks of relics of the Saint at My 1h pore, we should think 
that the greater part was in the tomb: for. if what the Portuguese found 

at Mylapcre in 1622 in a tomb at a depth of some 10 palms w*€ not part 

jjC St. Thomas' body, then the whole contention in favour of 81 


170 Journal of Ihe Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S, 3 XIX, 

marvels to be derived next from anointing oneself with the 
liquid. 1 Indeed, when, according to the custom of the feast 
the Patriarch, as has been said, return- each year to the afore- 
said Church, he is followed by a great concourse of people, 
men and women, all of them clamouring and demanding unceas- 
ingh even the smallest particle of the balsam burning before the 
Apostle's tribunal : for no one doubts that, God willing, the 
^ick, whatever their illness, will recover at once when anointed 
with it. 

" Next, as in the holv solemnities of Easter, the Patriarch. 
with his suffragan Bishops, prepares himself to lower(?) the 
-aid concha ;* after which, amid hymns and spiritual praises, 
they iower(?) little by little the concha with the sacred body. 
Taking up the Apostles sacred body with much trembling and 
great reverence, they place it on a golden seat near the altar. 
[P. 134] By the creator's will, he is yet so entire that he 
appears as when he walked the earth alive. His face shine- 
like a star ; his hair is red and falls almost on to his shoulders ; 
his beard is red and crisp, but not long ; his wholo appearance, 
in fine, i? most comely to see. His clothes too are still as 
strong and entire as when first put on. 

1 See above, in this chapter, how St. Gregory of Tours speak- in 
lost similar terms about the lamp mentioned by Theodore. But the 
Oriental Christians, would relate incredible stories about the lamps or 
their churches. 

Johann Schiltberger was told of the Mountain of St. Catherine, at 
Mount Sinai, that *< when a monk is about to die, his lamp becomes dim. 
and when it goes out, he dies. When the Abbot dies, he who sings the 
mass finds on the altar a letter, in which is written the name of the man 
who is to be the abbot, and his lamp relights of itself/ 9 Cf. The Bondage 
and Travels of Johann Schiltberger , a native of Bavaria, in Europe, Asia 
and Africa, 1396-1427. By J. Buchan Telfer, London, Hakluvt Society. 
1^79, p. 55. 

Johann was at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem. 
"There is a lamp that burns all the vear until Good Friday : then it 
goes out, and reli-hts itself on Good Saturday [ibid., p. 57). 

Assemani (BibL Orient. .Vol. IV, pp. CCCLXU-CCCLXIX) says that 
this story is heard earlier than A.D. II 10, and that the non-Xestorian- 
considered it a fraud, but that the Greeks, the Armenians, the Egyptians, 
and the Abyssinians believed in it. 

In a Calicut temple, according to a Jewish Slavonian pilot brought 
back to Lisbon perforce, *' on a certain day of the year, some lamps in 

_ _ Bv 

London. Hakluvt Society, 1898, p. 130. 

* " ad praedtetam concham expendendam cum suis suftra- 
ganeis episcopis patriarcha velut in sacris paschalibus solemnitatibu- 
praeparat sese. et post haec cum hvmnis et spiritualibus laudibiis pauia- 
tira expendunt cum sacro corpore concham/' The word expendere might 
mean 'to examine"; but the translation which we give seems to meet 
the rase better. The word occurs once more lower in the same sense. 
Germann alto understands it as meaning ' to lower.' (See intra). 

I 4923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Myhtpore. 171 

"When the Apostle's body has been thus taken down 1 
and placed in the chair, presently the sacred ministers perform 
the ceremonies proper to the feast. But, when the time of re- 
ceiving the Eucharist has come, the Patriarch arranges with 
the paten on the altar the sanctified hosts, bears them with 

/ great reverence to the place where the Apostle is seated, and. 

kneeling, offers them to the Apostle, who, by the Creator's dis- 
position, extends his right hand and receives them so careful- 
ly as to appear, not dead, but quite alive. Indeed, receiving 
them in his outstretched palm, he keeps them there to give 
one to each : for the whole assembly of the faithful, men and 
women, approach one after another, with much reverence 
and fear, and each receives in his mouth a host from the hand 

I of the Apostle,* 2 the Apostle giving it. But, if an infidel or a 

heretic or a person sullied by other stains of sin approaches 
him in order to receive Communion, the Apostle, while the 
sinner stands there and all look on, at once withdraws hi- 
hand with the hosts, and does not again open it as long as the 
man is there. 8 As for the sinful man, he will never get off un- 
less he presently repent and, touched with sorrow, receive 
Communion from the Saint : else, he dies before he leaves the 

1 " Taliter igitur deposito atque in cathedra apostoli corpore collo- 
cate" The word deposito shows that the concha must have been 

The idea of seating the Saint in a chair may have been suggested by 
the fact that every member of the Greek clergy is buried in complete 
ecclesiastical attire, and that the custom of interring in a sitting posture 
w still observed in the case of a Bishop. 

M In a recent account of the obsequies at Constantinople of a Bishop 
of the Greek Church {The Times, August 29, 1878). the Correspondent 
writes: 'I was ushered into a small densely crowded church, and on 
walking forward a few steps, found myself confronted by an aged and 
venerable prelate seated on a throne in full canonicals, richly decorated 
with gold and jewels. He sat perfectly motionless, with his vym closed, 
and holding in his right hand a jewelled rod resembling a sceptre. Two 
or three people advanced and devoutly kissed his hands, but he did not 
return the customary benediction and gave no sign9 of consciousness. 
'Is he asleep?' 1 whispered inquiringly to my friend. 'No, he is 
dead; that is the late patriarch.'" CL The Bondage and Travels of 
Johann Sckitibeger, op. cit.. p. 233. 

8 Did not the Indian Syrians receive the host or consecrated bre 
in their hands and communicate themselves? 

In receiving Communion ** a person will lay one hand in the other, 
forming a cross : and the priest will lay the bread in his hands aid he 
takes it. In some places the priest puts it in his mouth, as with the 
hildren everywhere ; then the communicant will go and drink the drink 
offering M Cf Surma d'Bait Mar Shimun, Assyrian Church Customs an 
the Murder of Mar Shimun, London, Faith Press, quoted through The 
Tablet, London, Febr. 25, 1922. p. 247. 

1 We may freelv reject the miracle of the Apostle's opening and 
closing his h nds, as long as it rests on such poor evidence a this. A 
natural explanation which one dares hardly devise is that of a statue 
winch would have been made to act automatically; but the device would 
have h^en childish and the interpretation blasphemous. 

172 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.N., XIX, 

place. Many of the infidels, struck with fear at so great a 
miracle, abandon the errors of their paganism : converted to 
the faith of Christ, they ask unceasingly for the sanctifying 
waters and are baptized together in the name of the holy and 
undivided Trinitv. 


"These ceremonies over, and the sacred mysteries pertain- 
ing to the feast of the holy Apostle Thomas having been 
celebrated by the clergy and the people the whole of that week, 
the Patriarch and the aforesaid ministers of God. Archbishop- 
and Bishops, 1 tremblingly replace the Apostle's sacred body 
in the same place, great fear and reverence reigning a'l around, 
as when they take it down (? sicut quando illlid ex pendant). 

" After that, each one returns home happv and rejoicing at 
having been privileged to see such great miracles. And. in the 
-ame way as the plain and place aforesaid entirely dries up 
about the feast of the Apostle, when the people crowd in, so 
now, when they go away, it returns quickly to its former con- 
dition, and is now at once flooded in deep water. ' : 

That is what the Patriarch of the Indians related at the 
Lateran Court, and Pope Callistus II., with the rest of the 
Roman Church present there, raised their hands to heaven and 
glorified with one accord Christ, who, not ceasing to work year- 
ly such and so great miracles through His holy Apostle Thomas, 
hveth with the Father and the Holv Ghost, world without 
end. Amen. 

We might perhaps suggest, for want of anything better, 
that by the body of St Thomas may have been meant the low- 
iclief statue of St. Thomas found underground in 1729 near 
tie tomb of St. Thomas at Mvlapore. The consecrated hosts 
might have been made to touch the statue, and St. Thomas him- 
self would have been understood to administer Holy Commu- 
nion. But, the withdrawing and closing of the hand remain- 
as unintelligible in the case of a statue as in the ease of a dead 

The Rev. Adrian Fortescue refers to cases of ordination by 
a .had body in Armenia. The Katholikos of Etshmiadzin i- 
rdamed by a kind of supplemental imposition of hands, the 
imposition of a real or supposed "relic of St Gregorv the 
Illuminator, his right arm. called the holy Atsch. 2 From 
Malabar we have the curious storv that twelve Nestorian 
priests went through an alleged form of ordination by laving on 
the head of Archdeacon Palakomatta a letter from the im- 

• It require- more authoritative texts than this to make us accept 
tor southern India a Patriarch with An-hbishops and Bi>hcr - who would 
have met yearly at Mylapore for the Saint > feast. These numerous 
prelates might have been found near Edessa : not bo in India, I think. 

» A. fort, -rue, The lesser Eastern Churri *. p. 416. 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 173 

prisoned Bishop Aithallaha (about 1653). l It is also stated 
that in 1810, when a non-Uniate Malabar Bishop died without 
ordaining a successor, the clergy took a priest, brought him to 
the dead body, said the prayers for ordaining a bishop, and 
laid the dead hand on his head. 2 

Our explanation about veneration shown to a statue of 
St. Thomas, instead of to the bodv of the Saint, was, we find, 
anticipated by RauJin. " Moreover," he savs u we might 
\ think that what is said about St. Thomas' body should be 

attributed to some statue of the Holy Apostle (for we consider 
that also possible) rather than say that, either at Edessa or 
elsewhere, a few bones and ashes of the Apostle wrought 
the above-said miracle." 5 

Why do we not without more ado dismiss the whole of this 
extraordinary story and brand it as a barefaced hoax ? We 
still think that the story emanates from India. Extravagant 
as it is, it app?ars to establish with St. Thomas in India a link 
older bv 170 years than Marco Polo, and as such it deserves to 


be treated with all consideratenes 

Our first reason for thinking so is that Bishop John de' 
Marignolli picked up at Mylapore itself in A.D. 1349 a story 
which looms large in Mar John III.'s account. ' Standing 
miracles," writes de' Marignolli, "are, however, to be seen 
there [at Mylapore] in respect both of the opening of the sea and 
of the peacocks {tarn de aperitione marU quam de pavonibus)." 4 

"There is nothing before, says Yule, " about this open- 
ing of the sea, and the meaning is dark." 5 Neither does de' 
Marignolli tell us in what the miracle of the peacocks con- 
sisted.* Probably he referred to two facts widely known to 
medieval readers. Yule continues to say that John of Bete 
has a foolish story about St. Thomas' body being on an island 
in the sea, and that, every year, a path was laid dry for fifteen 
days for the pilgrims to pass through the sea. We know thai 
^tory well enough by now, John of Hese had it from our Mar 
John I J I. For once, however, we disagree with Yule when he 

1 A. Fortescue, The lesser Eastern Churches, pp. 361-365. 

* Ibid , p. 365, n. I, quoting Germann , Die Kirche der Thomasrhristen, 
P 621. Fortescue doubts, however, whether men so ordained were re- 
cognized as real bishops. 

3 Raulin, HiHtoria EccL Malabaricae, p. 378. 

* Sir H. Yule, Cathay and the Way thither, [1st ed., London, 18«6, El. 

Si) , . 

6 Ibid., I. 370, n. 1. 

6 I cannot guess what the standing miracle of the peacocks may have 
been like. 

*"*"** « ^tinuing miracie or peaco_~ . — - 

( alciitta. we have dealt with ancient interchanges of legends between 
Christians and non-Christians at Mylapore. Of. ibid., January 31 March 
-8, n>23,pp.70; 94; 110: 126: 142-143; 168-16©; 174-175; I8HW. 

174 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bt ngal. [N.S., XIX, 

says that Marginolii, who had heen at the place, could not 
mean such stuff as this. According to Yule, de' Marignolli's 
standing miracle of the opening of the sea may have alluded to 
the tradition that St, Thomas, in erecting a cross at Mylapore. 
which was then ten leagues from the sea, prophesied that, 
when the sea would reach that vicinity, white men should come 
from the world's end and restore the law which he had taught. 1 
We fail to see what standing miracle de' Marignolli might have 
seen in such a tradition, granting that he had heard it. He 
was at Mylapore only four days. 2 If he came at any time other 
than the Saint's feast, he may have heard the story of the 
opening of the sea, and would have recorded it for what 
it was worth and without pretending to have seen it A stand- 
ing miracle would be a phenomenon often repeated, and. 
immediately after the passage quoted, de' Marignolli gives us 
an instance of what he considered to be a standing miracle. 
" Moreover, whatever quantity of the earth be removed from 
the grave one day, just as much is replaced spontaneously 
against the next." s We may take it therefore that the story of 
the opening of the sea was a well-known one in Malabar and in 
the Coromandel country, and that, carefullv investigated, 
Malabar traditions might yet be made to vield vestiges of it and 
of its meaning. Both the Christian and the Hindu traditions 
seem to have preserved the memory of some tidal wave that 
would have buried a broad strip of 'the foreshore. Was there 
for a time after that a yearlv receding of the waters so that 
parts buried in the sea showed again ? 

Perhaps Yule is nearer to an explanation about the open- 
ing of the sea when he writes (Cat hay, op. cit., II. 376, n. 1) : 
•There is another curious Tamul legend bearing upon this 
which is cited in Taylor's Catalogue Raisonne of Or. M8S 
(Madras, \ ol. III. p. 37.'). « Mailapur was anciently inhabited 
by the .lamas. One had a dream that in a few davs the town 
would be overwhelmed by the sea. Their holv image was re- 

moved further inland, and three davs later the old town was 
swallowed up. The temples were then reestablished in a town 
'•ailed Mailamanagara, where e.\actlv the same thing happened 
again. It is added that tradition' runs in reference to th 

1 Yule, op. . ., ibid. 
« Ibid., I. 378. 

' I'nd., I. 376. Not mure spontaneously than now. and therefore no 
miracle. To prevent the pilgrims from scooping out the earth or dama;,'- 
mg the bricks of the tomb, fresh earth from outside is now . ntinually 
thrown into the tomb. A glaring case of clerical imposition. meone 
will saj . Why ? Contact with the tomb -offices to onseerate the earth. 
the pilgrim would an-wer. But we cannot in<i>t enough that pilgrim- 
shooW not be allow I to penetrate into the tomb and damage the bricks. 
Too much damage ha- already been done in this way, and that within ti 

last twenty yean. 

t 1923. J St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 175 

whole coast from San Thome to the Seven Pagodas, that ex- 
tensive ruins exist beneath the sea and are sometimes visible." 

Another reason whv we consider Mar John 1 1 TVs stories 
as having originated from India is that St. Thomas' right 
hand, the hand which touched Our Lord's sacred side, as the 
Latin hymn put it, sterns to have exercised in India a special 
fascination so much so that it has led to legends more or less 
similar to Mar John's, who^e original home was doubtless 
India. We should expect that some versions of them survive 
still in Malabar. 

What are we to think for instance of the storv we read in 
John de Mandeville ? Much of what the gallant knight writes 
about Maabar or the Coromandel Coast seems, indeed, to have 
been copied from the Franciscan Friar Odoric of Pordenone : 
vet. when he happens to speak of St. Thomas of Calamve (i.e. 
Calamina\ he stands suddenly alone and has apparently inde- 
I pendent knowledge. It is one of those passages where, instead 

of calling him a liar, a plagiarist, we feel inclined to credit him 
with a journey of his own to India. And there are other pas- 
sages which force on us the conclusion that too much has been 
made of his similarities with Marco Polo and Odoric, and too 
little of the dissimilarities. 

de Mandeville\s story about St. Thomas is remarkably 
similar to that version of Mar John's story in which St. Thomas' 
hand rejects the gifts of the unworthy. 

" From that Country," writes Sir John, 1 ' ; Men pass by 
many Borders toward a Country, a 10 Days' Journey thence, 
that is clept Mabaron ; 2 and it is a great Kingdom, and it hat] 
many fair Cities and Towns. 

" Tn that Kingdom lieth the Body of Saint Thomas the 
Apostle in Flesh and Bone, in a fair Tomb in the City of Caia- 
mye 8 : for there he was martvred and buried. But Men of 


1 Cf. The Marvellous Adventures of Sir John Maundeville, Kr . . . , 
Edited . . . by Arthur Lavard, Westminster, Archibald Constable, 1895, 
'■"■ W f pp. 212-213. The chapter is entitled thus: "Of the judgments 
made by St. Thomas; of Devotion and Sacrifice made to Fdols in the City 
of Calamye ; and of the Procession in the going about the City." 

*ne Edition of A.\). 


• -Ma 'aba* (Coromandel Coast 

^ -^^-. w..-— »i».v^* ^'-'•-w v *• 

8 W here did Sir John get at that name ? If he has merely conclude 
from the Roman Martyrology that the ( lamina whence Bt. Thomas' 
reliea were carried to Ed essa (see under Jul} 3) was rite fcmeaa Mylapore 
w «v did he not irrifa the name correeth I He is t! firs! European 
traveller in whom we find the name. And from bio con- w it can applj 

x " no other place but Mvlapoiv. Did he then hear in Malabar the nam 

Calamy< (Calamide?) applied to Mylapore ? That would go a long wa 


176 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bern/a/. [N.S., XIX. 

Images that they call their Gods of the which the least is as 
great as two Men." 2 

Of Sir John de Mandeville himself we know next to noth- 
ing. The date and place of his death are alike disputed. 
We are not even sure that his name is not a pseudonym. But 
it is sufficient for us that the book bearing his name appeared 
first between 1357 and 1371, fully a century before the Por- 
tuguese conquest of India, 3 

Something very similar is related by Jean Aerts of Mechlin, 
a priest, according to his own testimony. 4 Tf his MS. can be 

to settle the many discussions on the whereabouts of Calamina, and all the 
early texts quoted by Mgr. Medlycott as containing the name would be so 
many new arguments proving that Calarmna is Mvlapore. 

i J hanks to Sir John for the information that the body of St. Thomas 
was brought back from Edessa to Calamye, in Mnbaron. by which he 
do doubt understands Mylapore on the Coromandel Coast. We have 
some idea that the body was never carried to Edessa, and we have at 
least one medieval Syrian writer who thought so too. 

2 In the last paragraph one mirrht think thai Sir John copies Odoric 
of Ponlenone or Marco Polo; he does it however in such a way that one 
cannot feel sure. The text continues: "And, amongst these, there is 
m Image more great than any of the other, that is all covered with fine 
£o!d and precious Stcnes and Rich Pearls, and that Idol is the God or 
false Christians that have denied their faith." Follows a description of 
that idol, with acts of self-immolation, much in the style of Odoric and 

Marco Polo, but with flourishes that <mm new. 

Elsewhere we shall have to insist that, when the Portuguese first 
' ame to India, large numbers of people were said to have apostatised on 
the Coromandel and Fishery Coa, ste, though they still considered thero- 
selvw as belonging to the caste of the Christians. 

» Cf. E. B. Nicholson and H. Yule on Mandeville (Sir Jehan) m 
incxjcl. Rritann., 9th ed.. Vol. XV. 

* Cf. Un Voyage an XF« tiede. ttieii de V expedition en Orient d» 
<!rand Fact* nr du Portugal et de Joan Aerts de M aline* [t48l-$4)> V* v 


Assyria bare his Body into Mesopotamia into the City of 
Edessa, and after, he was brought hither again. 1 And the 
Arm and the Hand that he put in our Lord's Side, when He 
appeared to him after His Resurrection and said to him. * Noh 
esse incredulus, sed fidelis ' (Be not faithless, but believing), an- 
vet lying in a vessel without the Tomb. And bv that Hand 

1 1 

they make all their judgments in the Country, whoso hath 
Might or Wrong. For when there is anv Dissension between 
"2 Parties, and each of them maintaineth his Cause, and one 
-aith that his Cause is rightful, and that other saith the con- 
trary, then both Parties write their Causes on 2 Bills and put \ 
them in the Hand of Saint Thomas. And anon he casteth aw ay 
the bill of the wrong Cause and holdeth still the Bill with the 
right Cause. And therefore Men come from far Countries to 
have Judgment of doubtable Causes, and other Judgment use 
they not there. 

" Also the Church where Saint Thomas lieth, is both great 

and fair and full of great Simulachres. and those be great 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 177 

relied on ? he undertook with the Great Factor of Portugal a 
journey to Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, and even the Great Indies, 
between 1481 and 1484, or some 16 years before Vasco da 
Gama's expedition. From Arabia the party, which appears to 
have gone in search of Prester John, went eastwards, traversed 
many countries, and came to Makeria (dans la Materia), a 
place which Emmanuel Neeffs, beyond whose study we have 
no information, identifies with the country of Mekran. on the 
coast of thej'ersiau Gulf. This country was dotted with fine 
towns, and the party took nine days to cross it * 

' ; Suddenly and without giving any detail, the MS. take> 
us to the Great Indies, to the town of Calamina, where St. 
Thomas suffered martyrdom, and where he reposes in Mesh and 
bone in a beautiful reliquary (cMsse). The Assyrians indeed 

had one day translated in great pomp the Apostle's relics to 

Edessa, but they had subsequently been brought back t 
Calamina. The hand and the arm with which the unbelieving 
Apostle had touched the Redeemer's wounds are not enclosed 
in the tomb where his body is kept. 2 The judge of the place 
uses them like an instrument which decides altercations and 
points out in doubtful cases which of the two parties is in the 
right. The suitors write down their complaints, and, when 
they deposit these writings into the martyr's hand, it rejects 
the document containing the inadmissible plea." 

Neeffs, who rarely quotes the MS. verbatim, rightly com- 
pares this statement with Sir John de Mandeville's. To us the 
two statements sound so much alike, and so much in Jean 
Aerts' account appears to be fanciful that we doubt his having 
visited Calamina or Mylapore, and many other places which 
he mentions. 8 

Hardly less curious than our extract from Sir John de 
Mandeviile is what we read in Barbosa, a Portuguese, who 
wrote in India between 1500 and 1516. Though there is noth- 
In g to show that Barbosa visited Mylapore. his work bears 
evidence of painstaking study. He is extremely well informed 
°n India and the Far East. In his account of Mylapore and 

Emmanuel Neeffs, Louvain, Ch. Peeters, 187.?. The name of the factor 
is nowhere given. At p. 32 we hear of the Duke of Perm ere n. F. C. 
Danvers, The Portuguese in India, London. 1894, I. 29, speaks of the 
mission of Father Antonio de Lisboa and Pedro de MonUroyo. Sent to 
discover Prester John's country, they seem to have gone no further than 
Jerusalem. Their journey would have been between 1481 and 14s7. 
Ptdro de Covilhfto and Affonso de Pavva. who left on a similar journey 
° n M a >' 7, 1487, were more successful. 

^ ' Might this Makeria not be .Malabar or Maabar (the Coromandel 
Coast) ? 

2 What about the inconsistency of saying in one place that the boib 
*as in a reliquary, and in the next* that it *&fl in a tomb ? 

3 We must return to him elsewhere and show that lie has copied 
from others some of his information. 

178 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

St. Thomas he brings us back, but on independent testimony, 
to some of the legends recorded by Marco Polo. If he did not 
nome to Mylapore, he must have obtained his information in 
.Malabar from the St Thomas Christians, or from ' Armenians/ 
and Europeans, who had visited the place. We quote from 
him here only what pertains to the arm of the Saint. 

" They say," Barbosa writes. w: that, on burying him [St. 
Thomas] , they could never put his right arm in the tomb, and 
it always remained outside; and, if they buried him entirely, 
next day thev found the arm above the earth, and so thev let 


it be. The Christians, his disciples and companions who built 
the said Church [of MylapoivJ and the Gentiles already held him 
for a saint, and honoured him greatly. He remained thus with 
his arm outside of the grave for a long time, and thev sav that 

many people came there from many quarters in pilgrimage, 

and that some Chinese came also, who wished to cut off his 
arm, and carry it asvav as a relic, and that when thev were 
about to strike at it with a sword, he withdrew his arm inside, 
they say, and it was never seen again. 1 So he remains still 
in that hermitage, very humbly, and lighted up by the grace 
of God, because the Moors arid Gentiles light him up, each. 
one saying that he is something belonging to them." * 

Among the information collected in 1531 by Miguel Fer- 
reira from Muhammadans and Hindus, from natives of Myla- 
pore and foreigners, we have the naual atnrv of the loo- • but in 

This mention of the Chinese is less preposterous than may appeal 
at first sight. Chinese ships frequented Ceylon and the Coromandel 
Coast and Malabar till about the time of the Portuguese. Certain ruins 
near Xegapatam, now demolished, which stood on the site of the Jesuit 
College later transferred to Trichinopoly, were ascribed to the Chinese. 
Moreover, there might be question of Chinese Christians of the Middle 
Ages, anxious to possess some of the Saint's relics. Bishop de' Marignolh 
H^ 49 ) wrote about the earth of St. Thomas' tomb (Yule, Cathay, 1860, 
I. 376): M And when this earth is taken in a potion it cures diseases, and 
in this manner open miracles are wrought among Christians and among 
Tartars and Pagans/ 1 Whereupon Yule remarks: "The mention of 
Tartars here is curious, and probablv indicates that the Chinese ships 
occasionally visited Mailapur. The Chinese are constantly regarded as 
Tartars at this time." On the other hand, Tartar might mean only 
Muhammadan. And, in view of the other explanations given a few year- 
ftfter Barbosa, we cannot press the point that the Chinese would have 
come to cut off St. Thomas 1 aim. 

* Cf. .4 description of the Coast* of East Ah a and Malabar in the b< 
"/ of the sixteenth century by Duarte Barbosa. a Portuguese. Trans- 
lated from an early Spanish manuscript in the Barcelona Library, with 
notes and a preface by the Hon. Henry E. J. Stanlev. London. Hakluvt 

Society, 1876. 

Xo facts later than 1514 occur in the book. The author was 16 years 
in the Indian Ocean. In that case he could not have returned horn 
betore 1515. He could hardly have visited all the places he describes 

His book is h 3« a history than an itinerary. The preface, by the author. 

m the Portuguese edit D ,»f Lisbon (1822) says that the book was finished 
w 1516. J 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 179 


this case St. Thomas dragged it to where a jogl was living. 
The jogi. seeing that the Saint wanted to make with it a house 
in his own grounds, killed his own son and accused the Saint of 
the murder. The usual story, but the sequel is peculiar 
Later on. when St. Thomas was killed, the Christians '• buried 
him in a chapel, which was the main chapel, on the Gospel 
side, which was a small house that the Saint had made for the 
purpose. And when he had been laid thus underground, his 
arm remained outside, raised, and they could not put it inside, 
which lasted some time thus. And a gentio, a relative of the 
jogue, in revenge entered the holy house, in which there was 
nobody, and, having with him a short sword (tra^ado-ter^ado). 
he went to cut off the arm ; but he was struck blind of [both] 
f eyes, and, falling on the ground, he shouted and became a 

I Christian, relating what had happened : and he never more 

departed from the house and died there of old age, sweeping 

the house and lighting a lamp which was in it." 



Our last proof that the story of St. Thomas' arm cam 

from the St. Thomas Christians is that it turns up once more 

in a letter from Father Anthony Monserrate. S.J , to the 

' General of the Society of Jesus. Writing from Cochin, the 

land of the St. Thomas Christians, in 1579, a regular account 
of the antiquity and customs of these Christians, he says (MS. 
Relation, Goa, 33, fol. loir) : 

"These Christians relate that, after St. Thomas' death, 
when they buried him, they never could bury his arm ; it re- 
mained always outside, because, it seems, it was the arm which 
touched Christ Our Lord's wounds; and, on hearing of this, 
the Muguel [= Mogol] King came with a big army to cut the 
arm; which, when he wished to cut it off. hid itself, and he 
persecuted the Christians greatly." 

In spite of all the variants of this story, the Christians 
of St. Thomas had. therefore, a legend about St. Thomas 1 arm 
at Mylapore. The ultimate reason for the myth may escape 
. »t the fact remains that the story rehearsed by Sir John 
de Mandeville and later writers came from India, and that in 
itself, and for de Mandeville's sake, is a great acquisition. 

Has not hsgiography to deal with many cases of Saints, 
whose sanctity came into popular notice because it was - lid 
that one morning their tombstone or the pavement of fch< 
Church where thev were buried had been found heaved up \ 

While at Agra in December 1912, I was told gravely by a 
lady, the repository of the Agra Christian legends that Father 
Santucci, S.J. (*ho died at Agra on August 1, lb89. and lies 
buried in Martyr's Chapel, i.e. the present Catholic Cemetery 
®i Agra), was a vervholv man. vet withal so greedy and stingy 

1 Caspar Correa, Lendas da India, III. 420. 

180 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

that they could not bury him (did he too disturb his tombstone 
or thrust out his arm, I forget) until they pnt a diamond 
into his mouth, I could only smile at such a piece of popular 
credulity, but 1 have often wished to be able to give a rational 
explanation of the popular conception of such things 

Some ten vears earlier than Barbosa, \i\ one of the earliest 
accounts of Mylapore dating from the Portuguese conquest, 
we find ourselves suddenly confronted again with some of 
Mar John Ill's stories. The anonymous writer, probably a 
Flemish sailor, did not venture beyond the Malabar Coast. 
How then did he get hold of the legend that for a fortnight, 
about the time of St. Thomas' feast, the sea could be passed 
on foot, and that they gave the Sacrament to the worthy and 
refused it to the unworthy ? If he did not read this in some 
European book, either before his coming to India or after his 
return to Europe, he must have picked it up in Malabar, On 
the other hand, he makes about Edessa and its being a four 
days' iournev from the tomb of St. Thomas in the sea a remark 
already made by John of Hese. 

He writes: — 

' c Six days from Coloen, 1 is a town which is called Lapis, 
and near by is Saint Thomas in the sea. 8 It is there that for a 

1 Quilon. They arrived at Cochin on Nov. 2, 1502, at Quilon on 
Jan. 3, 1503, and left Cannanore for Portugal on Febr. 12, 1503. 

2 No other place can be intended by the Latin word Lapis (~a stone) 
than Mylapore. But the name is a most unexpected one in a Flemish 
narrative, of which no Latin original has been traced. How shall we 
account for it ? Perhaps, some Indian Christians applied to Mylapore the 
name Calamina and explained it, as some Syrian Christians do now, as 
meaning Galmona (Syriac) or hillock; or again they may have referred to 
Little Mount, Chinna Malax, a bare rock, which according to most ot 
them is the place of St. Thomas' martyrdom, or at any rate the place 
where he was first wounded. If our first surmise is correct, we might 
have here the earliest attempt at the meaning of Calamina. More than 
one author writing in India has derived Calamina as meaning, in Tamil, 
4 on the rock.' 

3 The expression * St. Thomas in the sea' either alludes to the sub- 
merged Calamina or echoes the medieval descriptions of Mylapore which 
speak of it as on an island, in imitation no doubt of the Arabs, who fre- 
quently used the word ' island ' in connection with places which are no 
islands. Is it perhaps called so in imitation of * Beth-Turna.' ' St. Thoma- 
house'? Did the Syrians call it so? If they did, we should press the 
fact that the merchant Sulaiman about H41 referred to it. Anyhow, ■ S. 
Thome,' as a place-name for Mylapore. is of later origin. The Portuguese 
historians say that Mylapore received its name of S Thom 6 from the 
Portuguese who settled there after 1522. 

Is it a fact that the Acta (I have no copv either of the Ada or of the 
Passto or of the Miracula) says that St. Thomas " built a spiritual palace 
under the sea" for King Gondophares ? Cf. Mrs. E. A. Gordon. A**** 
Christology, Tokyo, MaruzenA Co., 1921, p. 244. The Syrians of Malabar 
and the R. C. Christians now at Mylapore will have it that Kand ipa Raj* 
(Gondophares t ) reigned at Mvlapore, and thev speak or at any rate the v 
spoke 3(X> years ago) of his palaces a< lying buried in the sea in front ot 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 181 

fortnight, about the time of his festival, the sea may be passed 
on foot, and they give the Sacrament to all who are worthy to 
receive it, and refuse it to the unworthy. And this place is 
four days distant from the great city of Edissen, 1 where h< 
built the large palace. 2 But this above-mentioned town of 
Lapis is for the most part ruined/ and the Christians inhabit 
it on condition of paying a tribute. 4 and everybody, including 
the king and queen, walks naked, with the exception of their' 
loins, which are covered/' 6 

Document 2. 
[P. 29] Narrative of Lord Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, about a certain 

f miracle of the Apostle St. Thomas. 6 

1 . Brother Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, wishes his friend health 

in the Lord. 

* Evidently Edessa in Mesopotamia ; but the distance from Myla- 
pore would be four months rather than four days. John of Hese had 
written before our Flemish sailor that the town of Hulna and the body 
of St. Thomas are directed towards Edessa, and that Edessa is four days 
from it. Cf. Germann, Die Kirche der Thomaschristen, p. 167. But, as 
John of He-e speaks of * St. Thomas in the sea,' he too clearly refers to 
Mylapore as the place of his tomb. 

2 The palace built by St. Thomas for Gondophares is here placed at 
Edessa. We should rather think that the St. Thomas Christians of Mala- 
bar spoke of it as at Mylapore, ignoring altogether Sind and Edessa in 
the matter. One Syrian Bishop of Malabar in 1533 makes St. Thomas 
go to China to build the palace. 

8 We may note here once more that Mylapore was destroyed by 
1503. That too is what the Syrian Bishops wrote from Malabar in 1504. 

4 Literally: "and the Christians live therewith (? accordingly) on 
tribute." Jf this means that they lived there (at .Mylapore) on condition 
of paying tribute, the conditions of life prevailing in Bishop de' Marig- 
nolli's time were reversed : for they enjoyed certain tributes then, as did 
the Christians in the chief harbours oi Malabar. 

5 Cf. Calcoen; A Dutch narrative of the second voyage of Vafco da 

Gama to Calicut. Printed at Antwerp circa 1604, With introduction and 

translation by J. Ph. Berjeau. London, Basil Montagu Pickering, 196, 

Piccadilly, Is 74. 

On the cloth .over, a small strip of paper with the following title: 
alcoen: A narrative of the second vovaqe of Vasco da Gama to Calicut, 

The book contains the Dutch text (Gothic letters) and an English 
translation. No pagination. 

Calcoen is not the name of the author. It represents Calicut. And 
herB u e may perhaps note that the German name for turkey, Calecut>*che. 
Bahn $ and the Flemish name, Kalkoen, is due to the notion that the bin 
was introduced from Calicut; vet, it came no more from Calicut than it 
aid from Turkey. Cf. Hob&on : Jobson, 1st ed., s.v. Calico. 

6 In Migne (P.L., torn. CLXXII. coll. 1331-32) this letter is beaded 
thl • " Letter of the Lord Odo, Abbot of St. Remy's of Rheims, [writ 

*n| in the yew of the Lord 1126 to Count Thomas, about a cert a 11 
mnaele of St. Thomas the Aj stle." For all the feet the letter in Migne 
agieea with our Document 2. Father Vincenzo de 8. Maria also give 
1 I2fi as the year of the Indian Prelate arrival in Rome. Cf. supra. 

182 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

It is a wholesome thing for all believers in Christ's name 
<>ver to seek and hear something edifying [P. 30] and to learn 
bow admirable the Lord is in His Saints. Knowing that you 
are eager to hear -ueh things, I wish to write to you ."according 
to your recommendation and request, what 1 saw and heard 
U the Roman Court. 

"This year, to wit. on the Friday after the solemnity of 
Our Lord's Ascension, I stood in the Lord Pope's presence to 
talk about our affairs, when lo ! someone came to announce 
that the Bizante, or the Emperor of Constantinople's, ambas- 
sadors were outside. The Lord Pope rejoiced at the arrival 
of so distinguished an embassy, and sent a Bishop in attend- 
ance on him to introduce them honourably and present them 
to him They came, saluted the universal Pope and most of 
Hie members of the Court, and, in answer to the questions put 
them about the Emperor's health and the quality of their 
party, they answered honourably enough. The reason why 
thev came was this. 


2. With them there was an Archbishop of India, a man 
of rather distinguished appearance, and pretty eloquent, judg- 
ing from our knowledge of his language (juxta suae linguae 
notitiam satis eloquentissimus), who, having lost by death the 
company and support of his prince, had come long before 
{jam pri'lem) to the said Emperor to seek his advice. 1 The 

A note (ibid, in Migne by Ma billon ?) says: "This letter of Odo, 
Abbot of St. Remy's at Sheims, was written 'about the vear 1135: for 
the next year, after his return from Italy, he granted a property [fun- 
dtnn) for building the Carthusian house of Mons Dei. Count Thomas, 
to whom the letter is addressed, appears to be Thomas de Maria, lord of 
Coaiciacum Castle." 

I am unable here to settle whether Document 2 was written by Odo, 
Abbot of St. Remy's, or by Odilo. Abbot of Clunv. In the Catholic En- 
cyclopedia, New York, I find only two Odilos or Odos of Cluny, and their 
dates do not tally with the storv : St. Odo, second Abbot of Cluny (b. 
B 8 or 879; d 18th Nov., 942), and St. Odo, fifth Abbot of Cluny (6. circa 
962; d. 31st Dec, 1048). 

We msiv remark that our letter does not mention Pope Callixtus II.. 
who had died in 1 124, two years therefore before the date assigned to the 
letter by Migne. Yet, it professes to have been written the very year o 
the arrival in Rome of the Indian Archbishop (see §1). If, therefore. 
the year 1 126 of Migne is correct, the Archbishop did not come to Rome 
m the lifetime of Pope Callixtus II. If the date were about 1135, we 
ought perhaps to argue, from the many discrepancies in Docume' I, 
that there is question here of another Indian Prelate. But what of the 
many points of resemblance ? 

1 One does not understand whvari Indian Archbishop riu.uld have 

come for advice to the Greek Emperor after the loss of his prince, a tem- 
poral prince, no doubt, say a Christian kinglet, or why this Prince should 
have accompanied the Archbishop on his journey. What authority could 
the Emperor of Constantinople have had "in India, in 1 122 ? If the prince 
had died m Malabar or had come from Malabar— and indeed, the Chris- 
tiansof Malabar seem to have had a King of their own at the date ii 
question— the Greek Emperor might have at most recommended to the 


1923] St. Thomas and San Thamt, Mylapore. 18: 

Emperor having listened to his request and having gives him 
a prince from among his courtier-, he started going home, as 
if his business was concluded. On the way, he lost his new 
prince, death cutting him off. Having buried him. lie returned 
to the Emperor to relate the sad event and express his sorrow. 
The Emperor, consoling him. told him not to grieve, and in his 
kindness gave him another prince. Cheered, the Archbishop 
resumed his journey, but failed to complete it: indeed, sudden 
leath carried off this second prince, and, redoubling th< 
Archbishop's grief, trouble! him exceedingly. He did not 
know what to do. He hesitated whether he should return to 
the Emperor or continue on his way and leave unfinished what 
he had come for. However, the resolution of his manly spirit 
spurned the loss and danger threatening him. Comforted by 
the encouraging words of his companions, and told not to 
despair, he returned to the Emperor an 1 presented himself to 
him once more, the bearer of due misfortune. 1 On hearing 
the unexpected news, the Emperor was startled, and refused 
to send a third prince, saying that he had done enough for the 
Archbishop.* With much trouble and many tears the poor 
f Archbishop obtained leave to go for advice to the Roman 

Court, and to take with him the Emperor's amba-sadors and a 
letter of recommendation from him. 8 

3. While at the Court, he declared to some of the palace 
inmates that he was at the head of the Church where the body 
of the blessed Apostle Thomas was said to be lying. Among 

Hindu Rajas of Malabar a person of his or of the Archbishop 9 choice, 

but we see the Emp ror despatch with the Indian Archbishop one of h - 
own familiars, the idea being no doubt that this nominee was to tab- tl 
place of the deceased prince. Would not such a nomination have suited 
Mesopotamia better than Indian conditions f Or must we suppose that 
commercial relations between the Greek Empire and Malabar were still 

I of such a nature that the Greek Emperor could exercise his influence ii 

1 favour of the Malabar Chris* iana ? 

j * Document J states that the Prelite arrived ^ Rome after a year - 

journey. Athene's Chronicle (quoted by H. K. Mann, says he had arrived 
at Constantinople (1122?} after a year's journey. Hete are are told that 
he hal come to Constantinople a long time before his coming to Rome 

I Indeed, if after his first arrival at Constantinople ho turned homewards 

I twi . and twice returned to Constantinople without completing tin 

f homeward journey (Doc. :', §2), he ought to have left India several yeai 

j before coming to Roire. 

8 Did the Emperor suspect foul plav after the thrice told tale of the 
prince's death ? 

; 3 How dirTeivm from AlbenVe Chronicle, where the Pope's legates 

bring the Indian Prelate from Constantinople to Rome. 

What advice could the Prelate receive in Rome about the death o 
his three princes ? \\'h< the Pope to send with him a fourth on« Two 
centuries later, both the Christians and the Hindus in India were wishin~ 

>at the Latins might come and occupy the Indian seas, 80 »a to oppo >«■ 
f barrier to the M uharomadan invasions. Was this too discussed? 


What of the pallium ? 

184 .Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [X.S., XIX, 

other things which he related about the position of the Church, 
its rich treasury- and the variety of its ornaments, there was 


one which one cannot hoar without astonishment. The said 
Apostle's Church is surrounded on all sides by a very deep 
river; { but, for eight days before the feast and as many after 
it. the waters How off and leave the river so dry that a seven 
year old child can cross it. On the very day of the feast, the 
chiefs of the whole province and all the clergy and people 
a-semble ; and, after many tears and deep sighs, the Arch- 
bishop with the clergy of his Order approaches the bier (feretrum) 
of the blessed Apostle, 2 takes from it very reverently the body, 
places it with honour on the pontifical chair, and, prostrating 
himself the first at the feet of that powerful advocate, he 
honours him with his gift and oblation. The blessed Apostle 
raises his arm, opens his hand and receives gratefully whatever 
is offered him [P. 31] by all the followers of our faith. But, 
if a heretic mixed up in the crowd tries, as if out of devotion, 
to place something in the Apostle's hand, he closes his hand 
and refuses to accept his sinful gifts. 8 

4. When the Lord Pope heard of this from some, he 
called for the Bishop and wished to forbid him under anathema 
to continue spreading such untruths in the palace. 4 Indeed, 
what he had said about the Apostle appeared to be contrary 
to the truth. But the Bishop asserted before them all that 
nothing was more true, and, with the Lord Pope's permission 
he swore on the holy Gospels that it was so. Finally, the 
Lord Pope and the whole Court believed him and said that 
the Apostle could obtain from Almighty Cod even great er 
miracles. 6 

Dr. W. Germann, that diligent student of the St. Thomas 
story, had long ago anticipated our disquisitions on John 111 
As his account contains some elements not discovered by u- 

' A church is not surrounded on all sides by a river unless it stands 

n an island in the river. Document I speaks of a lake. Anyhow, we 

are not told here about a mountain with a tower, and a church on the 

top of the tower. No mention either of the twelve monasteries in honour 

of 'he twelve apostles. 

2 Xo ciborium ? Xo concha ? 

No Communion here; no instantaneous deaths of infidels. 

* The Pop? is horribly andalised at a much milder type of story 
than that of Document. 1. * 

-> In some copies of the letter the Abbot seems to continue (see our 

tation om Raulin, supra): •• But. as we were not then at the Court, 
we cave our opinion on this matter above, where we related these things 

the end of Dissertation 2)." The Abbot's opinion would be worth 
having. ( ild any of my readers find it out? Does he mean that he 
*as present at the arrival of the embassy, but had left by the time the 
fndian Archbishop started telling bis stories? But does he not profe- 

to relate to Count Thon ftfl what he saw and heard at the Roman Court ? 

Off. § ! ). 

1923. J St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 185 

and sums up our two documents above, we translate it here in 
its entirety. 1 

"We have two mutually independent accounts of the 
visit of this John to Rome : one in the Chronicon Alberici 
Monachi, published by Leibnitz in his Accessiones Historicac 
(II. ad an. 1122); the other in Mabillonii Vetera Analecta 
(Parish's, p. 464), consisting of a letter by Abbot Oddo of St. 
Remy's to a certain Count Thomas. Although Alberic is 
acknowledged a trustworthy writer, yet the preference must 
be given to Oddo, since he was present when John was presented 
to the Pope. Oddo was just transacting business with the Pope, 
a few days after Ascension Day. in the year in which he wrote 
to his friend, when envoys from the Emperor of B\ T zantium 
were announced, who had come to introduce the Archbishop 
I of India, vir satis honestae jormae etjuxta linguae suae notitiam 

rtoquentissimu* . The Indian Prelate, having lost by death his 

companion and helper on the journey to Europe, a prince, 

had turned for help to the Emperor, and, after receiving from 

him one of his familiars, [P. 165] he had begun the return 

journey, when this Prince too died on the way. The Indian 

hastened back, and a Prince who was given him died again. 

The Emperor refused him a third companion, and only after 

many tears was he allowed to go for advice to the Roman 

Curia and to have envoys with letters of recommendation 

adjoined him. When he came to the Curia, he related to some 

of the Pope's entourage that he was the head of the Church 

where the body of St. Thomas rested. The great Church was 

surrounded by a stream ; but, eight days before and eight 

'ays after the Apostle's feast, which was celebrated with great 

concourse, the water flowed awav, so that one could go to it 

dry-shod. What he related next of the body of St. Thomas, 

that on the day of his feast he was placed on the episcopal 

chair, and then stretched forth his arm, and opened his hand to 

receive the gifts, and that, when a heretic approached and 

wished to give him his offering, he at once closed his hand, this 

appeared so incredible that the Pope, on hearing of it, called 

for the ^ Prelate and forbade him to spread any more such 

Tories in the palace ; he even wanted to forbid it him by 

threatening him with anathema. But the Prelate insisted 

before them all that it was so, and swore to it on a book of the 

,. '' v ve have a more authoritative account of the proceedings, we 

ui8cuaa at random. Someone in Europe ought to examine the many au- 
thors mentioned by Raulm as having written on this subject. Probably 
many other details could be gathered from the different accounts and 
compared. Raulin's bibliography can be supplemented with Ike many 
references given by the Bollandists in Bihl. Hagiogr. Lntina .... {K.-Z.). 
Bruxellia. 19O0-190I , pp. 1180-1181. 

• Die Kirche der Thomaschristen, Gutersloh, 1877. pp. 164-1^7. 
A Dew detail, if correctly represented by Germann. 

186 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Gospels. Thus far Ocldo whose letter bears no date, but must- 
have been written before 1136, since he returned to France 
that year. 1 

"The year is mentioned by Alberic. It was the fourth of 
Pope Calixtus, therefore 1122. Alberic has, besides, a number 
of additional details. He knows the Indian's name, John ; he 

ives him the rank of Patriarch, and makes him come to Con- 
stantinople to receive the pallium; he says that, as he had 
come from furthest India (quae ultima finem facit) he had spent 
a full year on the way. Calixtus had sent envoys to Constan- 
tinople, with whom the Patriarch conversed through a drago- 
man, and, when he learned that Rome was the chief town 
of the whole earth, he travelled thither with the interpreter " 
and gave to the Pope and the Cardinals the following informa- 
tion : — 

"His town was called Ultima (a corrupt version, instead 
of which the Chronicum Belgicum has Ulna), and was the 

apital of all India. Its circumference [ P. 166] measured a 

four days' journey ; its walls were of extraordinary height, 
tnd so thick that two Roman chariots could go on it abreast. 
The Phison, rich in precious stones, flowed through it, and it 
was inhabited entirely by believing Christians. At a small 
distance from the walls of the town, there lay a mountain sur- 
rounded on all sides by a deep lake ; on the summit of the 
mountain stood the Mother-Church of St. Thomas. Round 
the lake were the monasteries of the twelve Apostles. During 
the year, the mountain was not accessible to any one ; but. 
once a year, the Patriarch ascended it, as the water decreased 
for eight days before and after the Saint's feast. In the cibo- 
rium of the Church hanged from silver chains a silver concha, 
in which the Apostle's body was preserved incorrupt, and stood 
upright, as if alive. Before it burned continually a golden 
lamp ; this was always found to be full of balsam, which, when 
divided among the faithful, worked numerous cures. On the 
feastday, the Patriarch with the Bishops lowered the concha 
containing the body which had still all its former shape, so 
that even the clothes were intact, and he placed it before the 
altar on a golden seat. After the Mass, the hosts were pre- 
sented to the Apostle, who received them in his outstretched 
right hand, and the faithful approached one by one to receive 
them from his hand. Moreover, when an infidel or a heretic 

or one stained with sins approached, the hand closed in sight 

of all. The person concerned either repented at once, or 

"With what doubts was the story of the Indian Arch 
bishop first received at Rome, and what has legend added to it 

j This reflection is to be found in our notes to Document 2 above. 
* Some of these details, e.g., about the interpreter, are new for Oft 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 187 

in a century and a half ? Legend has enriched it correctly in 
only one point: the position of the mountain outside the 
town, the Church on the mountain, and the fact that the water 
which flows around always rises or falls according to the mon- 
soon. J That an Eastern Prelate came first to Constantinople 
and then to Rome cannot be doubted ; it was repeated in 
later centuries, as also the taking of an oath, 2 but who can 
say what the foreigner, who did not know Latin, swore to ? 
That he belonged to the same Christian community as the 
Indian Christians, may also be granted. For the rest it is 
plain that he must have been an arrant impostor ; [P. 167] and it 
is likely, from what he said of the body of the Apostle, that he 
Was not an Indian, 8 but rather some adventurer Bishop of 
Mesopotamia. Even John de.Hese's Itinerary, of the 15th 
r century, 4 which takes from our account the whole Communion 

scene, knows that the town Hulna with the body of the Apostle 

is turned tow aids Edessa, from which it is a four days' journey 
distant. 5 

We have entered upon the period of the Crusades, during 
which legend and poetry, which had borrowed from the Indian 
Church the materials for the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, 
were at work to make of Prester John a king of India, and to 
spin out always further the legends of the Apostle Thomas. 
It may be of interest to the historian of literature to follow up 
these legends in our classics, in Percival and Titurel ; but the 
Church historian loses the clue, and oblivion overtook the 
real Indian Christians; they became a legend. 6 However, at 
the Papal Court, the centre of Christian life, they did not lose 
the clue, and, while the legend was busily spinning out, they 
thought earnestly of reducing to the Papal power the Christians 
of the Far-East ;." 

Doubtful as we are about Mar John's character and the 

& , 

1 These details, which give us no little trouble/ Germann accept- 
therefore as genuine Indian touches, but as later additions. How could 
they have been added correctly later ? 

* I do not know to what other visit and oath Germann alludes. Per- 
haps to the Bishop of Gabala's visit to Rome in 1145. Cf. EncycL Bri- 
«•**., 9th e<U XIX, p. 714, col. 1. 

6 Here we take exception to Germann. whose opinion rests on the 
M -*her opinion that the relics were not at Mylapore, bat at Edessa. 

4 M Printed in Oppert's Presbyter Johannes, 1864, p. 180 sqq." 

mann). The Bollandists in Bibl. Hagiogr. Latino, .... (K.-Z.). Bruxellis, 
1900-1901, p. U81, refer to Johannes de Hese'.s Itinerarius , printed Da 
ventrae, 1499; Antverpiae, G, Back, 1600(f); Daventrie. 1504; Daven- 

trie. Ifiiuc 

erf storie-. 

6 What is John of Heses authority for such a statement 
* " Vice-versa, if the contemporary Indian collections 
which reached their present form mostly in the 12th century, have bor- 
rowed, besides other western materials, stories of the Bible, e.g. Jona- 
,n the fish (Somad. XII., 4-">, and Radschatnr. IV, 503), the crossing of 
the lied Sea (Radsch., TV, 250), and Solomon's judgment in the Dmmg- 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

exact date of his journey, we leave to other writers their opin- 
ion that John III. iras an Indian Bishop. What runs counter 
to the notions we derive from what we read in our 16th; cen- 
tury writers, is that, teste John III., there would have been 
yearly several Bishops at Mylapore on the feast of St. Thomas. 
The quotations we have adduced in our Part I. Chapter II, lead 
us to expect only one Bishop in the whole of Southern India, 
namely a Bishop in Malabar. Other Bishops would have been 
found in Sokotra, China, and in other parts far away from 
Southern India. On the other hand, we must confess that our 
knowledge of the conditions prevailing in Southern India at 
the time of Mar John III. is of the vaguest. There may also 
have been a Bishop in the Maldives and in Ceylon, as was the 
case at an earlier time. Still, even if there had been several 
Bishops in Southern India at the time, we do not easily 
suppose that they met every j^ear at Mylapore for the feast. 

Father PaulinusaS. Bartholomaeo, referring to Le Quien's 
Orient Christianus, col. 1272, states that about 1129 Mar John, 
Bishop, was sent to India by the Katholikos of Bagdad. 1 He 
states again that Mar Sapor and Mar Proudh came from Babylon 
to Malabar in 925 (not in 850 or 880), and that they were 
followed by John III., John IV., Jaballaha. Joseph I., Junabas. 
Mar Joseph II ., Mar Joseph III., and Mar Abraham, who died 
in 1596. Paulinus' Mar John of 11:9 and Mar John 111. would 
be our Archbishop John who went to Rome in or about 1122. 

Father Bernard of St. Thomas, T.O.C.D., writes to me 
from Mangalore (3-10-1921) that, from the papers he has seen 
about Mar John III., he has no doubt that he really was a 
Bishop, but that native writers say nothing about his having 
gone to Rome on a visit to the Pope. 2 

What is the origin of the following story ? 

" Bishop Eschilinus has left written in his book the follow- 
ing miracle wrought through the Apostle St. Thomas in con- 
nection with Holy Mass. On the eve of the feast of St. 
Thomas in December, the Bishop of the town where the body 

Inn, we have undoubtedly in this positive material a proof of the influ- 
ence of the Indian Christians. Weber, Ind. Skizzen,p. III. Else, with 
repaid to the Indian elements of our contemporary western literature. 
we should ascribe to the Indians considerable historic sense, which other- 
wise is not characteristic of them."— ( W. Germann.) 

This note is far from clear to me, for which perhaps my limited 
knowledge of German is responsible. Yet, I have consulted in vain not 
a few of nay friends for a satisfactory explanation of the last sentence. 

The 'Radschata.' must be the^Rajatarangini, a Kashmir cl 

1 The Dsanglun " is a Tibetan work, the text of which, with a German 
translation, was published by I. J. Schmidt in 1843. 

1 India Ortentalis Christiana, p. XXII. 

2 Father A. Stockman, S.J., writing about Prester John (Cath. Ency- 
clopedia, New York, XII, 400c), speaks of the * mythical' journey to 
Rome of a certain Patriarch of India in 1 122, and his visit to CaUistu* H. 



1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, My la pore. 189 

of the Saint was kept opened the tomb of the Apostle, and, 
placing inside, in the hands of the Saint's body, a severed dn 
vine-shoot, closed the tomb. The next day /the feast of St. 
Thomas, when the Bishop returned to the tomb and looked in, 
he was greatly astonished to find that the dry vine-shoot which 
he had left in the Saint's hand had became green and bore 
a bunch of grapes. He plucked the bunch and extracted the 
juice from the fruits. The purified wine thus obtained was 
just sufficient for the Mass of that dav. All those who heard 
the Mass were filled with incredible joy." [ 

After long research I succeeded in tracing another allusion 
to the same story. Raulin, holding that part of St. Thomas' 
body was found by the Portuguese, says that he does not feel 
moved by the story of ■ Peter de Natalibus in his Catalog as 
Sanctorum, Bk. 6,"ch. 43. The story notwithstanding,' he 
maintains that the body may have been partly at Mylapore. 
Peter de Natalibus relates the following: Yearly, on the eve of 
St. Thomas' feast, the Archbishop of Edessa, while intoning the 
antiphon at the Magnificat : Thoma Didyme, opened the tomb ; 
or the silver casket (loculus) hanging from silver chains, 2 and 
placed into the Apostle's hand a dry vine-stock. The next day, 
to the astonishment of all, it was found green and covered 
with a fresh bunch of grapes. 3 


1 This was found in a Tamil work Viyashakiahamai puthunmai [Thurs- 

-y miracles], Pondicherry, Catholic Mission Press, 2nd ed., 1902, p. 164, 

48th miracle. Did not Father de Rossi, S.J., translate his series of 

miracles for every day of the week from a collection composed and 

published in Europe ? 

i Father Bernard of St. Thomas' letter of Oct. 3, 1921, referred me to 

this Tamil work, saying that he had read there about Mar John ITL The 

passage which we have found, and which one of our Tamil Fathers in 

| Kursecng has translated for us, says nothing of Mar John. Are there 

passages about Mar John in the same work or in other editions or volume- 
of the same work ? 

The Nestorians in India knew no feast of St. Thomas on December 
- l A Latin writer, however, reading about the Saint's feast, would 
naturally have concluded to the least of December 21, the Roman Mar- 
tyrology merely commemorating on July 3 the translation of St. Thomas' 
relies to Edessa. 

H. Yule speaks of barefaced fictions about Prester John by John of 
Hese, a contemporary of John de Mandevilie, and of his rehearsing the 
old tales of the miraculous body of St. Thomas. Cf. Encyd. Britann., 
XIX (l8S5).p. 717. To what extent do these tables agree with those 
discovered by us ? 

8 The silver loculwt and the silver chains may be a touch of Edessan 
archaeology, as we have shown in this chapter; but any student of the 
St. Thomas legends might have sandwiched it into his story. And why 
should the silver casket be mentioned in conjunction with the word 
4 tomb' ? Have we not here a blending of the tomb of Mylapore with 
what early writers say of the relics at Edessa ? 

3 Cf. Raulin, HiMoria Ecclesiae Malabaricae. Romae, 1745, p. 377 
*or a short account of the storv see Vies des Saints . . . par It R. P. Riba- 
<leneira, Trad, par lAbbe E. Darras, 2< ed. , Paris, 1857 (Dec. 21), p. 269 

190 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Who was Peter de Xatalibus ? At p. 367, op. cit., Raulin 
calls him Peter Equilinus or de Natalibus, a Bishop, thus iden 
tifying him clearly with the Bishop Eschilinus quoted above. 
J. P. Kirsch, writing in Catholic Encyclopedia, New York, XI, 
784a, says that the date of his birth is unknown, but that he 
died between 1400 and 1406. A Venetian, he consecrated 
himself to the ecclesiastical state, became a canon of Equilio 
( Jesolo), and was elevated to the episcopal see of that city on 
July 5, 1370. He is chiefly known as the author of "Legends 
of the Saints" in twelve* books, a verv valuable work with 

a wide circulation. 1 

Since the relics of St. Thomas were removed from Edessa 
to Chios in or about A. D. 1144, the legend recited by Peter de 
Natalibus must be anterior to 1144, in case it hailed from 
Edessa. What authority the Bishop had for placing the 
miracle at Edessa, I know not. Anyhow, one could not argue 
against its having happened at Mylapore, merely on the ground 
that Mylapore produced no grapes. 

There were grapes at Mylapore, according to Bishop John 
de' Marignolli (1349), and wonderful grapes too, grapes intro- 
duced there from Paradise (Ceylon) by St. Thomas himself. 
After mentioning the fruits growing in Adam's garden (Ceylon), 
viz. plantain-trees or Adam's figs, nargil (coconuts), amburan 
(mangoes), and chakebaruche (jack-fruits). Bishop de' Marignolli 
goes on to say : 

I do not remember to have seen any other fruit-trees, 
such as pears, apples, or figs, or vines, unless it were some that 
bore leaves only and no grapes. There is an exception, how- 
ever, at the fine Church of St. Thomas the Apostle at the place 
where he was Bishop. They have there a little vinery which 
I saw. and which supplies a small quantity of wine. It is related 
that, when he first went thither, he used to carry about with 
him a little wine for masses (as I did myself for the space of 
nearly two years) ; and. when that was done/ he went to Pa- 
radise, 5 into which he found his way by the help of Angels, 
and carried away with him some of the grapes, the stones or 

1 For a short reference to him, cf. Cath. EncycL. IX, 746&. 

The Bollandists refer to his epitome of St. Thomas' story in his works 
(I, 79: VI, 43). Cf. Bill Hagiogr. Latina antiquae et mediae aetatis. 
(K.Z.), Bruxellis, 1900-1901, p. 1180, No. 5. 

2 Exhausted. 

8 Ceylon, according to Bishop de' Marignolli. Yule notes from Pnd- 
hanVs Hist., Polit. and Statist. Acct. of Ceylon, p. 613, that Adam's Garden 
is the subject of a genuine legend still existing. At the torrent of Seetla- 
gunga on the way to Adam's Peak, Pridham tells us: " From the circam- 
tance that various fruits have been occasionally carried down the stream 
both the Moormen and Singalese believe, the former that Adam, the 
latter that Buddha, had a fruit garden there, which still teems with th 
most wonderful productions of the East, but that it is now inaccessible, 
and that its explorer would never return." de' Marignolli has very much 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 191 

which he sowed. From these grew the vines which I saw at 
that place, and from them he made the wine of which he stood 
in need. Elsewhere there are vines, indeed, but they bear no 
grapes, as I know by experience." l 

Between this little excursion into the Christian folklore of 
Mylapore in 1349 and the story of Peter de XataJibus there is 
sufficient affinity to justify one in believing that the Edessa 
^ legend may have led to the one at Mylapore. Until we dis- 

cover that the legend of the dry vine-stock belongs indeed to 
Edessa, we like to think, however, that it grew up at Mylapore. 

Here is yet another extravagance. We read in the Acta 
Sanctorum of the Bollandists, under July 3 : 

" These same [women Saints] are mentioned in the Qynae- 
f ceum: added to them we there find: 'In East India, [the 

feast] of Blessed Clara, a Dominican virgin, daughter of the 
King of Calamina, who by her eminent virtues prepared for 
herself the way to heaven/ Pius Arthur Anthony de Baling- 
hem took her from Seraphin Razzius, who, in the Lives of the 
' Saints of his Order, p. 353. spun out a story which is as in- 

credible as it is wonderful. Xo authority, no reference is 
given: all chronological and geographical explanation is lack- 
ing. Among other wonders here is one, by way of specimen, 
f from it one can judge of the rest. * In the parts of India/ 

says Razzius, ' St. Clara is held in such veneration that, among 
sixty Christian kingdoms, there are found in one kingdom 
alone CCC monasteries of Sisters of the Order of Preachers, 
which are called by the name of this St. Clara.' We require 
other evidence to prove such assertions. That more than 
wonderful Clara is not known to Marchesius and other writer-. 
Rlanconius, Razzius' French translator, prudently omitted 


the same story : << [The trees of Paradise] are there fin Ceylon] stiJl in ex- 
istence, as the Pantheon says, and this is shown by the fruits and leaves 
which are sometimes carried forth by those rivers, and are known by 
their medicinal virtue and fragrant odours." (Yule's Cathay. H, 352; 
and see also II, 360.) de' Marignolli makes the four rivers of Paradise 
pass through Ceylon (i.e. the Gyon, Phison, Tigris, and Euphrates); bu 
they flow also in other countries ! {Ibid., 1 1, 346. ) 

1 H. Yule, Cathay and the way thither, II (1868), p. 363. Grapes wer 
grown at |fj lapore in Portuguese times. Each bunch had to be protected 
by a leather bag against the depredations of birds and squirrels. Cf. 
Col Love, Vestiges of Old Madras, II, 334. In the Convent of the Native 
Sisters, near Mae de Deos Church, at Mylapore, I noticed a big vine 
(January, 1923). 

8 Cf. Acta Sanctorum .... collecta .... a Conrado Janningo , Joarni 
Solerfo. et Joanne Pinnio, e Societate Jesu .... Paris, V. Palme, 1867 
(1st vol of July or vol. 28 of Palme's collection, p. 555). 

I found this passage by good luck, while looking f'»r S . Thomas the 
Vpostle under July 3. Who knows what other scarce knowledge about 
3t, Thomas, Mylapore, I lamina, and India generally, that enormou 

Election conceals? The systematic treatment of tl ■ St. Thomas que* 

192 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Unaccountable as the story is, it would be worth while to 
trace it back to its origin. The story would be too foolish for 
words, had it originated from India hi Portuguese times. It 
must go back to medieval times. Not before 1606 did a 
Nunnery, St Monica's, one of Augustinian Nuns, get established 
at Goa. As for Dominican Nuns, there was a convent at Tara- 
pur in the beginning of the 17th century, another at Daman, 
both places being on the Bombay side. 1 In pre-Portuguese 
times there were, however, in Malabar small communities of 
pious women, leading a life of chastity, but not as the cloistered 
nuns of our days, 2 and nuns were not unknown among the 
Abyssinians, the Armenians, Copts, Jacobites, and Nesto- 
rians. 3 

When we have to speak of Prester John we can only 
stammer ; yet, Razzius' 60 Christian kingdoms in partibus 
Indiae seem to be echoes of Prester John tales. The expres- 
sion 'India Orientals ' in de Balinghem, and 'India 9 in 
Kazzius. may have been used loosely for any parts of Asia 
east of Asia Minor. In medieval writers it is applicable even 
to Armenia or Ethiopia. However, as in the 13th and 1-ith 
centuries the Dominicans shared with the Franciscans the 
work of evangelising the East, and as some Dominicans at 
least, like Bishop Jordanus of Severac and Nicholas of Pistoia, 
found their way to Malabar and Mylapore, we should expect 
that their Missionaries had preciser notions about India than 
their brethren in Europe. About 1360, the United Brethren 
of St. Gregory the Illuminator, Armenian Dominicans, had 50 
monasteries with 700 Religious. In 1349, when the Missions 
of Persia were destroyed, the Dominicans had in Persia io 
monasteries and 11 of the United Brethren/ That was pre- 
cisely the time when Europe was still full of the wildest 
-lories about Prester John. First he had been found in India : 
next in Tartarv; next, if not simultaneouslv, in Ethiopia 
Some hold that the first notion about Prester John was derived 

t ion is reserved by the Bollandista to December 21, which means that, 
as they have reached only the beginning of October, we shall not. with 
the present rate of progress, be privileged i i our lifetime to see their 
conclusions. Under December 21, they will also discuss the question, ot 
DenU and of Felagia, daughter of the Kin^ of Sandaruk. 

L have discovered nothing as yet about any of the writers quoted 
above: de (van ':) Balinghem, Razzius. Marchesius and Rlanconius. At 
what time did they write ? 

1 Cf. O Heraldo, Goa, 21 July. 1917 {Da monja de Tarapur), and The 
Examiner. Bombay, January 6/ 1917 (A Dominican Nun at Pamaun). 
Koth articles are by Antonio Francisco Moniz of Daman. 

* Letter of Fr. Bernard of St. Thomas. T.O.C.D.. Mangalore. :i<>.30. 


8 Cf. A. Fortesciie, The lesser Eastern Churches, ,9. r. .Nuns. 

* Cf. Cath. Encyclopedia, Xevv York, XII, 368. The article >- silent 
about Dominican Xnns in the East at that time. 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 193 

from an Armenian general I vane (John), who in 1124 gained 
a great victory over the Crescent. 

It is not impossible that one of the many Prester Johns, 
elusive personages though they be, had a daughter Clara who 
was a Nun, nay a Dominican Nun. In this matter the Friars 
Preachers may have had at their disposal materials not now 
accessible to us. The difficulty is about the time and the 
place and the large number of convents said to have gone 
under Clara's name. Waiving that point, however,— for it is 
not impossible that convents of Malabar Nuns, or of Georgian, 
Armenian, or Ethiopian Nuns, not to speak of nunneries in 
Tibet and other Buddhist countries, should have been mistaken 
tor convents of Dominican Nuns — may we not suppose that, 
as at least one Prester John places in his dominions the tomb 
of St. Thomas, our Dominican Hazzius or some other earlier 
writer of his Order, identifying Mylapore with Calamina, as 
has been done so often, made of Clara, the daughter of the 
King of Calamina ? We need hardly add that Mylapore {aliai 
Calamina) never possessed a Dominican nunnery. It may be 
worth stating, however, that, as St. Dominic was born only in 
A.D. 1170, our Mar John III. cannot have had anything to do 
with the story 

It took a long time to kill Prester John of India. In 1 177, 
Pope Alexander lit., writing possibly to the Xegus of Ethio- 
pia, begins thus: ; Alexander Bishop [or Pope], servant of the 
servants of God, to his very dear son in Christ, John, the illus- 
trious and magnificent King of the Indians." * The Annals of 
Admont (1181) speak of " Prester John, King of Armenia and 
India" under the year 1141.* Matthew Paris reports the 
receipt, in 1237, of a letter from Brother Philip, prior of the 
Dominicans in Palestine, which declares Nestorianism to be 
predominant in ' India, the Kingdom of Prester John,' and the 


This would not have been so very foolish, if the Malabar Christian* 
had, as they seem to have had, a Christian Kins; of their own. Cf. T. K. 
•Joseph, A Malabar Christian Dynasty in the Trivandr a Daily New*, 
*ebr. 25, 1922. 

Diogo do Couto (Da Asia, Dec. XII, Bk. Ill, eh. 5) thinks that 
\f i ^ aS Cananeo < whom ho places about A.D. 811 (but whom the 
Malabar accounts place in about the vear 345) might have been " t\v 
^mglet of whom St. Antoninus writer" in his history that he sent every 
year a present of pepper to the Sovereign Pontiff, because at that time 
the tomb of the Holv Apostle was much frequented by the Christians or 
^'irope, and Thomas *Cananeo would have sent him that present through 
them. A very surprising reference! Pepper would indeed have come 
*rom Malabar. Could any of our readers lay hands on the text in St. Ai 
torunus and determine the time when thift took place ? Evidently St. 
Antoninus means that Christians from Europe came in pilgrimage to th>- 
tomb of St. Thomas at Mvlapore. 

* EneycL Britann.. 9th ed., XIX (1886), p. 715. 

5 Cath. Bncycl., New York, XII. 400, 401. 

194 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

most distant states of the East. 1 Friar John de Monte Corvino 
writing from Cambalik (Pekin) on January 8, 1305, says that 
6 years before, at a place fully 20 days from Cambalik, he had 
converted a Nestorian King, George, " of the illustrious race 
of the great king who was called Prester John in India/' * And 
Friar John de Monte Corvino had been sufficiently long in 
Malabar and on the Coromandel Coast to make us suspect that 
some of the Christian Princes in China were connected with 
Christian Princes in India. In 1330, Pope John XXII. sent 
Bishop Jordanus to Quilon with a letter which began as fol- 
lows : (i Nobili viro domino Xa.scarinorum et universis sub eo 
Christianis Nascarinis de Columbo, venerabilem fratrem Jordan- 
um." s The chief of the Xazarene Christians at Columbo or 
Quilon may have been a petty Christian King, the Baliarte of 
Portuguese writers and Malabar traditions. As late as 1439 
Pope Eugene IV. sent envoys (to the Christian King of 
Malabar?) with a letter which commenced thus: " To my 
most beloved son in Christ, Thomas, the illustrious Emperor 
of the Indians, health and the apostolic benediction. — There 
often has reached us a constant rumour that Your Serenity 
and also all who are the subjects of your kingdom are true 
Christians." * 

"On the Catalan Map which is nearly contemporary with 
Jordanus, near the town of Diogil in the Province of Columbo. 
which includes the southern point of India proper, are read 
these words: l Here reigns the King of Columbo, a Christian/ 
The towns of this territory are jointly indicated by a flag con- 
taining a dove with a cross ; the greater importance of the 
town of Diogil, which we further on suspect to be Diamper, is 
brought out by a double cross. From this it must not be 
concluded that the King of Columbo, the name of which was 
not understood and was represented by a dove, was a Christian, 

L' Abbe Hue, Christianity in China, Tartary, and Thibet, New 
1XS4, Vol. 1, p. 00. Henry Yule thinks there is question of the 

Negus of Ethiopia. Cf. Encycl Britann., XIX (1885), p. 717, n. 6. 

2 Marcellino da Civezza. O.M.C., Storia Universale delle Missione 
Francesrane. Vol. 3, Roma. 1859, pp. 137 n., 67 n. I. In Vol. 6, pp. 336- 
340 of the .same work see a discn^ion on the first appearance of the name 
Prester John. M. da • ivezza thinks the name appsars first in 1145, when 
the Syrian Bishop of Gabaia was sent to Pope Eugene III. The article 
on Prester John in the Cath. Encycl. XII, 400-402, is very instructive 
For other references to Prester John of India see Piano Carpini (1248), 
the Armenian writer Sempad (124s), and Simon Sigoli (1384) in Yule - 
article in Encycl Britann., XIX (1885), pp. 716, col. 2, 717, col. I. 

* Cf. \ule , s Fnar Jordanus (Hakluyt Societv), p. vii. 

* I take the last fact from T. K. Joseph's article, A Malabar Chris- 
tian Dynasty, in the Trivandrum Daily News, 25-2-1922, He gives a 
reference Wadding's Annates Minorum, p. 00. 

' Joannes de India ' is mentioned in Milne's P.G.L.T. {Pa'ree Graec% 
Latine tantum erfiti). Vol. 80, pp. 1015-20. I do not find the collection 
at St. Mary's College, Kurseong. 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 105 

but that in the kingdom of Columbo, which was known in the 
West as a mission-station, there was a Christian Prince at the 
town of Diogil " ' 

In the reduced form in which Yule reproduces part of the 
Catalan Map (1375) from Notices et Extraits, torn. XIV,* 
Columbo is placed wrongly by the author of the map on the 
Fishery Coast, and the word Columbo is written a second 
time across the territory with the note : 'Christian Kingdom ' 
Yule has, however, suppressed the flag with the dove and the 
cross, as also the double cross near Diogil. The tow n Diogil is 
much too far north in Yule's map to be identifiable with 
Diamper in Malabar. In fact, Yule identifies it with Deogiri 
or Daulatabad, 8 and it is quite possible that there were Chris- 
tians there some time before 1375. 

We must remark also that above Mirapore (Mylapore), 
Butifilis (the Mutfili of Marco Polo. i.e. Motapalle in Telingana),. 
Bangala (Bengal), and Bassia, Yule's reduced form of the 
Catalan Map has the following strange legend : Ci Here reigns 
[King] Stephen, a Christian. In this land lies St. Thomas. 
Look for the city Butifilis." * 

I do not know whether the last legend has ever been com- 
mented on by any one, or what explanation of it can be de- 
vised, except perhaps that the Christians of the Coromandel. 
Coast had till very late times a chief or captain of their own 
I find nothing to help in Yule's Cathay and Marco Polo, or in 
the early travellers. However fanciful the position or the very 
existence of King Stephen's dominions may appear to us now 
for they embraced the shrine of St. Thomas at Mylapore— we 
must keep an open mind and believe that the author of the 
Catalan Map, like the historian, would have written nothing 
for which he had not some sort of authority, either in books 
or from travellers. It is certainly significant that the idea of 
a Christian Kingdom in India persisted so long in Europe, and 
while so many European travellers moved freely about in the 


Yule thinks it probable, that even in the Levant th» 
stories of ' John the Patriarch of the Indies ' may have been 
mingled with the rumours from the East about Prester John. 5 
Father A. Stockman, S.J., treating Mar John IIT.'s visit to 
Rome as mythical, opines that his journ v cannot have been 
the origin of the Prester John legend. 6 As his reasons do not 
appear to us cogent, we quote Vide. 

W, Oermann, op. cit , pp. 205-200. 

^ • ^L *_ _ I 7 <#~ w , 1 * t m. m w V 

* Cf. Yule's Cathay, at the end of Vol. I. 

3 Ibid., I. CCXXX ; II. 413, 416. [Thorn »hri >. 

4 By some mistake Butifilis seems to-be made here the site of >i. 

* EncycL Briurnn., XIX (1885). 716, col. 2. 

5 Cath. KncycL. XIV, 400c. 

J 96 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

u Before Prester John, eo nomine, appears upon the 8eene, 
we find the way prepared for his appearance by the presenta- 
tion of a kindred fable, and one which certainly entwined 
itself with the legends about Prester John after his figure had 
lodged itself in the popular imagination of Europe. This i- 
the story of the appearance at Rome (1122), in the pontificate 
of Pope Calixtus II... of a certain Oriental ecclesiastic, whom 
one account styles 'John, the Patriarch of the Indians/ and 
another 'an Archbishop of India. 5 This ecclesiastic related 
the most wonderful stories of the shrine of St. Thomas in 
India, and of the posthumous and still recurring miracles 
which were wrought there periodically by the body of the apos- 
tle, including the distribution of the sacramental wafer by hifl 
hand, and many other marvellous things We cannot regard 
the appearance at Rome of the personage who related these 
marvels in the presence of the Pope as a mere popular fiction : 
it rests on two authorities apparently independent (one of them 
a letter from Odo of Rheims. abbot of St. Remv from 1118 to 
1151) : for their discrepancies show that one was not copied 
from the other, though in the principal facts they agree." [ 

To proceed. We said that in a letter by Prester John 
mention is made of the tomb of St. Thomas. Some other 
passages in it bear resemblance to statements made by Mar 
John III. and to our quotations about St. Clara. 

In fact, if it could be proved that the letter was addressed 
to Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople, who died 
in A.D. 1118, we might think that Mar John III. had been 
somehow connected with its composition. We shall quote of 
it, translated as literally as possible, whatever we find in Asse- 
mani.* 2 

1 Encyrt. Britann., XIX (1885), 714, col. 2. . 

* For the translation we help ourselves with V Abbe Hue's Chris- 
tianity an China, Tartary, and Thibet, New York, Vol. I (1884), pp. 92- 
93, and with Austen Henry Lavards in Nineveh and its remains, London. 
1849, I, 250-254. The reference to Assemani in Hue is Bibl. Orient.. VOL 
HI, Pt, II, Oh. IX, p. 400. Layard too refers to Assemani, at p. 265 of 
his volume I. Hue's reference is correct enough. However, a friend ot 
mine who searched for the passage in Calcutta at my request could not 
find it. -Vol. Ill, Pt. II" of Assemani' & Bibl. Orientalis is the 4th 
volume of that collection. 

Hue thought with Assemani that the letter might have been addressed 
to Emperor Alexius Comnenus (til 18). Mgr. Zaieski, after saying that 
the IIS. (used by Assemani) is in the Vatican Library, Codec Regius Alex- 
andrtnus 657, p. 37, asserts that it was written to Emperor Alexius Com- 
nenus, who died in 1118. Lavard also states that it was addressed to the 
Greek Emperor Alexius Comnenus (loc. cit., p. 250). The short extract 
which Mgr. Zaieski makes from it gave me the false impression that 
Prester John had his palace near St. Thomas' tomb. Cf. Mgr. Zaieski. 
Les origine* du Christianisme anx Indes, p. 145, and his The Saints m 
India, p. 111. To ^pare to future investigators the serious misgivings vve 
were under until we found an opportunity of consulting Assemani. " e 
quote the letter as fullv as we* can. 


1923. J St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 197 

The letter in question appears in Assemani only in part. 
Herr Zancke in an elaborate treatise on Prester John gives a 
list of close on a hundred MSS. of it. It purports, according 
to Yule, to have been addressed by Prester John to the Greek 
Emperor Manuel, who reigned from 1143 to 1184. About 
1165 it became widelv circulated. 1 

"This letter/" writes Assemani (Bibl. Orientalis, torn. Ill, 
Part II. or Vol. IV, p. 490, sqq.), " exists in a Latin MS. of the 
Vatican Library, Codex Regius Alexandrinus 657, fol. 37 sqq. 
Although it is full of boasting and contains many fabulous 
things, the Latin translator 2 seems to have added a few things 
to it. However, as it confirms the account of the Bishop of 
Gabala 3 and will not be unpleasant to the reader, neither i- 
it foreign to our purpose, we proceed to insert here fragments 
of it : for we omit for brevity's sake what is said or invented 
about the river of Paradise, the sea of stone and of sand, the 
subterraneous streams, the wonderful fountain, certain herbs, 

stones, and animals, and the description of the palace. 


[P. 490] Letter of 

?w pie. 

John Priest by the power and virtue of God and of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, Lord of Lords, to A./ Governor of Con- 

May he enjoy health and with the grace of God advance 
to greater things. 

It has been made known to Our Majesty that thou es- 
teemest our excellency and that there has been speech among 
ou of our greatness. We have learned from our secretary 
that thou wishest to send us some curious and amusing thing- 
wherewith to delight our justice, etc. 6 What we desire and 
wish to know is whether thou hast like us the true faith, 
whether in everything thou believest in Our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Though we know thee to be a man, and consider thou art but 
a mortal destined to corruption, thy little people take thee for 
their sovereign. If thou hast any need of anything that would 
be agreeable to thee, tell us so through our secretary by a 
letter from thy charity, and thou wilt get it, etc. If thou 
wishest to come to our domination, we shall appoint thee the 

1 Yule in Encycl. Britann., 9th ed., XIX (1885), p. 
" Interpret: vel descriptor." — Assemani. 

** \ TV i i *~ 9, - * 


"A.D« 1145." — Assemani. 

the text. 

^ls. iiia. — Assemani. 
4 "Perhaps Alexis Comnenus, who died in 1 118."— Assemani. 
6 These "efce.* are from Assemani, and show where he omits parts of 


198 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [M.S., XIX, 

greatest an I most worthy of our bouse, and thou mayest par- 
lake of our abundance and of the things that are found among 
us in plenty ; and, if thou vvishest to return, thou shalt set 
forth enriched with our gifts. 

]f thou wishest to know the greatness and excellence of 
our altitude, and in which countries our power rules, under- 
stand and believe without doubting that I am Priest John, the 
servant of God, and that I surpass in all riches under the sun 
and in valour and power all the Kings of the earth. Seventy 
Kings are tributary to us. I am a devout Christian, and 
everywhere we protect and support with our alms the poor 
Christians who are within the empire of our clemency. [P. 491] 

We wish to visit the sepulchre of Our Lord with a great 
army, as becomes the glory of our majesty, and we wish to 
humble and conquer the enemies of the Cross of Christ and 
exalt His holy name. 1 

Our magnificence dominates the three Indies * ; our domin- 
ions, beginning from Further India, where the body of St. 
Thomas the Apostle repo-es : advance across the desert to 
where the sun is born, and return to deserted Babylon, near 
the tower of Babel. 

Seventy-two provinces, 3 a few of which 4 are Christian, 
serve us ; each has its King, and all are tributary to us. In 
our country are born and found elephants, dromedaries, camels, 
etc., etc., and animals of nearly every species under the sky. 
Milk and honey flow in our country. In another country 
beyond, no poisons hurt, etc. One of our provinces inhabited 
by pagans, is traversed by a river called the Indus. Issuing 
from Paradise, 6 it winds its way by divers courses through 
the whole of that province, and in them are found natural 
stones, smaracfds, sapphires, etc. 6 In another province of ours 

*t^ r»ifc - -i ■ ■ ^ — ^^^^* 

I u A similar vow was exacted by Haiton, the Christian King of Ar- 
menia, from Mongo Cham, the fourth Emperor of the Tartars in 1253- 
Histoire Orientate, ou des Tartares, par Haiton, parent du Rot d'Armenie. 
Bergeron, Collect, de Voyages, Vol. II)."— Note by La yard, op. cit, p. 
26 1 . 

* .Medieval writers and travellers commonly divide India into three 
parts, the application of which is very divergent and contusing. Cf. 
Yule's Cathay and Marco Polo, s.v. India. 

- > Hue has « sixty-two provinces.' Yule's article in En yd. Britann., 
XIX (1885), p. 715, speaks of 72 kings tributarv to Prester John. Layaid 
has * 7:2 provinces,' as have our notes from Assemam. (?) The passage 
quoted above from Razzius about St. Clara mentions sixty * Christian 
provinces. "The number 72 is a prominent one," savs Mgr. Medlycott 
[Goth. Eneycl, XIV, 6806) in connection with the number of houses built 
by Thomas Cananeo at Cranganore, Malabar: but his translation of the 
charter of Thomas Cananeo (from a British Museum MS, of which I have 
a copy) shows correctly only 62. 

4 ■ Quarum paucae ' might also mean ' few of which/ 

5 'The Indus issuing from Paradise' must be compared with the 
•Phiaon, issuing from Paradise' of which we heard from Mar John III* 

• Since John de T Marignolli (c. 1349) must have picked up in India 

1923.] 67. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 19!> 

all the pepper grows, etc. It is a wooded country, like a forest 
and everywhere full of serpents, etc. 1 This wood is situated 
at the foot of Mount Olympus, whence springs a limpid foun- 
tain, whose waters preserve all kinds of savours, etc. 2 There 

all his strange notions on G ylon, regarded as Paradise, it seems evident 
that the Indus (the Phison) is made to issue here from Ceylon: for de' 
Marignolli also says: " Paradise is a place that (really) exists up* n the 
earth surrounded by the ocean sea, in the regions of the Orient on the 
other side of Columbine India [Quilon], and over against the mountain of 
Seyllan [Ceylon]." Here grow all the trees that produce the best of fruits ; 
*' wondrous fair are they to look upon, fragrant and delicious for the food 
of man. Now that fountain cometli down from the mount and falleth into 
a lake, which is called by the philosophers Euphirattes [Euphrates], Here 
it passes under another water which is turbid, and issues forth on the 
other side, where it divides into four rivers which pass through Seyllan ; 
and these be their names." He names the Gyon ; the Phison, " and it 
goes through India, circling all the land of Evilach [this in India, ac- 
cording to Cosmas Indicopieustes (A.D. 545) ; cf. M'Crindle, Ancient 
India, p. 165], and is said to go down into Cathay, where by change of 
name, it is called Caromoran, i.e. Black' Water .... I believe it to be 
the biggest river of fresh water in the world, and I have crossed it 
myself." Next, he mentions the Tigris and the Euphrates. Cf. Yule's 
Cathay, II, -346-351. Thes9 strange geographical notions are much older 
than de' Marignolli; he must have noted them down in the East from 
the Nestorian Christians : even the idea that the Phison reappeared in 
Cathay (after subterranean wanderings ?) may have been current in China 
among the Christians. The Hindus too make their sacred Ganges issue 

at all kinds of places to sanctify the waters of their favourite bathing- 

1 Malabar was the pepper country par excellence. The passage above 
must be compared with what Friar Odoric of Pordenone writes about the 
pepper forest and its serpents (about 1321)." "And now that ye may 
know how pepper is got, let me tell you that it groweth in a certain 
empire whereunto I came to land, the name whereof is Menibar [Mala- 
bar], and it groweth nowhere else in the world but here. And the forest 
in which the pepper groweth extendeth for a good eighteen days' journey . 
and in that forest there be two great cities, the one whereof is called 
Flandrina [Fandaraina, Pandarani] and the other Cyngilin [Scigla, i.e. 
Cranganore]. .... And m this forest also there be rivers in which be 
many crocodiles, i.e. serpents. [And there be many other kinds of ser- 
pents in the forest which the men burn by kindling tow ami straw, and 
so they are enabled to go safely to gather pepper.] .... At the extra 
roity of that forest, towards the south, there is a certain city which ia 
called Polumbum" [Columbum, Quilonj. Cf. Yule's Cathay, I (188V). 
pp. 74-77. The passage in square brackets is from the Palatine MS. 
(Cf. ibid., I. 41). 

Marignolli (A.D. 1347-48) has a mild sneer probably at Odoric' a talk 

about the pepper forest. «• And there is no roasting of the pepper, as 

authors have falselv asserted, nor does it grow in forests, but in regular 

gardens." Cf. Yule, Cathay, II. 343. Apparently, says Yule (I, 77*. 2), 

Odoric did not stay any time in Malabar, and he probably derived his 

information from harbour gossip. Be that as it may, it is certainly 

remarkable that some or the same reflections occur here in Prest^r JohnV 

Is not the pepper forest and its serpents referred to by much oldei 
writers, which would show a remarkable fixity in the popular talk picked 
up in Malabar ? 

* The limpid fountain at the foot of Mt. Olympus would seem to 

200 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX 

is a sandv sea without water, etc. 1 Three davs from that sea 
there are certain mountains, whence flows a river of stones, 
etc. Near the mountains there is, among uninhabitable moun- 
tains, a desert; underground flows a stream to which there is 
no approach, etc. The stream flows into another great river, 
which the people of our country enter and whence they ex- 
tract very great quantities of precious stones, etc. Beyond 
the river are ten Jewish tribes, which, although they choose - 
their own Kings, are the slaves and tributaries of our excel- 
lency.' 2 

In another province of ours, near the torrid zone } there 
are worms, called in our language salamanders; these worms 
can live only in the fire ; like other worms which produce silk 
they make around their body a kind of skin, which the ladies 
of our palace weave with care, and so we have stuffs and 
garments for all our excellency's needs. These clothes are 
washed only in a strong fire. 5 



the fountain of Paradise (Ceylon), in which case Mt. Olympus wool 
Adam's Peak; but neither in M* Crindle's Ancient India, nor in Yule 
Cathay and Marco Polo, do I find Adam's Peak called so. And one would 
not expect the pepper forest to be placed in Ceylon. 

Pliny says that the pepper-plant grows everywhere in India, though 
some writers assert that it grows only on the slopes of Caucasus, which 
lie exposed to the sun. Cf. M-Crindle, Ancient India, p. 121. To the 
ancients the Caucasus was the Himalaya. I do not find, however, an3" 
ancient authors identifying the Caucasus with Mt. Olympus. 

Philostratos of Lemnos (born circa 172 A.D.) in his biography of 
Apollonius of Tyana says something similar : that on the heights of Mt. 
Kaukasos grew various kinds of aromatic plants, and the cinnamon-tree 
and in the hollows the pepper-plant and frankincense-bearing trees. 
(Ibid., p. 193.) But M'Crindle doubts whether Apollonius and his 
journalist Dam is, an Assyrian, really visited India or merely copied from 
pre-existing materials (p. 195). 

1 Friar Odoric (ante 1330) places 'the Sea of Sand' at a da\ 
journey from lest(Yezd) in Persia. Cf- Yule's Cathay, I (1866), p. 52. 

* - In Marco Polo's Travels (lib. II, c. 2), Jews are described as being 
in the army of the Emperor Cublai. it seems, therefore, that it was not 
in this century alone that the lost tribes were traced to Tatary." Note 
by Layard, op. cit., I, 252. 

A number of early European writers in India thought they discovered 
the lost Jewish tribes in Afghanistan. Fr. Anthony Monserrate, S.J., 
(1580-82), seriously thought he had discovered them in Kashmir. 

' 6 M The salamander is also described by Marco Polo (lib. I, ch. 47). 
The cloth is mentioned in the inscription on the celebrated [Christian] 
-cone of Se-gan-foo (d'Herbelot, Vol. IV, p. 380). This fable, or exagger- 
ation, which was probably of very early date, appears to have been 
current among the Tatars' or among the Chaldeans." Layard, op. cit., 
I, p. - .52. 

" The story." says Yule, in his Marco Polo, 2nd ed., London, 1875, I. 
217-218, "is as old as Aristotle." " In Persian the creature is called 
^amander, Samandal, etc., and some derive it from Sam, 'fire' and 

indar. 4 within. 1 Doubtle^ it is a corruption of the Greek ^.aXa^avBpa, 
whatever be the origin of that." Marco Polo (id., I. 215) writes of the 
province of Chingitalas : M And you must know that in the same raoun- 

un there is a vein of the substance from which Salamander is made. 


1923.] St Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 201 

We believe that we have no equal, either for the quantity 
of our riches or the number of our subjects. When we issue 
forth to make war upon our enemies, we cause to be carried 
before our face, each on a car, thirteen great precious crosses 
made of gold and precious stones. 1 Each cross is follov 
ten thousand horsemen and a hundred thousand armed foot 
soldiers, without counting those who are in charge of the carts 
conveying the baggage and provisions of the army. [P. 492\. 
When we go out merely on hor-eback. our majesty is preceded 
by another cross without either gold or precious stones or 
picture, 2 in order that we may always remember the Passion 
or Our Lord Jesus Christ ; and there is also a golden vessel full 
of earth, in order to remind us that our body will return to 
its native origin, that is the earth; and another vessel, of 
silver, and filled with gold, is carried before us, that all may 
understand that we are Lord of Lords. Our magnificence 
surpasses all the riches in the world, etc. 

Every year we visit the body of the prophet St. Daniel 
in deserted Babylon, 3 and all are armed on account of tfu 

Yule's Cathay, 

For the real truth is that the Salamander is do beast, as they allege in 
our part of the world, but is a substance found in the earth." Think of 
asbestos. " I cannot tell, says Yule, when the fable arose that asbestos 
was a substance derived from the animal." 

When Friar James, one of the martyrs of Thana (Salsette near 
Bombay), was cast into the fire and would not burn, the Cadi cried out : 
11 He is no saint ! he is no saint ! But the reason why he is not burnt is 
that he hath on his back a garment from the land of Abraham. Where- 
fore let him be atript naked and so cast into the fire ! " Cf. 
I (186()),p 64. 

1 4i The army of Xaiam. when he rebelled against Cublfti, was 
preceded by across (Marco Polo, lib. II, eh. 6.)" Layard, op. cit., 
I, p. 252. 

2 By picture is probably meant a representation or painting of the 
raeifisd Saviour. The Nestorians of China, as we know, would not 
tol^ate crucifixes, and fche Emperors of China showed them- Ives aston- 
ishpd when the medieval Franciscans exhibited crucifixes before them. 

"According to tradition, the tnmb of Daniel was preserved 
/nnngst the ruins of Su^i, or in the valley of the Bakhtiyan mountains. 
W« have no other mention of its existence at Babylon." Layard, 
op. eU. 9 I, p 253. 

"During the Middle Ages there was a widespread and persistent 
tradition that Daniel was buried at Susa, the modern Shuster, m the 
Persian province of Khuzistan. In the account of his visit to Susa 
in A. D. 1165, Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela narrates that Daniel's tomb 
was shown him in the facade of one of the >vnagogues of that city ; and 
it is shown there to the present day. The Roman Martyroloey assigns 
DamVls feast as a holv prophet to 21 July, and apparently treats Baby- 
ion a^ his burial-place/' Calk. EncycL, IV. 621c. 

Assomani. (Bi6J Orientals » Vol. IV, p. DCCLXXX!) says of Susa ; 
'hi corpus Danielis Propherae jacere affirmant Abulpheda (Tab. geagr. 
nnr " ^B;.JesujabusNisibemjs (Tom. 3, p, 306) * et Gh jopius Abulphar- 
agms (Hi > r . Dynasty p. 54)." 

202 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

tigers (?)' and the serpents which are called ' denier ses' (?) 2 
In our country is caught the fish whose blood is used for the 
purple dye. We have many castles (munitiones) and very 
strong and difform tribes. We rule over the Amazons* and 
also over the Brahmans. The palace in which our sublimity 
resides is like that built by St. Thomas for Gondoforus. King 
of the Indians ; « its workshops and the rest of the structure 
is like it entirely; the ceilings, beams, and epistyles (epistt/lia) 
are of sethym wood ; the roof of the same palace is of ebony, 
to prevent its being consumed by fire. At the extremities, on 
the summit of the palace, there are two golden apples with, in 
each of them, two carbuncles, so that the gold should shine 
by day and the carbuncles by night. 6 The chief gate-, of the 
palace are of sardonyx mixed with the horn of the cerastes. 6 

^ __*-!_._■_.. p -iK — _ - - - mu 

i A T l le wo r d in the Latin »»** is • tiro*; which I cannot find in the 

best dictionaries at my disposal. 

* The word • denier ses ' does not occur in my Latin dictionaries. 

Both Layard and Hue omit translating parts of the text, this one 
included. r ' 

Probably many places in India, understood in the vaguest sense, 
had Amazons or legends about them. There were bodies of fighting 
women at several South Indian courts, as among the later Moghul 
Emperors of India. In 1581, on the Afghanistan side of the Khaibar 
.ras*,, father Anthony Monserrate, S.J., was told stories of Indian 
Amazons in connection with Landi Khana (Landi Kotal). Cf. Monser- 
rate in Memoirs As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. 3, No. 9, p. 614. 
IUH i\£, ndeville ' uhose book of travels was published between 
™ni t r If' S ? yS he travelle d great part of Ethiopia, Chaldaea, Ama- 
ar^f/T i' a xt 6 .,' the § reat er, and the middle, and manv countries 
about India Note the three divisions of India. Cf. Encycl. Britann., 9th 

R,V,„ {lHHS \' P- 4 " 3 - The article on Amazons in the Encyclopedia 

Btitannica speaks only of Amazons outside India prooer. 

,„i>; u \ cunou f reminiscence of the stories in the Acta S. Tkomae. 

IhS X WS y h V Voeue [t ,lad both in the West and in the East. The 
whole oi Prester Johns letter is by some considered a Xestorian fortrery. 

i^fl S?" 1 ". * * wlmt ma - v have sounded exaggerated in Europe, for 

instance the administration of Prester John's court, is u «dl in keeping what we read of court life in China or of the Moghuls in India. 

P„™ eVe K •« se .cretary who penned the letter succeeded in astonishing 
i-urope by pilfering f Pom a number of books on Eastern WGnde rs. 

tosnias Indicopleustes (A.D. 535) speaks of one of the two kings 

m^V° n 'i aS P osse -' n g the hyacinth. "In this island they have 
ian\ temples, and in one situated on an eminence is a single hvacinth 

«n»J If * i rge P, Ine - cone . t»e colour of fire, and flashing from a distance, 

especially when the sunbeams play around it- a matchless sight. Cf. 

r,il"ri m \l mdle - Ancient India, Westminster, 1901, p. 160. •« The Chinese 

h*> .7 , 1,0uen Th siang, who was a century later than Kosmas, relates 

was •W.r , i raJ<1 ?- r . 9, ° n a s P ire """nounting one of its temples, a ruby 

Lav!, ■* T,'T 1Ch " ith its transcendent lustre illuminated the whole 

biaa^t' n J J f'l P ' 160 ' n 8 ") M «*o P *>lo speaks of a rubv, the 

dop Wo * t m the vvorId - Possessed by the king of Cevlon : so 

r,l n , ?', h 's contemporarv: Friar Odoric, Ibn Batuta, Friar 

thi,™ f ndr f a Corsali( 1515) and a Chinese work are still quoted in 

tni* connection for Ceylon by Yule (Marco Polo, II (1875). 297-298). 

6 The Egyptian horned viner. 


1923.] 67. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 203 

lest aoy one should enter stealthily with poison ; l the rest are 
of ebony. The windows are of crystal. The tables at which 
our court eats are some of gold, others of amethvsfc, and the 
columns which sustain them are of ivory. Before our palace 
there is a square where our justice alone is wont to watch 
those who fight in duel, etc.* 

The room where our sublimity sleeps is a wonderful piece 
of art, adorned with gold, silver and every kind of precious 
stones, etc. Within it ; balsam is ever burning. Our bed is of 
sapphire. We have most beautiful women ; sed non accedunt 

procreandorum filiorum guater in anno, et 

sic a nobis sanctifi 
in locum suum. 

Our court eats once a day. At our table feed thirty 

/ thousand men, not counting those who go in and out ; and all 

these receive daily sums from our chamber, for their horses 

, and other expenses, etc. Every month we are served at our 

table by seven Kings, each in his turn, by seventy-five dukes, 

and by three hundred and sixty-five counts, in addition to 

those who are appointed for divers functions. At our court 

there dine daily by our side, on our right twelve Archbishops, 

on our left twenty Bishops, besides the Patriarch of St. 

Thomas, and the Protopapas of Salmagantum, and the Arch- 

protopapas of Susae, in which city is the throne and seat of 

our* glory and our imperial palace. Every month, each of 

these [P. 498] in turn never departs from our side. Abbots, 

according to the number of the days of the year, serve us in 

our chapel and return home every month, as many others 

returning every month for the same ministrations in our 

1 Cups made of rhinoceros horn were commonly believed to be 
proof against poison. " Now this Abath [Rhinoceros] is a beast which 
hath one borne only in her forehead, and is thought to be the female 
Unicorne, and is highly esteemed of all the Moores in those parts as a 
most soveraigne remedie against poyson." Barker in Hakluyt, II, 591. 
Quoted by Yule, Hobson-Jobson, s.v. Abada. At an Oriental Art Exhibi- 
tion by the Nahar family (Jainas), 46, Indian .Mirror Str., Calcutta, 

I was shown in January 1922. a collection of cups made of rhino* «*ros 

Claudius Elianus (middle of 2nd century of our era) writes : * 4 India, 
according to report, breeds one-horned horses and also one-horned asses. 
Prom these horns drinking-cupa were made : and if into these one threw 
a deadly poison, the drinker would come by no harm from such a plot 
against his life, for the horn both of the horse and of the ass is an 
antidote against poison. " Cf. M'Crindle's Ancient India, p. 136 Evi- 
( *f nt ! y one oi thos © unicorns is the rhinoceros. At p. 193, n. 1, ibid., 
M* Cnndle says that the story of the unicorn-ass which Pholostrate- of 

Lemnoa places in the river Hyphasis (Panjab) is copied from Kt&naa. 

From the horn of the unicofn-ass a cup was made which possessed 
magical virtues. 

* This -ems to be characteristicaliv Eastern. We think of Akbar. 

204 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Thy prudence must not wonder that our worthiness lets 
itself be called bv the title of Priest: indeed, we have at our 
court many servants with dignities, titles and functions pertain- 
ing to the ecclesiastical state, and honoured with even higher 
dignity than we in the divine ministrations. Thus, our butler 
is a Primate and King; our cupbearer is an Archbishop and 
King ; our chamberlain, a Bishop and King : our mareschal, an 
Archimandrite and King; our headcook, a King and Abbot. 
Hence, our highness does not let itself be called by names and 
orders of which our court is full. And so, out of humility, 
we choose to be called by a higher title and a lower rank. 1 

Our empire extends on one side a four months' journey ; 
on the other, no one can know how far it reaches. If thou 
canst count the stars of heaven and the sands of the sea, 
number also our dominions and reckon our power. 

Thus far Prester John. We add Assemani's comments on 
some features of this rodomontade worthy of an Eastern 

t: It appears from this letter, first, that he wished to visit 
the Lord's sepulchre with a great army ; secondly, that, when 
he wrote, he had fixed at Susae the seat of his kingdom ; 
thirdly, that he had at his court many Bishops, Archbishops, 
and Archimandrites; fourthly, that out of humility he used 
the name of Priest, rejecting the titles of Archbishop, Bishop, 
and Abbot. As regards the pompous title of Patriarch of -St. 
Thomas, Protopapas of Salmagantum, and Archprotopapas of 
Susae, he had them from the Nestorians, who assumed these 
titles in Tartary, China and India ; for, as I wrote above, Joseph 
the Indian (Josephus Indus) gives to the Metropolitans of India 
and Chataja [Cathay] the name of Patriarch;' 2 and the priest 
Adam is called Papas or Papates of the Sinae in the Syro- 
Chinese inscription ; hence, Protopapas means a Bishop, and 
Archprotopapas means an Archbishop. According to Joseph 
^'■aliger (de Emendatione Temporum, Bk. 7, p. 684), nearly the 
ame custom prevailed among the Christians of Ethiopia. 
' They call their Bishops by the Greek name of Episcopasath. 
and their Priests by the name of Papasath, the Greeks still 
calling nowadays the Patriarch of Alexandria, whom they re- 
gard as a supreme Pontiff, by the name of Lika Papasath.' By 
the Protopapas of Salmagantum understand Salmasa in Media ; 
by the Archprotopapas of Susae, the Prelate of Susae in Elamis, 
about which see pp. 421. 423, and 424. What we hear about 
the body of St. Thomas in Further India, about the body of 


] Sic. '* Et idcirco altitudo nostra non eat passa vocari eisdem 

ominibus, aut ipsis ordinibus insigniri, quibus curia nostra plena esse 

ideatur. Et ideo maiori nomine et inferioie gradu propter humilitatem 

inagis eligit nuncupari." , 

8 Compare with what we noted above in connection with Mar John - 

account (Document 1) and his title of Patriarch. 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 205 


the Prophet St. Daniel in deserted Babylon, [P. 594] about the 
palace said to have been built by St. Thomas for Gondophorus, 
King of the Indians, all this is supported by the common tradi- 
tion of the Nestorians, as 1 have shown' at pp. SO, 34, 3.56. 
Finally, the large number of his wives shows that these Tartar 
Kings who had embraced Christianity were perhaps Christians 
in name only. Abulpharagius. as I shall show anon, writes the 
same of his son John/' ! 

The passages of Prester John's letter left unpublished by 
A.ssemani are briefly as follows. All the wild beasts and mon- 
strous creatures commemorated in current legend were to be 
found in Prester John's dominions, as well as all the wild and 
eccentric races of men of whom strange stories were told, in- 
cluding those unclean nations whom Alexander Magnus walled 
[ up among the mountains of the north, and who were to 

come forth at the latter day.' 2 His dominions contained tlu. 


monstrous ants that dug gold 8 ; the}' produced all manner of 

precious stones and all the famous aromatics. Within them 
was found the Fountain of Youth ; the pebbles which give 
light, restore sight, and render the possessor invisible ; the 
Sea of Sand was there, stored with fish of wondrous savour ; 
and the River of Stones was there also ; besides a subterrane- 
ous stream whose sanch were of gems. There were no poor in 
his domains, no thief or robber, no flatterer or miser, no dis- 
sensions, no lies, and no vices. Among the details given of 
the palace, which was after the plan of the palace built by St. 
Thomas by Gondophares we find that before it was a marvel- 
lous mirror erected on a many-storied pedestal (described in 
detail); in this speculum he could discern everything that went 
on throughout his dominions, and detect conspiracies. There 
u as another palace of still more wonderful character, built by 

1 Asseroam explains 4 Prete Joanni ' as Persian for * Prestegiani ' i.e. 
Apostolical. If that is correct, the name would not have been a bad one 
tor a King of the St. Thomas Christians in .Malabar. But did King 
Haliartes of the St. Thomas Christians ever use that title ? 

■ The rampart of Gog and Magog (or the Great Wall of China) was 
believed to have been erected by Alexander the Great to shut up the 
hfrce nations of the north and bar their irruptions into civilized foreign 
lands. Cf. Yule, Cathay, I (1866), p. 490 n. 1, and see, at the end of 
* oi. I, his reduction of the Calulan map (1375), N. E. corner. Alexanders 

ouu g * iU China and hi 8 founding the city of Khubdan (Khumdan, or 
nhanggan, i.e. Singanfu in Shensi) can be read in Theophylactus 

oimocatta, a Byzantine writer of the earlv part of the 7th century. See 

5 !lIe * Cathay, 1 (1866), pp. l~h. 

.„. i[,e gold-digging ants are an old story already found in Strabo, 

1 nny, .Elian, Dion Chrysostom, and Pseudo Kallisthenes. Cf. M'Crindle 
Iwient India (Index), and see pp. 44-45, n. 3, for an explanation of 
16 nayth, and p. 51, n. 1, for a fuller list of the authors who have noticed 

J-ne gold-diggi n g ants. There we find still Herod., Arrian, Clem. Alex., 

izetz., Property Pomp. Mela, laid or., Albert, Mag., etc., etc. 

206 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XIX, 

the presbyter's father in obedience to a heavenly command, in 
the city of Bribric. 1 

Yule thinks that Pope Alexander IIL's letter of 1177 was 
written to the Negus of Ethiopia and that it alluded to the 
vaunting epistle we have quoted, when it told Pr ester John 
that, the less he boasted of his wealth and power, the more 
readily would he (the Pope) comply with his wishes about a 
Church at Rome, altars in Sis. Peter and Paul, and in the 
Church of our Lord's Sepulchre at Jerusalem." 2 

But enough of that phantom being, Prester John. Let us 
return for a while to Mar John III. 

It will be remembered that the hymn quoted in the begin 

— _ _ — _ _ — __ ^^ 

ning of this chapter records also (stanza 4) the conversion of 

three kings by St. Thomas. Here too the hymn may have been 
inspired by Mar John 111. Stanza 4 would embody Malabar 
traditions. Bishop Roz of Cranganor, writing in 1605 mentions 
the conversion by St. Thomas of three kings (other than the 
Magi ?) and of three emperors. 3 The three emperors wen 
those of Bisnaga, Malabar, and Pande. 

These three kings are mentioned already in 1561, when 
the inscription on the stone cross of (Great) St. Thomas Mount 
was fraudulently deciphered by a Brahman, who evidently had 
tutored himself previously in the doctrines and traditions of the 
St, Thomas Christians. He said he read among other things : 
" A king of three crowns, Cheralacone, Indalacone, Cuspandiad 
and King Alexander of the kingdom of Ertinabarad, with his 
daughter Catherina, and many other virgins, and six kinds ot 
castes, embraced of their own accord the law of Thomas, it be- 
ing the law of truth; and he gave them the Holy Cross to 
adore." 4 

To interpret this passage we have fortunately the ' Malavar 
text and a Spanish translation, both in a letter of Father 
Anthony Monserrate, S.J. (Cochin, 1579). The two differ prob- 
ably not a little from each other; at any rate, the Spanish 

* Cf. Encycl. Britann., XIX (1885), p. 715, col. I, Yule's summary 
of the letter. Yule {ibid.) identifies doubtfully Salmagantum with 
Sarmagantum, Samarkand. Bribric I cannot trace. 

* Ibid., XIX (1885), pp. 715-716. Could Prester John's letter, if 
written in 1165, as Yule thinks, have remained so long unanswered 
Prester John's letter in Assemani says nothing about such wishes. 

8 Cf. ourPt, I. Ch. II. 

* Cf. Diogo do Couto, Da Asia, Decada VII, Bk X, Ch. V, p. *? 
(Lisboa, 1783) and P. F. Vincenzo Maria di S. Catharina da Siena. U 
YiaimoddV Indie Orientali. Roma, 1622, Bk. 2, Ch 2, p 137. Other 
authors mention Coromandel or Bisnaga, Malabar, and Pande (M 

Since Cheralacone should represent the country of the Kef AS or 
Cheras, i.e. Malabar, Indalacone should represent ( oromandel : Cuspan- 
diad should then stand for the country of the Pandiyans or Madura 
But Hendu was Malabar. The proper names are. therefore, written cor- 
ruptly, as will appear presently. 





J.P.A.S.B., XIX, 1923. 

Plate 13. 


by Fr. A. Monserrate, S.J. (1579). 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, My la pore. 207 

text differs notably from the Portuguese text of do Couto which 
we have just translated. Some flaws in the * Malavar ' text of 
the MS., of which I have lying before me a photographic 
reproduction, and my ignorance of 'Malavar/ make it im- 
perative to reproduce the photograph. May I ask lovers of 
old Tamil to endeavour to restore the ' Malavar ' text and to 
give of it as literal a translation as possible ? 

The c Malavar ' text, romanized by Moneerrate, runs thus. 
" Arrij . . jigartan ] ayyarru taninel terriya tannuuil tirunda 

, muueyil paraparamaguia param parol* onde tavatara Caliyata 

candiyangui juda culata tuyacarra raunenta 8 vadel perutum 
vagueiadio uagueye Cannia Maria Carupamadaqui manniya 

I muppadum varija Mariatil onde enum oruporul tanne cundana 

pandira 4 de siuarca vreppar Arm Jameyata aruntauenurreyum 
curriya maileca orumuni tondi tachu colam 6 tambagata ruuum/ 
nechinacoyil Iracune chamepan sri puanatil cherila conuni 
Curagula Cholem curugui] pandiyen atanar puratil arichand- 
emom 6 catuennum canniercaresum maltmn palapalam marca- 
tarum chitam relinta telinta chintauerai tame perunti tauamu- 

mon Thoma culatil toludari panintar. 

" Antoni modor arriuorumide vantuorujogam marraevau 
en chedal 7 candu chameta vdita curusil tondar culatil tolum 
ariyargal vinnaui pauua perum carel ningui Irreyauenechenta 
anguu 8 iripadu t . nam." 9 

" The explanation of these letters in Spanish simply, which 
is this : 

"After the law of the Christians appeared in the world, 
30 years thence, on the 21st of the month of December, the 
Apostle St. Thomas died at Mailapar (which is a place where 
the city of S. Thome is now) ; there was knowledge of God, One, 
s ole, which was change of the law and destruction of the 

lemon ; and there was destruction and desertion of the Jews, 
never again to have mercy on them, for He abandoned them 
thus. God was born of the Virgin Marv ; he was under her 
obedience 30 years, and He was a God without end. He 
taught twelve Apostles, this God of all the six la* 5, i.e. of all 
fche nations. The disciple of this God came to Maylapar with 
a carpenter's rule and a beam to make a Church and King - 
house. The Cheramperemal. who is King of Malauar, Cholia- 

>eremal. who is King of Charamandel, Bisnaga. and Pandien, 

1 Two or three letters not deciphered : .... jigartan might be jeyar- 

* Xant!{'!} 3 Muninta(t). 4 Pandiru (?). 

* Colum{1). 6 Arickandemim(l). i Chelate*). 

s Perhaps one or two letters more, not on the phot raph, at the en< 
Of the line. 

s One or two vowels could come after f, of which the fir must I 
ft n i or a u. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

who is King of Pandi, Cape of Comurin, and King Arichen- 
dram of Atanapuran, and another Catri King, king of the vir- 
gins (e otro rey Catri rey de las virgines)., and man v others of 
different nations and sects determined all with pleasure and. 
of their free will agreeing among thems-lves. submitted to the 
law and service of St. Thomas, a holv penitent man > The 
time came when St. Thomas died at the hand of the Bramene. 
and a cross of blood was made (hizose). All those who adore 
this cross, God King pardons them the great sin of their birth 
(sugran peccado del nascimiento) , and coming there (i.e . where 
God is) they will live (an de uiuir). Truth." 


Is it possible that the number ' three ' of the kings in 
the above passage should have been influenced bv the belief 
that the kings converted by St. Thomas were the three Magi i 

A homily, the author of which is unknown, but which is 
attributed to St. John Chrysostom. says that St Thomas 
baptised the three Magi, who worshipped the Infant Jesus at 
Bethlehem and helped him later in his apostolate. Sophro 
nius says the same thing." * 

" It is said that, after their return home, the Magi were 
baptized by St. Thomas and wrought much for the spread of 
the *aith in Christ. The story is traceable to an Arian writer 
of not earlier than the sixth century, whose work is printed, 
as opus imperfect urn in Matthamm, among the writings of 
bt. John Chrysostom (P.O. LVI, 644). This author admits 
that he is drawing upon the apocrvphal Book of Seth, and 
writes much about the Magi that is clearlv legendary. The 
Cathedral of Cologne contains what are claimed to be the 
remains of the Magi; these, it is said, were discovered in 
I ersia, brought to Constantinople by St. Helena, transferred 

I 3 > 3 ) " m the Hfth Centnry and to ( " ol °g ne '» l153 ( Aeia 88 -> 

n \ a „ a t am re fP°' ls,ble for t'te punctuation in this paragraph. The ex- 

^.»^ n M n v dUCed b * lLe -' are evidently MonWate's. Cheram- 

of xc i V S i Xar ^ m Peroi »»l of other Portuguese authors, or the King 

f Malabar whom fat. Thomas is said to have converted ; the Chohapere 

vW a i Pe ™ mal or <G, eat Man' of the Chola or Coromandel Cast: 
,l,«Lr nC f « am ° f At '"'aP"ran is evidently a reminiscence of Hari» 

|7 n T a ; 0t «f«t;napura, a city, the ruins of which are situated on the 
nan Us of an old heH nf t.l.„ n„ *t _ i « r-, . ^ _„ • i«'_- *u„ 

nfh^r K , • r °' W1 ° ««nge". »7 miles N.E. of Delhi, was tne 
Sk" PresttrjSin ^ m§ " e ° f the Warrior caste > Kin ~ of the Auul7 ' ,n ~- 

com^^ St M V 1 rSi ° l,S ° f the B»»»num*s translation make St. 
fW „ -^ y'apore With a staff: but some sneak of a carpenter's rule. 
Here ue have both. The Bral 

Mv7«™ W St .° ry ° f St ' T ho«n«' huilding a palace for a king at 

lln P ^ : , o tl J at 8tor y shows once more how the St. Thomas Chris 

nans placed Gondophares" palace at Mvlapore. 

s \V M i~, r ' Zaleski > Le " orpines du Christ ianisme au» fades, p. 
»v. Utma in Cath. hJncyrl., I, .-,:{,>/,. p, v -fer .John I 

1 58. 

1923.] St. Thomas and San ThomK Mylapore. 209 

Father Bernard of St. Thomas, T.O-C.D., tells me that 
the St. Thomas Christians have no traditions or documentary 
evidence about Caspar, the Peru ma I of Jaffna, one of the 
Magi baptised at Quilon by St. Thomas, on whom see Maffei 
in our Part I. Chapter II. J 

If that were so, should we not say that the Malabar Chris- 
tians have simply placed in Southern India the kings who, 
according to the Acta, were converted by St. Thomas ? These 
would be Gondophares and his brother Gad. or the King of 
Helioforum. a place to be identified perhaps after all with 
Meliaporam (Mylapore) ; ' 2 the King of Sand am k, identified by 

descended from the three Magi. Cf. Cath. Encycl, XIV, 400; and 
Encycl. Britann., XIX (1885), 715, 717, col. 2. 

I de Barros (da Asia, Dec. 3, Bk. 7, ch II , pp. 236-237, Lisbon edn., 
' 1777) had the following from a Malabar Christian who had gone to 

| Portugal in the reign of D. Jo&o, in order to learn Latin: "This Chris - 

I tian also related to us that, at the house of Coulam [Quilon], which had 

been made by the apostle St. Thomas' other disciple, there was the tomb 
I of the Sibyl, called the Indian Sibyl, and that this Church had been her 

oratory. And that, at her warning, through her announcing the Birth of 
Christ Jesus, a King of the Island of Ceilam, called Perimal, had gone 
on a trip to the Coast of Mascate to join the two Kings who went to 
adore the Lord of Bethleem ; and he was the third, and, at the request 
of this Sibyl, he had brought her the Image of Our Lady painted on a 
re table, which had been placed in her own tomb. About the journey of 
these Kings and where the two lived in whose company he went [p. 237J 
we write in our Geography, when we speak of the cities of Nazua and 
Balla, which are at the back of the ridge of mountains running along the 
coast of Mascate, which Province the Moors call Yman." 

On the Magi, an inexhaustible subject, see Yule's notes in Marco 

Polo, I (1875), pp. 79-84; Cathay, I (1860), 50, 51. Why should some 

i writers have made the Ceylon King come from Jaffna ? Because his title 

of Perumal is Tamil rather than Sinhalese? Sometimes Mylapore i* 
spoken of as being in the Island of Seilam. (Cf. the > estorian Bishop* * 
letter of 1504 in Mediyeott, India and the Apostle Thomas, p. 97 L; Evid- 
ently the Chola countrv is meant, and it is in the Chola country, at 
Mylapore, that the St Thomas Christians would place Gondophares' 
court, Might Gondopharus have led to Gaspar ? I find that some 
(Syriac ?) writers call one of the 3 Magi bv the names of Oudphorbua 
(Gondophares?). Cf. Yule's Marco Polo, I ( 1875), p. B4. Various authors 
bring the Magi from Babylon, Shusham, Hormuz, Ceylon; Armenian 
tradition brings them from Lake Van ; Haiton the Armenian from 
Chinese Tartarv ; John de' Marignolli from the Indian Archipelago (I 
cannot find the passage in Yule's extracts from de' Marignolli in his 
Cathay). Marco Polo makes them come from Sava in Persia ; Friar 
Jordanua from Mogan, towards Baku, on the Caspian Sea (Cf. Yule's 
friar Jordanus, p. 5:*) ; Friar Odoric places them as Ca-an (Kashun). 
but some of the MS8, of his travels .speak of them in connection with 
Saba (Persia). ( f. Yule's Cathay. I (1806), p. 51. U shusham [*vpru) 
equal to Chosha, Chola, Coromandel ? 

2 The Hierapolis of Orderic Vitalis (/2th century) brings us perhaps 
closer to Mayilapur. See Germann. Die KircJis der Thomaachr\*ten> 
V 16, n. 2. * 

" The town of Gondophares has no name given to it v apt in the 

f^w, the manuscripts of which call it Eliforam. Yrofofuro, Htetuoram, 

'nforum, Hierapohs/' Svlvain L6vi in Indian Antiquary 1904, p. 12. n. 1. 

Mr. Burkitt {Indian Antiquary, 1903. p. 160) Bays that the British 

210 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

the St. Thomas Christians with Cranganore or its immediate 
vicinity, and some other king of Southern India, since thev 
do not now mention Mazdai by name. 

, AT 0ur Uniate friends of Malabar insist on the orthodoxy 
ot Mar John of India. « At the Court of John Comnenus'' 
lie round the envoys whom Caiixtus II. had sent to promote 
tne union of the Greek and Roman Churches. Tne Archbishop 
went with them to Rome, received the pallium, and exposed 
before the Pope and the Cardinals the miracles that were 
wrought at the tomb of St. Thomas in Mylapore* These facts 

?"f "™ Syriac MS. of the Acta (Add. 14045), used by Wright and written 

i S ^L l p - 2 l ea,,s Gu «»da P har 'King of Hindu,' and thus 
where Wright wrote : "And when Judas [Thomas] had entered into the 
realm ot India with the merchant Habban, Habban went to salute 
Godnaphar, the King of India, " (ibid., p. 4), we must read instead of 

the realm of India literally 'Hindu city.' This appears to me an 
important point in favour of the Syrian traditions of Malabar, which, 
during the last 400 years that I can trace them, never speak of St. Thomas' 
mission in the north of India. Is it not a fact that the Syrians and the 
Arabs from the earliest time, designated India as a whole by the dual 
name Said and Hind Sind denoting N. India, while Hind applied to 

O. India ? Whv l.llon /-Inno + U„ -D_:..:.l_ »«-.~. . _ ~F 


S" 1 "^'" 1 ' *"**"<, a name Stiil used h y the Syriac Bishop* m ««.« 
£»«„ T T™°V S of Malabar, or Southern India There were so manv 
n^S ai i c,t, ?. s ° n th « Malabar and Cororoandol Coasts that it should be 
possible to satisfy with .them the requirements of the Acta, even if we 

\fJlL g V Ve , UP < e ^ ond °Phares of the coins and inscriptions. At 

tZrl P °? e h Ti,. f0Und ' near the Church of St. Thomas' traditional 
tomb, two medallions on the same stone, one representing a Persian 

Sw^ t! " e '' sian Pdnee - The medallions are undated and 

Thnm^'pL • . 6y ieop - en the whole qw^ion of the tradition of the St. 
lhomas Christians which places Kandapa Raja (Gondophares ?) at 
Mylapore and his palace in the sea. 

On Hind and Sind see Yule's Hobson-Jobson, s.v. India and Sind. 

T„,i; Vr Ve " e T r l teS In Catha >!' II (1886), p. 18.3 »., " the India Minor, 
India Major, and India Tertia of Jordanus will be found to answer 
pretty closely to the Sind, Hind, and Zinj of the Arabs, and that these 
names are the origin of the three Indias." " The earlier Mahommedans 
« 5 r6 ri.^ Sind as P rtrt °f India, but distinguished sharply between 

» * 


P a r S^S 1 Jierro Poiita da Koll Hendo " is translated bv Friar 

n «K? k Bartholomaeo (India (Jrienialia Christiana, Romae, 1704, 
M*Zl£ o »« Totla8 Maiabariae Metropolita Alexander." (AD. 1074. 

H JL. i a ' i,7? Ver Ht p - 88 iUd - • he translate, ' ' .Alexander Metropolit 
aeKuj Hendo by " .Alexander Metropolitan of all India." The Syrian 

Sh n « | a ^ also called themselves the Gate of All-India, ' Taraa 
i Tf \? en {tbtd -' p P- 88 - 95 > and referring to Raulin. p. 447). 

.,,„„,,, tn " n , ame occurs in the records of John III.'s journeys, it 
nouM nx the date of his visir to Rome, about which we have noticed so 

o\n^u VeTm - m the diffe «nt accounts. But the reader will have con- 
ILrr i 5 n ° W that the " ame does not occur. Alexius I. (Comnenus) 
reigned from 1081 to 1118; John II. (Comnenus) from 1118 to 1143; 

toU83 ( ° mneniw) from ll43 to ll 80: A'exius I. (Comnenus) from 1180 

The name of Mylapore does not occur in the records, though bj 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 211 


are well authenticated, and cannot be denied. If the Indian 
Church was at the time Nestorian, the Archbishop should have 
gone to the Catholicos of Seleucia or to the Metropolitan oi 
Persia, his immediate superior. The very fact that the Arch- 
bishop went to Constantinople and to distant Borne, points to 
the fact that he professed the Catholic Religion, and conse- 
quently the Indian Church of which he was Archbishop or 
Patriarch was also Catholic/ 9 1 

The argument is more dogmatic than conclusive. While 
the veracity of the man and the place he came from remain 
so difficult to settle, his orthodoxy is a point that cannot be 
decided. They would not believe him in Rome until he swore on 
the Holy Gospels that he did not tell lies. And we can hardly 

imagine that thev believed much in him even after that. 

In the reign of the Nestorian Patriarch Yaballaha III. 

(1281-1317), the good people of Rome were badly taken in by 

Rabban Sauma, a monk, who had come to Bagdad from China 

K with Mark (later Yaballaha 111), in the time of Patriarch 

I Denha I. (1265-1281). In fact, Rabban Sauma was born at 

Khanbaliq (Pekin). Argon Khan, the Prince of the Mongols, 

asking Yaballaha for a Christian ambassador to the Emperor, 

to the Pope, and the Western Princes, Rabban Sauma waa 

chosen and sent off with plenty of money, three horses and a 

As the adventures of our Mar John III. may have run on 
lines very much similar to those of Rabban Sauma, we draw 
upon Father A. Fortescue for an interesting summary of the 



Rabban Sauma's embassy in Europe is one of the most 
curious episodes of later Nestorian history. By this time, the 
very existence of a Nestorian Church was almost forgotten in 
the West. Perhaps the most remarkable point in his adven- 
tures is the unquestioning confidence with which evervon* 
takes his word that he is a good Christian, as they are. S<> 
entirely had suspicion of Nestorians died out, that even the 
Pope gave him Communion. Rabban Sauma came to Con- 
stantinople, saw what he calls ' King Basileus ' (evidently taking 
that for hn name), the Holy Wisdom, all the relic- and won 
ders. Then he comes to Italy, lands at Naples, and sees King 
'rid Harladu.' 8 At that time Irid Harladu was fighting the 

King of Arkim (Aragon). Honest Sauma is amazed that 

in European war only combatants are killed. Not so in war 


ia, Maila, Maj ila, Meilan. <••., 

Una (or Ultimaj might be meant Melia 

Uayilapur. Or should we read Calamina ? 

1 C{, the Rev. J. C. Panjikaren, The Syrian Church in Malabar, p. 3?, 

6 Father A. Fortescue does not relate the story of our Mar John III. 

. 8 M This astonishing name is simply " il re Carle due " (Chabot. Hw- 

'oirede Mar Jab-Alaha, Patriarch*, et de R&ban S&uma, Paris, ed. 2, 1886, 

P- W Vote by A. Fortescue. 

212 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [M.S., XIX, 

waged in his country. Arrived at Rome, he finds the Pope 
just dead. 1 Instead of a Pope he finds twelve great Lords, 
called ' Kardinale.' He says he has come from King Argon 
and the Katholikos of the East. The Cardinals ask him who 
founded his Church (clearly they have never heard of it), and 
he says : ' Mar Thomas, Mar Addai, Mar Maris ; we have their 
rite.' They ask about his faith, and he quotes to them the 
creed as used by the Nestorians in the 13th century. It is, 
roughly, the Xicene creed ; but it has Nestorian" clauses. 
Sauma says that one of the Trinity ; clothed himself in a perfect 
man/ that our Lord has two natures, two hypostases., one per- 
son. Even now the Cardinals do not seem to suspect what he is. 
But they continue the discussion, and Sauma incidentally denies 
the Filioque. The horrors of theological disc ussion are about to 
begin, when he says : ' 1 did not come here to argue with vou, 
but to venerate the Lord Pope.' As there was at the moment 
no Lord Pope to venerate, Sauma goes on to France, and arrives 
at Paris, where he sees King Philip IV. (1285-1314). Then he 
comes to ' Kasonio ' (Gaseogne, and there finds the King of 
' Alangitar' (Angleterre), none other than our Edward I. 
(1272-130/). With him too, our traveller discourses. Edward 
says he means to fit out a crusade, and boasts (at that time he 
could) that in all Western Europe, though there be many king- 
doms and governments, there is but one religion. This is the 
farthest point Sauma reached. To travel from Pekin to Gas- 
cony in the 13th century is indeed an astounding feat. On 
his way back he stops again at Rome, finds Nicholas IV. elected 
(1288-1292), and pays homage to him with exceeding reverence. 
Mcholas is ' the Lord Pope, Katholikos, Patriarch of the Roman 
lands and of all Western people.' * He asks and obtains leave 
to celebrate his liturgy in Rome. The people say . " The lan- 
guage is different, but the rite is the same." Clearlv they were 
no great scholars in liturgy. On Palm Sundav Sauma attends 
the 1 ope s Mass and receives Holy Communion from him. This 
is probably the only time in history that a Nestorian has done 
so He sees and describes all the Holy Week services in 
Lome. The Pope gives him relies ' because you have come 
trom so far.' He had apparentlv received money from everv- 
cme after the manner of Nestorians who come to Europe. At 
last he arrives home again and tells all his adventures to 
Arson Khan, ' who was glad and exalted with joy.' " 8 

JHow interesting pages such as I hese, saved from the wreck 

1 Honoris IV. (died : April 3, 1287). 
tl.i* Une wou l« not, of course, expect a Nestorian to admit more than 
, 1a ♦? D the sur P ris e of seeing this Chinese Christian seems to have 

made the Ko mans easily satisfied with hjs position •> {A jM_\\as Mar 

Bauma of Chinese origin or a Syrian born in China ? 

t~ m VV ' orte8cue » The ls *»er Eastern, Churches, pp. 98-!»!». referring 
to ( habot s Htrtoire de Mar J„b Alaha, op. cit. 

1923. j St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 213 

of time! If the history of Christianity in India before th< 
Portuguese is to make any advance, it is to the Syrians, both 
in Malabar and Mesopotamia, and to Italy that we have to 
look. Even the Chinese annals at times throw light on the 
Christians of India 

John de Mandeville does not appear to have copied from 
anyone when he wrote of Quilon : " Thither go merchants 
often from Venice to buy pepper and ginger." ' The period 
then between Marco Polo and the Portuguese, a period for 
which nearly al] our European accounts of India were written 
by Italian merchants and missionaries, could be enriched by new 
itineraries from Italy. Other European countries too could be 
made yet to bring their tribute to the altar of knowledge : for we 
may well think that what attracted still many Christians to 
India before the Portuguese was, not only its spices and precious 
stones, but the shrine of St. Thomas. 

Angelo de Gubernatis writes in his St or ia dei Viaggiatori 
Italiani nelle Indie Oriental*, Livorno, 1875, pp. 7-8. • After 
that time [i.e. after the Pratiea della Mercatura, by Francesco 
Balducci Pegolotti of Florence, compiled in 1335],* we have 
sundry itineraries. Of one of these, entitled Iter eunti de 
\ enetiis ad Indiam 9 abi jacet corpus beati Thomae Apostoli 
[Itinerary for one going from Venice to India, where rests the 
body of the Blessed Apostle Thomas], there exists a MS. codex 
in the Magliabechiana. The itinerary shows the way by 
Rhodes, Jerusalem, Gaza, Salara, Aidab, Adam. Monte Mar . 
Ethiopia [sic), Charam ( €t now, in that city are crowned all the 
kings who are subject to Prester John (qui Presto Jokanni sunt 
subditi. They say also that in that town there is a finer basi- 
lica than any to be found in the whole world ").. Anghuda, 
Schiahua s (" in four days you might finish your journey up to 
India, where rests the body of the venerable and glorious 
Apostle St. Thomas, through whom the Lord God shows in- 
numerable miracles. For many reasons it is difficult for anyone 
to go farther. And few foreigners who go farther return 
thence.") * Evidently the compiler of this itinerary, besides 

1 Quoted from Yule's Friar Jordan <i, p. xv. 

* Yule in his Hobson- Jobson, 1st. edn., p. xli, says it was written c. 
1343, and M published by Gian Francisco Pagnini del Ventura of Vol term 
hi hie work Delia Decima, etc., Lisbone e Lucca (really Florence). 1786 &6, 
4 vols., 4to. Of this work it. constitutes the 3rd volume. Extracts trans- 
lated in Cathay and the Way (hither, q v. The 5th volume is a similar 
work by O. Uzzano, written c. 1440." At p. xlv, Yule calls Uzzano's 
book Pratiea della Mercatura, and savs it forms the 4th vol. of Della 
Dec una. 

* -Might Anghuda be Aogediva, an island at some distance from 
Goa? In that case. Schiahua is perhaps the Shikali of Abulfeda, the 
^>'rigilin of Odoric, i.e., Cranganore. Cf Yule's Cathay, 1866, If. 455. 

* So then the Venetian travellers whom John do Mandeville brings 
to Quilod would have gone to pav their respect* to Hesse* Bl, Thomas, 
anci that was for mo*t of them the Ultima Thule of the East. 

214 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923. J 

being a very ignorant person, never saw India. 1 It would, 
however, be interesting if we had the explanation of the 
words which the itinerary savs should be known bv one 
travelling between Jerusalem and the country of Prester John 
Presto Giovanni) ; to my knowledge, they are certainly neither 
Arabic, nor Turkish, nor Indian, nor similar to anv of those 
languages. The author of the itinerary says they belong to 
the Ethiopic language ; I should think they are Persian, 
because of the word fars used for ' horse/ which, though called in 
Persian tsp (Sanscr. agva ; Zend, agpa) t might have been 
designated as ' Persian,' since the best horses were brought 
from Persia ; but, as for the other words in the itinerary, 
either they do not sound at all like Persian, or, if they do, as 
perhaps the word ckabuL we cannot find in Persian anything 
coming near their meaning.' 2 Of the same time probably 
there is in the Riccardiana (cod. 1910) another itinerary by a 
certain Ci Friar Antonio, the companion of a certain Friar Thom- 
maso, who had been in the Indies." 

de Gubernatis (op. cit., p. 98) still mentions a? dedicated 
to Philip of Valois a Directorium ad faciendum passagium 

transmartnum per quemdam fratrem O.P. scribentem experta et 
visa potius quam audita [Directory for the journey across sea, 
published by a certain Friar of the Order of Preachers, who 
writes of what he has experienced and seen rather than of 
what he has heard.] 

These are only some of the many sources yet unexplored 
by our historians. There are besides a number of legendaries, 
such as John of Base's Itinerary, the contents of which about 
St. Thomas, borrowed may be from earlier works and however 
extravagant, could perhaps be made to yield meanings unsus- 
pected heretofore. 3 

Such work, must we say it. cannot be attempted in India. 
It requires another Yule in Europe. 

1 That should be examined. At any rate, hia descriptions of Malabar 
and Mylapore would be worth having, even if obtained at second-hand. 

2 "Anyhow, those wishing to consult the said codex of the Maglia- 
»echiana, will find it marked in the Catalogue with the numbers II, I"i 
109."— Note by de Gubernatis. 

3 He claims, however, to have visited the East. Cf. Yule's Cathay, 
II (1866), p. 326. 



Additional Note 

k-i * 

While this paper was going through the press, it was but 
natural that many new passages should come in my way, which 
might have been made use of to elucidate my subject. In 
Calcutta, in January 1923. I found much curious material in 
John de Mandeville's book of wonders, a veritable hotch-potch 
of old and new, real and unreal,, personal and borrowed, in pro- 
portions to me unverifiable. Then during a journey to the 
South, which brought me back to Mylapore and Trichinopoly, 
certain things struck me as worthv of record. These results 
are embodied in these further notes, and the headings will 
readily enable the reader to see their connection with the sub- 
ject of my paper. 

P. 159. 1. No fly sits on putrified meat at the place where 
St. Thomas ivas first buried. — Sir John de Mandeville has 
something more or less to the same effect in connection with 
the Convent of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai: Ch. 5 [P. 73] 
In that Abbey entereth no fly, neither Toads nor Newts, nor 
such fowl venomous Beasts, neither Lice nor Fleas, bv the 
Miracle of God and of our Lady. For there were wont to be so 
many such manner of [P. 74] Filths, that the Monks were in 
Will to leave the Place and the Abbey, and were gone from 
thence upon the Mountain above to eschew that Place ; and our 
Lady came to them and bade them turn again, and from thi 
forwards never entered such Filth in that Place amongst them 
nor never shall enter hereafter/' 

Cf. Constable's edition, 1895. Have the>e remarks also 
been copied from William of Boldensele. and are they to be 
found in Schiltberger ? 

P. 158. 2. The lamp at St. Thomas' tomb not esetinguished 

by the wind — A similar notion prevailed in England in the 
Middle Ages with regard to lamps within tombs. I find in 
] lore* Catholici, or Ages of Faith, bv H. Kenelm Digby, Vol. I 
New Vork ; Benziger Bros'., 1905, p. 811 :— 

" Camden and Weever relate that, at the suppression 
and demolition of the abbeys in York, burning lamp- were 
found in many tombs the flame of which it was said conld not 
he extinguished by wind or water. 

"This practice seems to have greatly struck the poetic 
""agination of the Minstrel, who has so grandly described the 
midnight opening of the grave of Michael Scott in Melrose 
Abbev : — 

Lo, warrior I now the cross of red 
Points to the grave of the mighty dead ; 

216 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XIX, 

Within it burns a wondrous light, 

To chase the spirits that love the night. 

"These are the monk's words to Sir William of Delorain. 
And when the grave -stone has been raised, we read, of the 
lamp within the tomb, that — 

No earthly flame blazed e'er so bright. 
It shone like Heaven's own blessed light, 
Showed the monk's cowl, and visage pale, 
Danced on the dark-brow'd warrior's mail, 
And kissed his waving plume. 

it is still a common practice among the Christians ot 
Southern India to burn lamps on tombs. Armenian graves 
often have a niche to keep lamps in Whether the practice 
came from Europe or from Asia, I cannot say. It was 
very prevalent in the West, as we see in H. Kenelm Digby, 
op. cit. y pp. 810-811 : 

" The body of the blessed St. Francis is placed in a 
vault under the Marble Chapel in the great Church of 
Assisi. It stands in an upright posture ; but the vault 
having been shut by Gregory IX, no one can enter to 
behold it. A small opening, however, is left, through which a 
person may look by the light of a lamp burning in it. In the 
Convent of the Poor Clares of Assisi, in a vault under the high 
altar, lies the body of St. Clare, with a lamp burning before the 
opening into it. This was an ancient custom as may be 
collected from the mode of episcopal burial in the thirteenth 
century, according to the description of the tomb of the Bishop 
of Angers. He was buried in the mitre in which he had been 
consecrated, his crosier was by his side, and on his breast was 
placed the chalice, and a le*ad paten, containing wine and 
bread, and. in this instance, behind his head there was a kind 
of channel in which was a lamp lighted with oil, so that, when 
the sarcophagus was closed, the light of that burning lamp 
-hone within upon the body through the opening. (Guillelmi 
Majoris Episcopi Andegav. Gesta apud Dacher. Spicileg. 
Tom. X.)" 

P. 154. 3. No heretic or infidel can live among the Chris- 
tans at the place whence came the Patriarch of the Indians about 
1 124.— Compare with this a statement in Sir John de 
Mandeville, where it is the other way about. " That is the 
best City that the Emperor of Persia hath in all his Land. 
And they call it Charabago and others call it Vapa. And the 
Pavnims say that no Christian Man may long dwell or endure 
with his Life in that Citv, but dieth within short Time, and 
no man knoweth the Cause." Ch. H. p. 182, of Constables 
edition, 1895. 

This curious reliection is also to be found in Friar Odoric, 
but in connection with the town of Yezd in the great Persian 



1923] St, Thomas and San Thome, My la pore. l> 1 7 

desert. ' ; This is the third best city which the Emperor of the 
Persians possesses in his whole realm. The Saracens say of it 
that no Christian is ever able to live in it beyond one vear. 
And there be many other matters there." Of. Yule, Cathay 
and the way thither, Vol. 1, 1866, p. 52. 

The Charabago of de Mandeville must be Karabagh of 
Persia, built bv Timur. 

P. 170. 4. Oil from Church lamps Mil! considered sacred at 
San Thome. — On January 17, H)2;{ r as I was kneeling before 
the crypt of St. Thomas* tomb at San Thome Cathedral, during 
my thanksgiving after Mass, 1 noticed that a small Tamil 
boy, whose mother had just received Holy Communion and was 
kneeling daily near the railing of the crypt, went to one of the 
lamps burning at the railing, dipped into the oil the tip of his 
Hnger. next touched himself with it in the centre of the fore- 
head, and then went to do the same to his mother, who went 
on with her prayers in her prayer-book, as if nothing were the 
matter. My mind flew back eight centuries, to Mar John UI.'s 
own curious days, though, doubtless, what I had witnessed was 
j just a common practice all over Southern India among our Chris- 

tians, yet a practice connecting them somehow with the 
St. Thomas Christians of Malabar. A little later, a sacristan 
came with a tiny cup, took with it some of the oil in the burning 
lamps, and carried it off to the sacristy, evidently for some 
person or other who had asked for it. Greatly interested. 
I counted the lamps at the brass railing (four of them, with 

j brackets for another four), and I noted the occurrence in my 


P. 173. 5. Receiving Holy Communion horn the Iannis of 
>maaes.~ The Emperor Michael II. (820-829), in his letter to 
l-ouis the Pious, describes the excesses of the image worship- 
pers : "They have removed the holy cross from the church 


Hid replaced it by images before which they burn incense 
They sing psalms before these images, prostrate themselves 
before them, implore their help. Many dre up images in linen 
iarments and choose them as god-pa-ent> for their children. 
Others who become monks forsaking the old tradition, accord- 
ing to which the hair that is shorn off is received bv some 
! languished person, let it fall into the hands of >"ine image. 
^ome priests scrape the paint off images, mix it with the con- 
ecrated bread and wine and give it to the faithful. Others 
'lace the body of the Lord in the hands of images from which it 
w taken by the communicants. Others again, despising the 
churches, celebrate Divine Service in private house- using 
an mage as an altar.*' (Mansi. XIV. 414-422. Hefele-Leclerq, 
HI. 2,612.) Of. Cath. EncycL, New York. VII. 66N b.c. 

P 174. 6. The tarih taken from 8t. Thomas' tomb ? >• 

found replaced the next day. — Compare with a statement in Sir 
John de Mandeville. "And there nigh [the City of Acre in 

218 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Palestine] is the Fobs of Mennon that is all round; and it is 
100 Cubits of Largeness, and it is all full of Gravel shining 
bright, of the which Men make fair and clear Verres (or 
Crystal Glasses). And Men come from far, by Water in Ships. 
and by Land with Carts, to fetch of that Gravel. And though 
there be never so much taken away thereof in the Day, at the 
Morrow it is as full again as ever it was; and that is a great 
Marvel. .." Ch. 5. p. 42 of Constable's edition., 1895. 

P. 176. 7. Swearing by the hand of St Thomas.— The 
passage reads thus in John de Mandeville's archaic English 
(Ch. 16. Of the Domes made by seynt Thomas...): "From 
that Contree men passen by many Marches toward a Contree, 
a^ 10 joumeyes thens, that is clept Mabaron ; and it is a gret 
Kyngdom, and it hath many faire Cytees and Townes In 
that Kingdom lithe the body of sevnt Thomas the Apostle, in 
Flesche and Bon, in a faire Tombe in [P. 172] the Cytee of 
Calamye : for there he was martyred and burved. And men 
of Assirie bceren his Bodye into Mesopotayme, in to the 
Cytee of Edisse, and aftre, he was brought thidre azen. And 
the Arm and the Hond, (that he putte in oure Lordes syde ; 
whan he appered to him, aftre his Resurrexioun, and seyde to 
him, Noh esse incredulus, set ' fidelis is zit lyggynge in a vessel 
with outen the Tombe. And be that Hond thei maken alle 
here Juggementes, in the Contree, whoso hathe righte or wrong. 
For whan ther is ony dissentioun between 2 partves. and every 
of him meyntenethe his Cause, and sevth, that his Cause is 
nghtfulle. and that other sevthe the contrarve, thanne bothe 
partyes writen here Causes in 2 Billes, and putten hem in the 
Hond of seynt Thomas ; and anon he castethe awav the Bille 
of the wrong Cause and holdethe stitle the Bille with the righte 
Cause. And therefore men comen from fer Contrees to have 
Juggement of doutable [P. 173] Causes; and other Judgement 
a sen thei non there. Also the Chirche, where seynt Thomas 
lythe is bothe gret and fair, and alle fulle of grete Simulacres : 
and tho ben grete Y mages, that thei clepen here Goddes ; of the 
whiche, the leste is als gret a> 2 men." Cf. The Voia 

Travaile of Sir John de Maundeville, Kt Reprinl 

the edition of A.D. 1725. J. Ha Hi well. . . . London 

M. DCCC. LXVL pp. 171-^173. 

On January 30, 1923, as mv diary testifies, 1 related 
this very story of St. Thomas' hand to the Bishop of Macao, 
who had arrived from Cochin the day before, after his visit t< 
the Exposition of St. Francis Xaviers bodv at Goa, and who 
was about to leave us the next day for Macao. Much surprised 
the Bishop remarked that, at the Catholic Syrian Church at 
\leppey, he had noticed a hand holding a cross" issuing from the 
pulpit. It was my turn to be surprised. The Bishop had 


a n d 

1 Sic 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 219 

asked for the meaning of the hand, and had been told that it 
was a symbol of evangelisation, whereupon I suggested that, 
if His Lordship had pressed hard for an answer to the question, 
'• Of whose evangelisation ? " the answer might have been (c Of 
St Thomas.*' Possibly, the Malabar Christians would swear 
by the hand and the cross above the pulpit in their churches, 
or lay in the hand their bills of contention, call it St. Thomas' 
hand, and, when asked for further explanation, relate the story 
of St. Thomas' hand, which would not hide itself in the tomb 
at Mylapore. Later on. when the pulpit and the emblem at 
Mylapore had disappeared, they would say that the hand had 
disappeared in the grave, because the Chinese, or some Hindu, 
or Muhammadan prince wanted to cut (?) off. 

P. 170ft. 1. 8. Lamps relighting of themselves. Schiltberger 
and Mandeville copying William of Boldensele apparently 
What I quoted from John Schiltberger about lamps at the 
Convent of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai and at the HoI\ 

Sepulchre is also found earlier in de Mandeville, chs. 5 and 7. 


Ch. 5. [P. 72] " Also, when the Prelate of the Abbey [of 

St. Catherine's, Mount Sinai] is dead I [P. 73] have understood. 

I by Information, that his Lamp quencheth. And when they 

choose another Prelate, if he be a good Man and worthy to be 
Prelate, his Lamp shall light with the Grace of God without 
touching of any Man. For every one of them hath a Lamp to 
himself and by their Lamps they know well when any of them 
shall die. For when any one shall die. the Light beginneth to 
change and to wax dim ; and if he be chosen to be Prelate, 
and is not worthy, his Lamp quencheth anon... 

Ch. 7. [P. 93]. "And there is a Lamp that hangeth 
before the Sepulchre [of Our Lord at Jerusalem], that burnetii 
alight, and on the Good Friday it goeth out by himself, 
and lighteth again bv himself at that Hour that Our Lord ros 
from Death to Life/' 

These quotations are from Constable's edition of d< 
Mandeville. 1895. 

H. Yule {Encycl. Britann., 9th edition, XV, 474-475) state- 
that much of de Mandeville'fl account of Egypt, of the Convent 
of Mount Sinai, and of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is on 
the lines of the itinerary of the German knight William of 
Boldensele, written in 13:;6 at the desire of Cardinal Talleyrand 
de Perigord, and published in the Thesaurus of Canisius, 1004, 
V. pt. II, p. n:>, and in the edition of the same by Basnage, 


The Dinteeling Advertiser, July 4, 1923, gives an account of 
ft bonk. Men. Beasts and Gods, published by Edward Arnold, in 
which the author, a Russian, Dr. Ferdinand Ossendowski. who 
i* -uspeeted of being a regular Munchausen, says of the Tashi 
Lama of Tibet that at his command " the lamps and candles 
before the ancient statue of Buddha light themselves, and the 

220 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

ikons of the gods begin to speak and prophesy." We quote 
this Russian only to show how the legend of lamps relighting 
of themselves has perhaps persisted in his own Church. If the 
Russian reported correctly what he heard, we might have again 
here for Tibet a case of borrowing from Nestorianism, or an 
early belief common to many Eastern religions, 

P. 178. 9. Chinese {Christians {) coming on pilgrimages 
to St. Thomas' tomb before A.D. 1500. — The following is taken 
from a rare work printed at only 25 copies : The Italian 
version of a Letter from the King of Portugal (Doni 
Manuel) to the King of Castille (Ferdinand). Written in 1505 , 
giving an account of the voyages to and conquests in the East 
Indies from 1500 to 1505 A.D./ Reprinted from the Copy/ 
(printed by J. Besicken at Rome in 1505)/ in the Marciana 
Library at Venice, (one of the three now in existence), with 
Notes, etc. ; by/ A. C. Burnell. Ph.D./ London ; Printed— not 
for sale — by Messrs. Wyman ft Sons, Is? I. 

After referring to the arrival at Cochin, on Dec. 23, 1500, 
of the second armada under Pedralvares CabraL the writer 
mentions the St. Thomas Christians of Malabar and tells us 
what the Portuguese learned from them about St. Thomas' 
tomb. [P, 6'.] " De li inteseno che il corpo de santo Thoma 
e lontano da Cuchin CL leghe alia costa del mare in vna cittade 
chiamata Mailapur de pocho popolo & portorno terra de la 
sua sepultura : la quale per li molti miraculi e frequentata da 
christiani & da tutte quelle nationi. Et cusi hanno portati 
qui dui christiani sacerdoti : li quali con licentia del suo plado 
sono venuti per andare a Roma & in Jerusalem: p'che 

teneno che li EcclTa d'santo Pietro sia meglio gouernata ch' la 
loro. Preterm inteseno che vltra la dicta casa cVsancto Thoma sono 
molte populationi de christiani ; li quali veneno in peregrinatione 
al dicto sancto. Sono homini bianchi & de capetti zalli: ochi 
rerdi: ds fortissmi : la lor principal terra chiatnono Makhina : 
doue veneno vasigrandi & belli de porcellana : muschio : ambra : 
& legna aloes ch' hano dal fiume Gange ch'e fra loro." 

Malchina is of course Mahachina, or Great China, and the 
two Christian priests who had come to Portugul were Syrians, 
Joseph (known as Josephus Indus) and his brother Matthew. 
Josephus Indus is made tosav in Itinerarium Portugallensium, 
Milan, 1508, (f. LXXXIII, in Ch. CXXXIII) : ' Christiani 
mnes indi : et regni cataii : eorum pontiles catholic* 

dioitur praeficit patriarchal suos, ut dictO est, alterum in 

india : in cataio alterum." 

P. 180. 10. St. Thomas in the sea.— In ZeiUchrift der 

Morgevliindischen Gesellschaft, Vol XXX. pp. 2G0-405, 

R. Schrdter published Jacob of Sarug's letter to the Himyante 
Christians of Najran. Among the notes at p. 586, Schroter 
speak- of a variant in Cod. Nitr. V (now numbered: Cod. 
Syr. J 17), verse 120, from which I gather that some one 


1923.] St Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 221 

(St. Thomas or Gondophares ?) asked whether it was possible 
to build without foundations in the sea. This would .suit the 
Malabar legends of Gondophares' palace now buried in the sea 
at Mylapore. It would not suit the palace built by St. Thoma- 
at a town of Gondophares far inland on the side of Sind. 

The idea of Julai, Tathagata, or Nyorai, a title corres- 
ponding in China and Japan to the Christian Messiah, dates 
from the time when Nagarjuna, a native of Western India, 
received the hidden doctrine from an iron tower below the sea 
in Southern India. Cf. Mrs. E. A. Gordon, World-Healers or 
the Lotus (Jos pel and its Bodhisattvas, 2 vols.. Tokyo, The 

Marusen Kabushiki-Kaisha (after 1912). pp. 12, 18, 20, 29n. 1, 


P. 189. 11. The vine of St. Thomas and the vine of 
St John. — Sir John de Mandeville speaks of a vine planted 
by St. John on Mount Sinai. " And then nigh [the Chapel 
of Elijah the Prophet] is the Vine that Saint John the Evan- 
gelist planted, that Men call Raisins (Staphis)." Ch. 5, p. 74 
in Constable's edition, 1895.— Staphis, from the Greek, ara^uArj, 
a bunch of grapes. 

J P. 198. 12. Pr ester John's sixty -two kingdoms. — Mrs. E. A. 

y Cordon in her Asian Cristology, p. 163, a work not now with 

me. has a passage on the 62 warring tribes of China. Numer- 
ous other passages on the same number, or on the number 72, 

may probably be found elsewhere, judging from faint recollec- 

untain of uouth visited hit Sir John 

tions of my late readings. 

P. 205. 13. The f 
de Mandeville. — We read in The Marvellous Adventures of Sir 
John Maundeville. Kt., Westminster, Archibald Constable and 
Co., 1895, Ch. 15. p. 206. 

ki And at the Foot of that Mount [a great mount called 
Polombe near the city of Polombe, which is Coolant, Quilon | 
is a fair Well and a" great, that hath Odour and Savour of 
all Spices. And at every Hour of the Day hechangethhUiOdour 
and his Savour diverselv. And whoso drinketh 3 Times of 
that water of that Well 

Sickness that he [P. 207] hath. And they that dwell there and 
drink often of that Well they never have Sickness; and they 
seem always young. I have drunken thereof 3 or 4 Times, and 
methinketh I fare the better yet. Some Men call it the ' Well 
of Youth/ For they that often drink thereof seem always 
young-like, and live, without Sickness. And Men say that Well 
Cometh out of Paradise, and therefor it is a virtuou 

It strikes me now, that, if Sir John did not here copy 
from Prester John's letter, he may indeed have been in India, 
on the side of Quilon He is probably more explicit than 
Prester John in his mention of Polombe. It may very wrell 
have been that near some Christian Church of the St. Thoma^ 
Christians the water of a irell was credited with marvellous 


222 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

properties. The Malabar Christians by saying that it issued 
from Paradise would have spoken of Ceylon. 

The place with the Well of Youth was possibly Maleatur. 
a sanctuary in Malabar, dedicated to St. Thomas the Apostle, 
and situated on the top of a mountain. Perhaps it has even 
yet a well at the top or at the foot, like the fountain at the 
top of Little Mount, San Thome, Mylapore. The latter is said 
to owe its origin to St. Thomas, who. while preaching on the 
rock of Little Mount to great multitudes, took pity on them 
and, striking the rock with his staff, caused a copious source 
to issue forth at which his hearers slaked their thirst. The 
water is believed to have miraculous properties. 

I think the more readily of a Christian well in Malabar, as 
there are in Malabar wells or springs considered to be mira- 
culous. I found half a dozen wells with crosses at San Thome 
and in the vicinity of (Great) St. Thomas Mount. Mylapore. 
One such well, at the very foot of St. Thomas Mount, had 
40 crosses in the 20 rings of the brickwork. The crosses were 
in pairs, the two at the top being disposed, say, east and west, 
and the two in the ring below facing north and south. Crosses 
were evidently placed in wells to communicate to the water a 
special virtue of wholesomeness. And the custom at Mylapore 
is evidently a survival of a similar custom once prevalent among 
the pre- Portuguese St. Thomas Christians of Coromandel. 

P. 201. 14. Deserted Babylon and the body of the Prophet 
Daniel.— A similar description of the desert is to be found in 
Friar Jordanus : " Of Caldea I will say not much, but yet 
what is greatly to be wondered at, to wit, that in a place of 
that country stood Babylon, now destroyed and deserted, 
where are hairy serpents and monstrous animals. In the same 
place also, in the night season, are heard such shoutings, such 
bowlings, such hissings, that it is called Hell. There no one 
would dare to pass a single night, even with a great army, on 
account of the endless terrors and spectres." Cf. Mirabiha 
descripia, The wonders of the East, by Friar Jordanus, translated 
by H. Yule, London, Hakluyt Society, 1863, eh. 9, p. 49. 

Yule has not suggested that John de Mandeville copied 
anywhere Friar Jordanus. yet we find similar reflections in the 
worthy Knight. " But it is full long since that any Man durst 
oigh to the Tower of Babel, for it is all deserted and full of 
Dragons and great Serpents, and full of diverse venomous* 
Beasts all about." Ch. 5, pp. 50-51 of Constable's edition, 
1895. FF 

Friar Odoric says that he passed by the tower of Babel, but 
he does not allude to the horrors of the place. Cf. Yules 
Cathay and the way thither, 1886, vol. 1, p. 54. 

In Ch. 29, p. 370 (Constable's edition, 1895), Sir John de 
Mandeville speaks of the trees of the sun and moon which 
*pake to King Alexander and warned him of his death. These 


1023.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 223 

trees were in a desert, in which was the fruit of the balm which, 

when eaten, made men live 400 or 500 years. The desert is 

described thus, and seems to be the Desert of Babylon again : 

'' We would have gone toward the Trees full gladly, if we had 

might. But I trow that 100,000 Men of Arms might not pass 

the Deserts safely, for the great Multitude of wild Beasts and 

of great Dragons and of great Serpents that there be, that slay 

and devour ali that come anent them." 

On the trees that spake to Alexander see Yule's Marco Polo 
(1875). 11. 131 ff. 

P. 202. 15. Amazon* in Southern India. — The subject of 
bodies of fighting women at the courts of Indian Prince-, 
chiefly in the South, is one that turned up so repeatedly in 
the course of my readings that I considered it useless to note 
references. However, on February 16, 1923, the last day 
I spent at St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. I noted in one of 
the books of the library {Descriptive and Historical Papers 
relating to the Seven Pagodas, edited by Capt. M. W. Carr, 
| Madras, 1889, pp. 60-61) a picture of a three armed woman 

who had only one breast, the left one. My notes show that 
two of her arms were right arms, one of which was raised or 
blessing, while the other held a battle-axe. What the third arm 
was doing, I did not note. Above her head was an inscription, 
perhaps her name Did not the Amazons burn their right 
breast to be more dextrous in handling the bow ? This sculp- 
j tured woman had no bow, however. 

What struck me most in the pictures of that book was the 
| typically Egyptian look of many of the figures, a point not 

I sufficiently commented on, I believe, by the writers of those 

' papers. And those sculptures appeared to be fully two thou- 

■tad years old ! 

P. 202. 16. Premier John's two carbuncles shining at 
night. — John de Mandeville says something similar about the 
Emperor of Cathay. "The Emperor hath in his Chamber, in 

one of the Pillars of Gold, a Ruby and a Carbuncle of half a 
foot long, that in the Night giveth so great Lustre and Shin- 
ing that it is as light as Day." Ch. 22, p. 295, in Constable's 

edition. 1895. 

The accounts of the ruby in the possession of the King of 
Ceylon, written by Marco Polo and tbn Batata, are perhaps 
worth quoting Says Marco: * The King [of Ceylon] has the 
most beautiful ruby that ever was or can be in the whole 

world. It is the most splendid object on earth, and seems to 
glow like fire : it is of such value as money could scarcely 

purchase." Cf. Mirabilia desert pta, The Wonders of the 

East, by Friar Jordanus, translated by H. Yule, London, 

Haklu; • >. cietv, 1863, p. 30»- 2. quoting Marco Polo, III, 17. 

And Ibn Batata: "I also iw in the pofi ession of the 
King [of Ceylon] a saucer made of ruby, as large a- the palm 

224 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX. 

of the hand, in which he kept oil of aloes. I was much sur- 
prised at it, when the king said to me. " We have much larger 
than this " Ibid, p. 30n. 2 quoting Ibn Batuta. p. 187. 

On January 15. 1923. in the evening, while driving with 
-Mgr. A. M. Teixeira from Fort St. George'along the Marina to 
Sm Thome, Mylapore. I wondered at two bright red lights 
shining from a high tower in the distance, and I was told bv 
my companion that the light came from Government House 
arid indicated that the Governor was at home. Might not 
this simple fact, I thought, help us to understand Prester 
John's two carbuncles illuminating the night '. 

P. 198. 17. In my country no poisons liurt, said Prester 
John. There are no thieves or murderers.— A n old boast. Of the 
Isle of Bragman, or the Brahmans, visited bv Alexander, we 
read in Sir ohn de Mandeville : " In that Tsle is no Thief, nor 
Murderer, nor Common Woman, nor poor Beggar, nor ever 
was Man slain in that country... And because thev be so true 
and so righteous, and so full of all good Conditions', thev were 
never grieved with Tempests, nor with Thunder, nor with 
Lightning, nor with Hail, nor with Pestilence, not with War, 
nor with Hunger, nor with anv other Tribulations as we be. 
many Times, amongst us, for 'our Sins." Ch. 29, p. 363 of 
Constables edition, 1895. Compare also with the Latin 
passage quoted from the Si-ngan-fu stele, in additional note. 

Could Sir John de Mandeville's text be traced back to any 
ot the texts on india collected by MCrindle ? I have failed 
to trace it in the index of MCrindle's Ancient India. West- 
minster, A. Constable, 1901. 

P. 205. IN. Prester John's truth-re (feeling mirror. —The 
idea seems to be an Eastern one. judging from what Mrs. E. 
A. Gordon has to say in several of her books. I refer the 
curious to the index of her World-Healers and of her anony- 
mous I he Temples of the Orient. London. Kegan Paul. Trench, 
Irubiier & Co., 1902. ' Note that in the Pilgrim's Progress 
[by Hunyan] a Magic Mirror in the Shepherd"s Palace is de> 
cnbed which reveals the Soul to itself, and also reflects the 
very face of the Prince of Pilgrims himself, because a similar 
Mirror is found in Shinto and in Buddhist temples with 
tmddna at the Prow of the Sacred Boat, which bears the 
•Mikoshi across the sea at Mivajima, and on the reverse side a 
scene from '.o,U>r/A„— Paradise, or else the Buddha himself!" 
U. Mrs. E. a. Gordon. W orld -Healers. II 377. 

t- 204. 19. Passages in the -Si-ngan-fu stele similar 
to passages in Prester John's letter.— " Juxta Occidentalium 
regionum illustratani memoriam, et Han Weique historicos 
codices, Magnae T'sin regnum. meridie comprehendit rubri 
coralli o Mare, septentrione attingit omnis pretiosi o montes, 

occidente spectat Immortalium fines floridasque sylvas ; 

onente excipit con tinen tern ventnm debilesque aquas. Eju- 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 225 

terrilorium producit igne abluendam telam, revocam animam 
aroma, claritatis lunaris uniones, noctuque radiant ess gemmas. 




Of. Varietes Sinolog iques , No. 20; Lr? Sti'e chretienne de 
Si-7igan-fou, 1 1 I e partie, par le P. Henri Havret, S. J., Chang- 
Hai ? lmprimerie de la Mission Oatholique, Orpheliiiat de Tou- 
se-we, 1902, p 57, col. 1. 

The o's al>ove represent a Chinese character in the stele. 
At p. 59. ibid, it is said of Kien-ichong : *' Face praeest 

hominuni secretioribus, speculo inlnetur rerum varietates. 

3 * 

Is not the last expression. ci speculo intuetur rerum 
varietates/' echoed by the mirror in which Prester John 
could discern everything that went on in his dominions, and 
detect conspiracies ? 

P. 206. 20. Sir John de Mandeville quoting Prester J r ohn r s 
letter. — Even after H. Yule's note of warning in the Kncyclo- 
paedia Britannica, Vol XV. pp 473-475 (9th edition), m\ 
ideas of Sir John de Mandeville received a severe shock when I 
caught him copying whole passages from Prester John's letter. 
In eh. 27, of Constable's edition, 1895, we read : 

[P :i:!8.] " For in this Country [of Prester John, divided 
into 12 provinces] l is the Sea that Men call the Gravelly Sea 
that is all Gravel and Sand, without any Drop of water, and it 
ehbeth and floweth in great Waves as other Seas do, and it is 
never still nor at Peace, in any manner of Season. And no 
Man may pass that Sea by Ship" nor by any manner of Craft 
and therefore may no Man know what Land is beyond that 
Sea. And albeit that it have no Water yet Men find therein and 
on the Banks full good Fishes of other manner of Nature and 
Shape, that Men find in any other Sea. and they be right good 
Taste and deliciou- for Man's Meat. 

'And a 3 Davs' journev lono- from that Sea be great 
fountains, out of which goeth out a eieat [/' 341] River that 
cometh out of Paradise. And it is' full of precious Stones, 
without any Drop of Water, and it runneth through the 
Oesert on the one Side, so that it maketh the Sea gravelly : 
and it runneth into that Sea. and there it endeth. And that 
Hiver runneth, also, 3 Days in the Week and bringeth with him 
-^eat Stones and the Hocks also therewith, and that great 
Plenty. And anon, as they be entered into the Gravelly Sea. 
they be seen no more, but lost for evermore. And in those 

, * -The number 12 plavs a great part in Mandeville \s account of China ; 

U ^ oes in Odoric's and .Marco Tolo's. According to de Mandeville 
Wi 22 (p. 2m of Constable's edn , 1895). the Empire of the Great Khan i 
tfmded into 12 provinces with 12 principal kings (sea also Ch 19, p. 260) 
tne City of Cassay had 12 principal gates (Ch. !!>. p. 2«5j; the City 

, ydon ,n Cathav had \2 gates, and between every two urates there irai 
*iwajn a great mile (Ch. 20, p. 265). 

226 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

3 Days that thatRiver runneth, no Man dare enter into it: but 
on other Days Men dare enter well enough. 

" Also beyond that River, more upwards to the Deserts, 
is a great Plain all gravelly, between the Mountains. And in 
that Plain, every Day at the Sun- Rising, begin to grow small 
Trees, and they grow till Mid- Da v. bearing Fruit, but no Man 
dare take of that Fru t for it is a thing of Faerie. And after 
Mid- Day. they decrease and enter again into the Earth, so 
that at the going down of the Sun they appear no more. And 
bo they do, every Day. And that is a' great Marvel.' 

" In that Desert be many Wild Men. that be hideous to 
look on ; tor they speak nought, but thev grunt, as Pigs. And 
there is also great Plenty of wild Hounds. And there be many 
Popinjays (or Parrots), that they call Psittakes* in their 
language^ And they speak of their own Nature, and say, 
"Solve/" (God <ave you!") to Men that go through the 
Deserts, and speak to [P. 342] them as freelv as though it were 
a Man that spoke. And they that speak\vell have a large 
tongue, and have 5 Toes upon a Foot. And there be also 
some of another manner, that have but 3 Toes upon a Foot, and 
they speak not, or but little, for thev cannot but cry. 8 

" He [Prester /John] dwelleth commonly in the City of 
Susa. And there is his principal Palace, that is so rich and noble 
that no Man will believe it bv Estimation, but he had seen it. 
And above the chief Tower of the Palace be 2 round 
Pommels or Ball, of Gold, and in each of them be 2 
Carbuncles great and large, that shine full bright upon 
the Night. And the principal Gates of his Palace be of prec- 
ious Stone that Men call Sardonvx, and the Border and the 
Bars be of Ivory. And the Windows of the Halls and Cham- 
bers he of Crystal. And the Tables whereon Men eat. some be 
ot Emeralds, some of Amethyst, and some of Gold, full of prec- 
ious Stones; and the Pillars that bear up the Tables be 
of the same precious Stones. And of the Steps to go up to 
hi- rhrone. where he sitteth at Meat, one is of Onyx, another i- 
of Crystal, and another of green Jasper, another of Amethyst, 
another of Sardine, another of Cornelian, and the 7th, that he 
-etteth his Feet on, is of Chrysolite. And all these Steps be 
bordered with Hue Cold with other precious Stones, set 
with great orient Pearls. And the Sides of the Seat of his 
lhrone be of Emeralds, and bordered with Gold full nobly, 

*-!i • ™ n not give any rational explanation about the trees which grew 
till mid-day even after readina Yule's lorn: notes on Arbol Sec and Arb'l 
sol in his Marco Polo. See index there, the descriptions of Arbol triste 
do not suit the case either. 
* Lat.: Psitfacus, parrot. 
There is much in r lie above paragraph which I do not remember 
having read anywhere else, and which mav be the result of actual 
travelling in some parts of India. 

1023.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 227 

and dubbed with other precious Stones and great Pearls. And 
all the Pillars in his Chamber be of fine Gold with precious 
Stones, and with many Carbuncles, that give bright upon the 
Night to all the People. And albeit that the Carbuncles give 
bight right enough, nevertheless, at all Times burnetii a Vessel 
of Crystal full of Balm, to give sweet Smell and Odour to th< 
Empeior and to void away all [P. .'114] wicked Eyes and Cor- 
ruptions. And the Form of his Bed is of fine Sapphires, bound 
with Gold, to make him sleep well and to refrain him from 
Lechery : for he will not lie with his wives, but 4 times in the 
year, according to the 4 Seasons, and that is only to engender 


"He hath also a full fair Palace and a noble at the City of 
Xyse, where that he d«elleth, when it best liketh him; but 
the Air is not so temperate, as it is at the City of Susa." 

Yule, op. cit . 475. noted that ch. 27, on the royal estate 
of Prester John, was chiefly taken from the "Letter" of 
Prester John, with something from Hayton. I can onl\ 
wonder at the discrepancies between Sir John's account and 
the text translated from Assemani. 

P. 206. 21. Prester John s letter emanating from Asia, o<t 
from Ethiopia. — We trust that our notes on Prester John's 
letter have made it clearer that it could not have been 
written from Ethiopia. The geograpy is that of Asia, and the 
legends are, we believe, those of the Xestorians in Meso- 
potamia, India and the Further East. 

P. 209n. 1 . 22. One of the Magi from the land of Thtrse. 
" The Kingdom of Cathay marcheth toward the West with the 
Kingdom of Thurse, of the which was one of the Kings that 
came to give Presents to our Lord in Bethlehem. And they 
that be of the Lineage of that King are some of them, Chris 
Hans." Cf. Sir John de Mandeville, ch. 24, p. 313, of Cons- 
table's edition, 1805. Harwell's edition of 1866 has Thar- 
instead of Thurse. Is not this borrowed from Hayton. the 
Armenian historian ? 

23. The lion and the Unicom and St. Thomas.— Another 
thing struck me greatly in the pictures of Capt. M. W. 
Carr's Descriptive and historical paper* relating to the seven 
Pagodas, op cit. Gods or goddesses, or heroes and heroine- 
are represented with the head of an animal on either sid 
of them : in one case, the head of two elephants; in another 
case, a lion and what I took at first for an ass, till I noticed 

a long slender horn in the centre of the head. Here wa 

the unicorn, and the heraldic device of the British arms, a 
lion and a unicorn, had been anticipated at the Seven Pagodas 
°v--- how many centuries? Put, then, might St. Thomas 
•)'>t have> been represented at first in ancient Christian Indian 
art with device- borrowed from symbolism such as we find 
at the Seven Pagodas, in close proximity to Mvlnpore ? 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [X.S., XIX, 

Marignolli (1349) says that he was painted in the 
Churches— and he means no doubt India -as riding on an ass, 
accompanied by two lions and two slaves, and covered 
with a mantle of peacocks' feathers. Much in this symbolism 
remains to be explained. (Yule, Cathay. II. 375.) 

In our notes on unicorns in connection with Prester 
John's cerastes, we quoted Claudius .Llianus, of the middle 
of the second century, speaking of one-homed horses and 
one-horned asses. Practically everv one of the fabulous 
animals of our Latin and Greek classics is found depicted 
on the Bharut railing in the Tndian Museum, Calcutta. Even 
the Egyptian sphinx is there. Would it not seem that the 
descriptions of the fabulous animals of India as we have them 
in our classics are merely descriptions of the fabulous animals 
ot India s sculptures ? 

A lion and a unicorn-ass on either side of St. Thomas 
might eventually have developed into the picture of the ass 
ridden by the Saint, and of two lions accompanying him. 

I he animals of the Seven Pagodas are 'apparent! v an 
extremely ancient symbolism. In Buddhist art thev" are 
generally rep aced by a small stupa (or an angel ?) on 'either 
side of a Buddha or a Boddhisattva ; in later Hindu art, bv 
angels, tutelary genii (?), often holding a scroll. The latter 
practice is perhaps sufficiently near to our times to allow one 
to think of Persian or even Christian influences. Curious 
fmty of symbolisms. The two figures at the back of the 
tjnone of Queen Victoria before the Victoria Memorial Hall, 
Calcutta seem to be a traditional artistic device derived from 
the symbohsm of the angels noticed on the statues of our 
Hindu deities. 

i • The r r , Lion and Unicor " are prominent at manv Shinto 
L«5 \u JZ y 8u PP° rt Mikado's throne at Kvoto Palace, M 

IppI H £ rf T n '" tHe R °J' aI ArmS 0f Great Britain aild 

ire ana. .Both Lion and Unicorn crouch at Buddha's feet 
al the entrance to the vast Mahavana Rock-temple at Ajanta, 

"'•*i *.. U - Mrs - E « A Gordon, World-Healers, o,, rit., 
p 331, n. o. 

H^ A i* ^ om P ira Shri »<? in Tokvo. the Lions (called "the 
ZEZtt r*.** m Am **»»" and "the Korean dog Koma-inn) 
actually the Lion and the Unicorn-at the base of the second 
lori, have crisply curled hair." Ibid, p. 444. Crisped curly 
hair i> peculiar to the lions of most of our Indian sculptures. 
PavJ t IT ™ the llnico ™ support Buddha's throne in the 
\» JSZ rJ h ? u J sand Buddhas at Tun-huang visited by Sir 

Aurel Stein, Cf. dritL p 538. 

IP a 24 "r. 8t l Tha ^ tas> fwo **«w and the two dogs of Fo.— Mrs. 
identLi ° T^ the theot '- v that the Chinese god Fo is 

hrn Uh S;lka ' i€ > uith Christ, and with St Thomas, 

1 Ugh "° me cun,lUS identification of St. Thomas ami Christ. 

1023. J St. Thomas and San Thorn?, Mylavor*. 229 

which seems to have taken place in the East in the earliest 
centuries of our era. In this theory she was anticipated more 
than a century ago by Captain F. Wilford in his wonderful paper 
on the Origin and Decline of the Christian Religion in India, 
Asiatick Researches, X (1808), pp. 27-126. 

"In a shrine at Tung-huan, Dr. Stein noted the Octagon 
base of the Chief Image and, elsewhere, found the Throne of 
Buddha supported by Lions with curled manes, which is a 
marked feature in a mandara I lately found in a little village 
temple, where Shaka, wearing the Triple Rainbow-halo, is en- 

throned on a Lotus upborne by two Naga-mermaidens, amidst 
the Signs of the Zodiac, Leo's mane being strongly curled. 3 ' 
Cf. Mrs. E. A. Gordon, World- Healers, op. cit. : p. 444. where 
she compares the fact with de Marignolli's description of St. 
Thomas in his Indian paintings. 1 A MS. note, at p. 332 of the 
copy of World-Healers which she most obligingly sent me from 
Ivioto. states that in a Korean mandara, which she found at 
Seoul, April 1913, Shaka is seated on a true lion. " Illustrated 
in my Symbols, p — " s and she compares the ' Dog of Fo\ or ' the 
Chinese Lion ' or ' the Korean Dog ' to the Lion of Shaka's tribe 

the Messiah's tribe, according to her). In her Asian Cristo- 
l°9y, a book not now at my disposal, she states repeatedly, T 
believe, that in China the dogs of Fo are called Persian dogs, 
'•£., lions, as there are no lions in China, and because, 1 fancy, 
the symbolism came from Persia. 

25. St. Thomas' mantle of peacocks' feathers and the King of 
Peacocks. — Why should St Thomas have been depicted with a 
mantle of peacock feathers ? Was it because Mylapore, where 
the St. Thomas Christians believe him to have died, means 
Mayilapur. or Peacock Town ? Or because, according to 
Marignolli (cf. Yule's Cathay, 1886, II. 375), there wen 
numerous peacocks at the place where he was shot with an 

rrow? Or because, according to Marco Polo (ibid., II. 

3.-7 ~ & l 

. 75, n. 1), the Saint being engaged in prayer in the 

middle of the peafowl, a native aimed at one of them and shot 
him ? Or, because, according to Duarte Barbosa, the Saint, 
transforming himself into a peacock, flew up, and, being shot, 
fell to the ground and there lay killed, in human form again ? 
Clearly some further notions lie concealed under the legends 
recounted by de Marignolli, Marco Polo, and Barbosa. What 
way they be ? 

M»; E. A. Gordon {World-Healers, I. 124) writes of Htten 
Tsang; << He quotes a Northern Buddhist tradition that 'in 
old time, Tathagata [i.e. Nyorai, or Messiah) was the King of 
Peacocks who brought water for his thirst-tormented followers 
out of a Rock by striking it with his beak. All afflicted ones 

[ By mistake she speaks of the two dogs, instead of the two ■ lior 

°* ot. Thomas (Jhrti n AAA \ 

omas, {Ibid., p. 444.) 

230 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

who taste, or wash in, the abundant streams which flow there- 
from are healed.' On the Rock traces of the Peacock's feet 
arc visible." ' No traces of peacock's feet are now visible at 
the Little Mount, Mylapore, the traditional site of St. Thomas' 
death ; vet traces of St. Thomas' feet are still shown (!), even 
though other such traces have disappeared since 15U0, and 
we not unnaturally think that the stories picked up by 
Hiien T'sang might have been related even in Upper India by 
Christians in connection with the well at Little Mount, where 
St. Thomas quenched the thirst of his hearers. Or again these 
stories might have been borrowed from Christians and applied 
to Buddha by his worshippers. 

There is more to be quoted from Mrs. E. A. Gordon's 
World -Healers. 'In reading Huen T'sang's records I am 
struck by a group of facts connected with that region 
[Cdayana, between Chitral and the Indus north of Gandara], 
viz., the above Story of the PEACOCK ; that of Sakra* taking 
the form of a SHEPHERD-bov and building a little TOWER 
which out-stripped in height Kanishka's great Stupa (p. 22); 
that here were visible the Foot-prints of Budhha when He 
conquered the DRAGON (pp. 151.349: [to which references 
the good old lady added in the copy presented to me : pp. 354, 
413 414 482]) ; that when famine and disease prevailed every- 
where, Buddha, filled with pity, changed His Form from that 
ot « Lord Sakra " into a great SERPENT, and called to those 
<>n every side to look, and the more the Serpent's bodv was 
cut the more they revived and were delivered from both 
amine and disease (cf. Sotoba. pp. 152, 318): and, lastly, 
the en-ect of the picture of Buddha's sufferings' when in the 
form of Vessantara, '■' the Giving King," on the Indo-Scythic 

i?n«°/ is region ( P" 16? Buddhist Records, vol. I, 
p. H9ff.) 

"All these are Mahayanist incidents, and find their 
coon erpart in the Christian Bible." Cf. op. cit , I. p. 124 n. 3. 

\. e should add to them that other striking parallel in which 
Huen I sang speaks of Buddha [S'aka(?)] as the fish giving 
his flesh to the hungry. Ibid,, p. 153. 

Much more striking parallels between Christ, or his twin 

t W T S ' and Sh5ka ' cr S'SlivShana (of the Serpentine 
mbe, whose name might yield the meaning of Cross-bearer, 

Y £rJ2 CO !VP iled b ^' Ca P fc - F. Wilford in Asiatick Researches, 
ii' "' , , V ord reaches the acme of feeling prompted by 
the remarkable nature of his own discoveries, when at p. 57. he 

p. 65. A reference is g' ven for this last statement • Travel* of FaHien, 
»' Sic. 

do»'. wZSSSSSt ' n tlU3 qUot * tion » r * ^ P- 3 *^ of M~ G - A Go1 

1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 2:U 

writes of Shaka or S'alivahana." " This Mlech'hdvatdra, or 
superior incarnation of the deity among foreign tribes, Ruma- 
desa-pati, the lord of the country of Bourn, or Rome, (because 
hi; doctrine, institutes, and laws prevail through it:) Romctca 
nagare, said to reside in Rome its metropolis, (because he is 
revered and worshipped there with unusual magnificence ;) 
'Saces'wara, the lord of a sacred period, (or as I think it 
should be understood, after whom it is denominated), is obvi- 
ously Jesus Christ ; at least it appears so to me." 

The era denominated after Salivahana is the one beginning 
in A.D. 78 (or 68 in some parts of India ?), an era introduced 
into India, says the Agni Parana (ibid., pp. 47, 54-55), at a 
period corresponding to the year 676 of Christ, i.e., at the time 
when the Christian era began to get adopted in Christendom. 

In February 1924, the Catholic Syrian Bishop of Kottayam 
showed me a Malayalam MS., some 300 years old, of which he 
had half a dozen copies, in the first lines of the preface of which 
it was stated that St. Thomas died A.D. 78. 

Oh, for an Orientalist who will either refute or corroborate 
Wilford's findings ! 

How is it that so many of our Christians in Southern 
India bear the name of Salivahana as a Christian name ? In 
many parts of India notablv in the historv of the Warangal 

km ' r * ° 

mgs and in the Rajatarangini of Kashmir, stories of the 

crucifixion are connected with .Salivahana or Mandavya. See 

Wilford's essay in Asiatic* Researches, X. 27-126. 

26. Inter -borrowing of legends between Christians and non- 

( hnstians. — A Muhammadan story from Covalong, in the close 

vicinity of Mylapore. about the finding of a box that came 

by sea, the impossibility of moving it, and the receding of 

the sea, bears a close resemblance to the story of St. Thomas' 

log from Ceylon, the inability of the King and his people to 

move it, and the story that the sea was formerly 10 or 

12 miles from the present site of the Cathedral of S. Thome. 

It ought to find a place in the chapter on Inter-borrowing of 

legends between Christians and non-Christians which I published 

lately in The Catholic Herald of India. January 31st— March 

28th, 1923, pp. 70, 94, 110, 126, 142-143. 158-159, 174-175, 

1M»-190, 205-206. 

We owe the story to L. A. Cammiade, Esq., Presidency 
Magistrate, Pantheon *Rd. : Egmore, Madras, who, on sending 
it, favours us with some remarks (April 29, 1923J :— 

" I also enclose a brief history of the Muhammadan saint 
Tamim, whose tomb is venerated at Covelong, 18 miles south of 
8an Thome. You will find there further evidence of inter- 
borrowing of legends. The history I am sending was given 
me by one of my Muhammadan clerks. I have also obtained 
a printed pamphlet on the same subject, which I shall send 
you as soon as a- 1 can i r et a translation. 

232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

" As you know, there are. all along the Coromandel Coast, 
ancient settlements of Arabs and others who now go by the 
names of Lubbai, Marakayar, ChooJia, Rowther. etc. These 
people have traditions and histories which nobody has so far 
troubled to investigate. As the historic spirit is far stronger 
among them than among Indians, their traditions and old 
books may serve to throw considerable light on the history of 
Christianity on the Coromandel Coast, ] would suggest that 
you induce the Jesuit Fathersin Madura and Tinnevellv to get 
all information they can from the Lubbai. 1 I was told that 
there is a place in the Nanguneri Taluk in Tinnevellv, which, 
according to tradition, is one of the earlv settlements of the 
Lubbai. I forget its name. It begins with an E. (Erradai ?). 
Puhcat is another place where information might be available 
among the Lubbai." 

Certainly, if the Lubbai have histories, one would expect 
I, J- h " s . t,ans and tlieir Church of St. Thomas and some of 
the St. Thomas legends to have found a place in them. We are 

a u i dark for instance abou t the fight between Christians 
and Muhammadans which ended the Christians' settlement of 
Mylapore between 1340 and 1498 in the destruction of the 
place. Rather striking is the name of the Muhammadan saint 
ot Covalong: Tamim. It sounds much like Thomas. But, 
the similarity of the names and of the legends ought not to 
move us, since we have good evidence of Persian Christian 
occupation at Mylapore from at least the middle of the seventh 
century, that occupation at that date suggesting a much earlier 
settlement ot Christians. The story of the log is. however, 

1340) firSt time ° nIy in Mari g» olli ' s d ay 8 ( AD 

Here is the Covalong story with as little change as possible, 
only a lew mcorrections of style having been removed. 

u Hie burial of Hazarath Thameemul Ansari at Cov e 

Hazarath Thameemul Ansari was Ashabi (disciple) of the 
i rop net Mohammad. He was buried about 700 years back at 

Loxelong A fa rga (tonib) wag erected on hig rem . ling by 

Aawah badatullah Sahib of Arcot. about 150 years ago, and the 
rwo villages of Vedakadambadi and Perumalleoy in Chengalpet 
Laluq were endowed for its maintenance, which is still enjoyed 
by trustees. J 

\l„*r ' °2 Vd( , >ng n;lS then inha bited by fishermen and Cholia 
■ • Nims only. One morning, the fishermen came across a box 
a. King on the waves and tried to seize it. mistaking it for a 
cieajii re trove. But, however much thev tried to capture it, it 
would slip away from their hands." evading their grasp. 


1 We 


i f \l[? a \r S1 ",' Ceed better b - v makin 2 th ® story public on this occasion, 
^noi.a Alu s |, m8 seems to mean Muslims of the Chola or Coromandel 

O 1/ • 

1923.J St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore. 233 

Disappointed, they informed the Cholias about the mysterious 
box. The latter were overjoyed when they were able to take 
possession very easily, the box having ceased its obstinate 
tendencies. They tried to lift it and remove it to a better 
position : but the box could not be shifted, in spite of all their 
physical efforts. Finally they resolved upon opening it at the 
very spot, and, when they did so, to their great surprise and 
awe, they found a corpse fresh and prepared for burial. They 
found a chit l in the cask, which said that the dead man was 
an inhabitant of Mecca, a disciple of the Prophet, and that, due 
to reasons of his own, he had ordained his family to put him 
in a box and throw it into the Red Sea ; and it instructed the 
finders of the box to bury him on the spot where it halted. 
From the chit it was apparent that the box must have been float- 
ting up and down for about 500 years without being shattered 
and putrified. 

' J But the Cholias were in a great fix as to how the body could 
be buried on the spot, since it was in the bed of the ocean. 
To their great surprise the sea was found to have receded 
about a furlong off. Accordingly, the corpse was buried with 
all ceremony at its present site, where it has continued to 
remain since long. The Sunni Muslims, after settling in the 
neighbourhood of the Durga, seized, about 150 years ago, 
the ceremonial rites and duties connected with it from the 
Cholias, and enjoy them to the present day, paying a yearly 
tribute to the Cholias, the original finders of the "box." 

Does it not look as if the Cholia Muslims were apostate 
Christians, who had a Church at Covalong dedicated to St. 
Thomas, and that the traditions of Mylapore have been per- 
verted by them ? 

Provenance and explanation of the illustration of the S. Thome 
Cross.— The illustration show s the Cross at (Great) St. Thomas' 
Mount, Mylapore, found in 1547 in the foundations of what must 
have been a pre-Portuguese chapel or church on the top of the 
same mount. The Cross still exists at the Mount, and may be 
seen at the back of the main altar in the Church. Our picture, 
though not the earliest pen-sketch ever made of the cross and 
sent to Europe, appears however to be the earliest printed : for 
the engravings to be found in the oldest books on St. Thomas 
after the Portuguese conquista, such as du Jarric's Histoire des 
choses plvs memorables, Vol. I (1608), and others, are evidently 
copied from it or from a common original. The Sassanian 
(old Persian) characters are said to be of the middle of the 
seventh century. 

The illustration occurs in a MS. letter by Fr. Anthony 
Monserrate, S J., written from Cochin in 1579. addressed to the 

I (Letter,) 

234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

General of the Society of Jesus, and now in the possession 
of the Society (Goa, 33 ; title of letter : Information de los 
X' pianos de S. Thome). 

The text above and below the picture is as follows : 

La interpretacion de las letras es esta en lengua malauar. 

(Follows the Tamil text published by us above, 10 lines. 
Next) : 

/. 1. — La declaracion destas letras em espafiol simples 

m e q' es esta. 

I 2. — Despues q' aparecio la ley de los X'pianos en el 
mundo de alii a 30. anos a 21 del mes 

I. 3. — de diziembre murio el apostol S. Thome en Mailapar. 
(q' es lugar adonde agora esta la ciudad 

I. 4 — de S. Thome) ubo conoscim de dios vno soloq' fue 
mudan^a de la ley y destruicion del 

I. 5. — demonio y fue destruicion y desamparo de los Judios 
p'a nunca mas auer dellos miserieor- 

l. 6\ — dia porq' ansi los desamparo. nascio dios de la virgen 
Maria estuuo en su obediencia 

l- 7 . — 30. anos y este era dios sin fin. enseno a doze apostole> 
este dios de todas las seis 

I. #. — leyes. i. de todas las naciones. el discipulo deste dio 
vino a Maylapar con vna regla 

I. 9. — de carpintero y vn palo p'a hazer vna iglesia o casa 
de rev : el Cheramperemal 

I. 10.— q' es rey del Malauar. Choliaperemal q' es rev de 
Charamandel Bisnaga y Pandien q' es rey de Pandi cabo de 

£ 1 /. — y el rey Arichendram de Atanapuran y otro rey Catri 
rey de las virgines y otros muchos de diuersas naciones y setas 

/. 12— naron todos de buena voluntad y de voluntad libre 
concertandose entre si sometieronse a la^ ley y seruicio de 
•S. Thome varon 

/. IS. — sancto penitente:— Vinno tiempo q' .S. Thome murio 
por ma no del bra mane y hizose vna cruz de sangre : todos los 

I- 14.— q 9 adoran esta cruz les perdona dios rey su grande 

peccado del nascimiento v lleaando alia ( s. donde esta dios) an 
de umir 

I. 15. — verdad. 1 

/. 16.— Estae letras q' se hallaron en el sepulcro del glorioso 
.S. Thome fueron leidas y declaradas por hum bramen alqual de 

'■ & • — a 21 dias se le rebento la cabega y murio, no saben 
si por no se baptizar porq" fue combibado a eso o porq' toco a 


1 Perhaps for: an de uiuir verdad te : will live truly. 


1923.] St. Thomas and San Thome, My la pore. 235 

I. 18. — piedra ensangrentada subiendo en cima del altar : 
i fueron diuersos los juizios del juizio de dios en dar tal 

I. 19. — muerte al bramen despues de auer declarado las 
' letras, cosa q' nunca se pudo alcancar ni entender. 

I. 20 — Cuentan estos X'pianos q' desques de niuerto 
.8. Thome qn do lo enterrauan nunca pudieron enterrar el bra^o 
! sino siempre le quedaua fuera : paresce q' por ser com 

I. 21. — el q' toco las lagas de X.' n. S r y sabido esto por el 
rey muguel vino con grande exercito p'a cortar el brayo el 
qual al t'po q' lo quiso eortar se escondio y el p'si- 
l. 22. — guio a los X'pianos grauem e . 

St. Joseph's College, 

Darjeeling, May 6, 1923 







236 Journal of (he Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 1923.] 

Summary. — The paper deals with pre-Portuguese Christianity in 
India. A reference to apparitions of St. Thomas on the day of his feast 
at the place where be truly lies, which occurs in a Latin hymn, is traced 
to the stories related at Rome about 1 122 by one Mar John, whom one 
document describes as the Patriarch of the Indies, and another as an 
Indian Archbishop. The stories, however extravagant, seem to hail 
from India, i.e., from Mylapore, not from Edessa. 

One of these, the opening of the sea a week before and a week after 
the Saint's feast, is mentioned similarly t in connection with Mylapore, by 
Bishop John de Marignolli (c. 1319), who visited Mylapore, and by a 
Flemish sailor who was in Malabar in 1502-03 

Legends about the right arm of St. Thomas at Mylapore occur in 
John d«- Mandeville (ante 1371), Jean Aerts of Mechlin (1481-84), Barbosa 
[ani€ 1516), depositions taken at Mylapore in 1631, and in a letter of 
Fr. A. Monserrate, S.J., (Cochin, 1579). All these legends being in- 
dependent, John de Mandeville emerges from the examination somewhat 


Many authors treat Mar John's journey as purely mythical: 
W. (Jern. nn is disposed to regard the legends of Mar John as Indian, but 
Mar John himself as an adventurer Bishop from Mesopotamia; 
the present writer agrees with Yule and others in considering it as 


Another legend is related by Peter de Natalibus about a dry vine- 
shoot which, placed in the Saint's hand yearly on the eve of his feast, 
was taken out the next day green and bearing a bunch of grapes. Peter 
de Natalibus places the story at Edessa ; the present writer would place 
it at Mylapore, where, according to de Marignolli, St, Thomas had 

planted a vinery, which he had sown from grapes brought from Paradise 
(Ceylon). e ^ e 

Another legend mentions a certain St, Clara, the daughter of the 
king of Calamma (Mylapore! Sir John de Mandeville' s Calamye), in 
whose honour 3i»o convents of Dominican Nuns had been founded in only 
on. out of tiO Christian kingdoms of India. The writer examines in this 
connection the stories about I'rester John of India, translates Prester 
John s earliest letter as we have it in Assemani, and traces in it some 
l< p Is of the St. Thomas Christians of Malabar. 

A reference in the Latin Hymn to the three kin^s baptized by 
St. I homas in India is attributed by the writer to Mar Johns journey to 
Rom It recurs in later Syriac versions from Malabar, as found in the 
writings of Francesco Rose, S.J., Bishop of Angamale-Cranganore (about 
IM>5), «nd of others : also in the spurious decipherment made by a 
Bra) man (1561) of the Sassanian-Pahlavi inscription round the Cross at 
Mylapore (7th century). The • Malavar ' text of this decipherment. 
preserved by Fr. A. Monserrarc (Cochin, 1579), is now for the first time 
made accessible, and an English translation is given of M on serrate s 
Spanish translation. 

Mar Johns journey to Rome was surpassed in A.D. 1287 by Mar 
j>auma a Kestorian Bishop, who came from Khanbaliq (Pekin), his 
;irtnplace. vt « Bagdad and Constantinople to Rome, interviewed trie 

King of France at Pans and the King of England in Gascony, received 
Mjy Communion from the Pope, and returned to tell his story to King 

^ __ ,wv«*.«,v- ^ v«*. ..— -™ . 8 

Argon of the Mongols, whose ambawador h^had been/"" """ 



Numismatic Supplement 

for 1923. 

\t'tumal and Procc* ding <>t lU I n <itic Society of Bengal.] 



Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII 

[for 1923] 

Articles 232-246. 






232. Some Rare and Unpublished Sasanian Coins 

By Furdoonjee D. J. Paruck. 

233. Unpublished Mughal Coins 

By Furdoonjee D. J. Paruck. 

• • 

34. The Coins of the Bahmanf Kings of Kulbarga 

By H. M. Whittell. 

235. An Unidentified Coin of Gujarat 

Bv T. B. Horvvood. 


230. An Unpublished Copper Coin of JahangTr of tJjain 

By T. B. Horwood. 

-37. On Some Malava Coins 

By R. O. Dougia*. 

238. Notes on the Coinage of Tipper a 

Bv N. K. Bhattasali. 

-39. Notes on the Gupta and Later Gupta Coinage 

By N. K. Bhattasali. 

240. Persian Couplets on the Mughal and Subsequent Coinages 

By S. H. Hodivala. 

241. The Mint Name Sitpilr (Siirat) 

• ♦ 

• • 

Bv S. H. Hodivala. 

242. The Mint Gobindpur 

By S. H. Hodivala. 

-43. The Mint Name Kanan (Bajanan) 

By 8. H. Hodivala. 

244. The Mint Panjnagar (Bhujnagar) 

By B. H. Hodivala. 

245. Two Gold Gupta Coins 

By Prayag Dayal. 

246. Two Mughal Muhars 

By D. V. Taraporevala. 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• * 

• • 

r » 

• • 



• • 

• • 





















Articles 232-246. 

Continued from 'Journal and Proceedings" Vol. XVIII, 

New Series. No. 9. 

232. Some Rare and Unpublished Sasanian Coins. 
/. A Unique Hemidraehm of Shapur, son of Papak. 

Persis, which dealt the last blow to the Arsacids, had 
through the whole Parthian period held an isolated position, 
and is so seldom mentioned that our knowledge of its history 
and native princes is almost wholly due to recently found 
coins (see Mordtmann, in Zeitschrift fur Numism. of Berlin, 
Vol. IV, 1877, p. 152 sq.; Vol. \TJ, 1880, p. 40 sq. ; and 
in Numismat. Zeitschrilt of Vienna for 1878 ; and Levy, in 
Z.D.M.G., Vol. XXI for 1867), but we cannot tell whether 
these princes were all of one dynasty. 

The earliest mention of Persis is found in the Cuneiform 
inscriptions narrating the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, the 
text of which is almost contemporary with the event. They 
give to Cyrus the title of shar Anzan shar Parsu ;; king of 
Anzan (Susiana), king of Parsu (Persis). " It is only from the 
time of Cyrus (B.C. 558), the founder of the Achaemenian 
dynasty, that Persis enters history. It also figures under the 
name of Parsa in the Cuneiform inscriptions of Darius the 
threat at Behistun. After the conquest by Alexander, this 
province became a simple satrapy, governed like the others by 
a satrap. At the time of the dissolution of the vast Seleucid 
empire, Persis revolted almost about the same time as the 
Parthians and gained its independence. Few dates are harder* 
to fix from the testimony of the ancient writers than that 
of the Parthian revolt. Justin appears to declare for either 
B.C. 256 or 250, and it is to the latter date that Rawlinson 
inclines. A fortunate discovery of George Smith (Assyrian 
Discoveries, 1875, p. 389) has given a satisfactory solution 
<?f the question. He found a record which proved that the 
Parthians made use of an era of which the 144th year corres- 
ponded to the li'isth of the Seleucid era, and which therefore 
JWiBt date from B.C. 249-48. It is probable that this is the 
<late of the Parthian revolt. 

The emblems on the coins show that Persis was always 
loyallv Zoroastrian. At Istakhr stood the famous fire-temple 
°f Anahlta. It was the mar inge of its priest. Sasan, with 
a tta'/ranaik princess, Rambehisht, which laid the foundation 

2 N. Journal oj the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

of the greatness of the house, while priestly influence, which 
was very strong, doubtless favoured its rise. " 

Jn the beginning of the third century of the Christian 
era, one of the minor kings who ruled in Persia belonged to a 
dynasty the name of which was probably Bazranglk. Ciozihr, 
the last prince of the Bazranglk dynasty, was overthrown by 
Papak, son or descendant of Sasan, who became master of 
the district of Jstakhr (Persepolis). The coins and inscriptions 
of his son, Ardashir. give him the title of king. Perhaps 
Papak before his death was already lord of all Persis. His 
legitimate heir was his son Shapur for whom Papak is said to 
have asked recognition from the Arsacids ; but on Papak's 
death a second son, Ardashir, refused to acknowledge his 
brother and was in arms against him when Shapiir died 
suddenly (see Noldeke, Tabari, pp. 7 and 8). 

A unique drachm (size, 80 in.; weight, 55 grs.) has been 
published by Cunningham (Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. XIII, 
1893, p. 178, Plate XIII, Fig. 1) which he assigns to 
Arda.shlr I. 

The legend is : 
'•Obverse.— Bagi Shakpuhrl mailed, 
Reverse.— (bar e)h bagi Papaki malka. 

Consequently this drachm is of Shapur, son of Papak, 
and not of Ardashir. 

The hemidrachm described below is of the same type and 
with the same legend as above. Both these coins exhibit 
a style and script similar to the earlv binominal coins of 
Ardashir I (see the Bartholomaei Collection, Plate XXXII, 
Fig. 1). It is probable that Ardashir came to the throne of Persi- 
in A. 0.211-212 (see Gutschmid, in Z.D.M.G., Vol XXXIV, 
1880, p. 734) when he struck the binominal coins with his own 
full-face portrait on the obverse and, on the reverse, his fathers 
portrait in profile (see Thomas, Numismatic Chronicle, 1872, 
ISO XLV, p. 54). Therefore it is possible to assign the date 
A.C. 211 to the coins of Shapur, son of Papak. 

Not only the coins and inscriptions of Ardashn" but 
also the coins of Shapur give Papak the title of king, so in all 
probability Papak before his death was already lord of all 
Persis. The Arsacid empire was the union of many malkan or 
feudatory princes, each of whom ruled his special province, 
but had to join in the general defence, and furnish money and 
troops to the great king, whose capital was Ctesiphon on 
the Jigns. These petty princes had the right to coin monej 
but on the condition that the legends were to be in Pahlavi 
and that the vassal was to take the simple title of malka. 
thus we find Papak. Shapur and Ardashir. in the beginning of 
his reign, styled simply malka (see the article of Drouin, /," 
Numwmatiqw Arameenne, etc.. Journal Asiatique. 188i> : and 
Zotenherg, Tabari, Vol. II, p 5). On this political organization. 


192.3.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 3 

see Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta, Vol. Ill, 1893, p. xl : and 
La lettre de Tansar, in the Journal Asiatique, 1894. 

With these introductory remarks I here introduce to 
. the notice of students of this epoch a unique hemidrachm 

of Shapur, son of Papak. So far as I know the drachm 
published by Cunningham and this hemidrachm are the 
only coins known of Shapur, king of Persis, and of the house of 


. Metal— Silver. 8ize.—-§<o in. Weight.— 25 grs. 

Obverse. — The bust of Shapur to left with Parthian helmet, 
with ear- flap, and fillets floating behind: the hair and beard 
dressed in curls. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing behind the helmet. Bagt Shahpuhn 
malka, " The divinity Shapur, the king," 

Reverse. — The bust of Papak to left with Parthian helmet, 
surmounted by a peculiar plume, and fillets floating behind : 
the hair and beard dressed in curls. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing behind the helmet, bareh bagt 
Papak{i) malka. " son of the divinity Papak, the king." 
Plate 1,1. 

The word bagt means " divinity " and corresponds to 
(ilaha of the Chaldaeo-Pahlavl and 0EOY of the Greek texts 
of the Sasanian trilingual inscriptions at Naqsh-i Rustam (see 
Flandin et Coste, Voyage en Perse : Vol. IV, Plate 181), zi alahia 
on the coins of the Persids and &EOS of the Seleucids. Bagt 
has been taken as an adjective, whenever it occurs among the 
titles of the Sasanian kings, in their inscriptions and coins; 
but the equivalent alalia, in Chaldaeo-Pahlavl, is against its 
"eing so understood, for this latter is clearly a substantive, 
meaning " god." If it were an adjective, we might expect 
alahi, as it really means "divine." In bagt, the * is no 
adjectival termination, but the vowel so frequently found 
at the end of Pahlavl words. Bag itself is the baga of the 
Persian Cuneiform itiM riptions, A vesta baga, meaning "god" 
see Haug, E.isay on Pahhivi. p. 49). If the Sasanian king- 
styled themselves bag " god, divinity," it is no more than 
the Seleucids did. when thev assumed the title Beos- It is 
Possible that this' pretension* to divinity was borrowed from 
kgypt by the Seleucids. Mordtmann, the well-known numis- 
matist and savant, follow^ his predecessors in always trans- 
iting the word bagt by <; gottliche " (divine) even in his 
important memoir (see Z.D.M.O., 1880, p. 6), which was 
published posthumously. Another well-known numismatist 
and Eranian scholar, Drouin, follows him in all his work- and 
even in his last important paper {Les Legendes des Mon nates 
Saseanides, p. 9). West, the greatest authority on Pahlavi 
however, translates it "divinity" in his last important 

4 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

contribution on Pahlavi literature (see Grundriss der Iranischm 
PhUologie, Vol. II, p. 78) ; and such specialists on Iranian 
subjects as Noldeke, Justi, Marquait and others invariably 
translate it by the word " gott " (divinity). 

The word bareh means " son," corresponding to ban of 
the Chaldaeo-Pahlavi, and YIOY of the Greek texts of the above- 
named inscriptions. It consists of three letters, the last 
of which has been for a long time the subject of discus- 

sion among savants. The phonetic value of this charac- 
ter has been thought to be i (see Thomas. Early Sassanian 
Inscriptions, Seals and Coins, p. 20 sq.), chiefly on account 
of its resemblance, in form, to the Zand (A vesta) letter; but 
Haug has identified it with the Pahlavi man. (For a fuller 
discussion on this subject, see Hoshangji and Haugs Zand- 
<ynl l ? lossar y> P- xxi ) I* was reserved for Noldeke 

# *u- ?"' 1879 ' P " 69 °' ) to det ennine the phonetic value 
of this letter as h, which resembles in form the Aramaic 
letter All modern specialists on Eranian subjects are in 
accord with Noldeke about the value of this letter. (For 
further, see Casartelli, The Semitic Suffix Man in the Baby- 
toman and Oriental Record. May 1888; Actes du Congres 
des Orient Geneve, 1894, section i, p. 207 ; and Kirste, Das 
Pehlvt Suffix Man in the Wiener Zeitchrift, 1889, p. 313.) 

the legend on the early binominal coins of Ardashlr I 
has been transcribed by Noldeke (Z.D.M.G., 1879, p. 690) : 

Obverse.— Bagi Artakhshatr malka. 

Reverse .-bareh bagi Papak'i malka; and read: Bag 
Artakhshathr shah pusi bag Pdpak shah. So the reading of 
trie legend on the coins of Shapur should be .—Bag Shahputhr 
shah pusi bag Papak shdh. 

in p T M S WaS a P eculiar way of writing and pronouncing 

an avi. A foreign word was really written, but its Persian 

equivalent was always pronounced in its stead. This strange 

proceeding was confined to a certain number of words, about 

«ni n a ? L They are con tained in a vocabulary still extant 
and called the Sasanian Farhang. 

II. An Obol of Ardashlr I. 
As small pieces in Sasanian silver are extremely scarce, 

LI ?v!" V dlfficult to arrive at their standard weight. But 
tram their existing weight we can at least ascertain the 

rlKTi d u enomi nation. The coin of Ardashlr I, des- 
cried below should probably be classed as an obol ( | drachm) , 

tlV Yi! eig i 1S H ° raills - For purposes of comparison I give 
',. ? th * r known coins of Ardashlr I, of this denomination, 

wnich have been described and illustrated. These are as 
follows : — 

The Bartholomaei Collection (Plate I. Fig. 14) : weight, 
not known ; 


H>23.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 5 

Thomas {Num. Chron., XII, N.S., Plate II, Fig. 9); 

weight, 9*5 <irs. ; 

Mordtmann {Z.D.M.G., 1854, p. 34, No. 11); weight, 
8 89 gr> : 

Mordtmann [Z.D.M.G., 1880, p. 9, No. 12) ; weight, 

10 grs. ; 

Mordtmann {Z.D.M.G. 1880, p. 12, No. 35) ; weight, 

9 26 grs. 

Description of the Obol. 

Metal. —Silver. Size. — *6 in. Weight.— II gvs. 

Obverse. — The bust of Ardashlr I to left with crown, 
having ear-flap,, and surmounted by a globe : the fillets of 
the diadem floating behind : a moustache and plaited hair 
and beard : the hair of the head is divided into two parts, 
one falling over the right shoulder and the other behind 
the back. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing behind the globe, 31 azda{ya)sn bagi 
Ariakhshatr malkan malka Ai{ran min)o-chitn min (yazdan), 
'_ Mazda- worshipping divinity Ardashlr, king of the kings of 
Eran, of spiritual origin from the sacred beings." 

Reverse, — The holy pyreum on an altar with handles 
and fillets : a censer on each side. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing from the left of the fire, Nurd zi 
Ariakhshatr, "The fire of Ardashlr." 

There is a small hole in the coin in front of the bust. 

Plate I, 2. 

According to Marquart {Z.D.M.G., 1895, p. 670) the 
legend on the obverse should be read : Mazdezn bage 
Artakhshathr (-i) shdhdn-shah (-») Rrdn ke chithre az yazatdn. 
He believes that mino is not the Zand (Avesta) manush 
'■ heaven " ; but the Aramaic relative pronoun mannu " who, 
*vhich the Persians read ke in the same way as az for min and 
mahnnshah for malkan malka. So the translation of the 

egend would be " Mazda- worshipping divinity Ardashlr, 
kl ng of the kings of Eran. who is {ke) by origin from the 
sacred beings." But on a gem described by Mordtmann 

Z U.M.G., Vol. XXXI, 1877, p. 594, No. 30) the variant 
yazdi-chitn is found instead of mind-chitri, which emphasizes 
the fact that yazdi and mino, having the same meaning of 
" spiritual," are therefore interchangeable. (For the amended 
readmg of the legend on this gem, see Justi, in Z.D.M.G., 
Vol. XLVI, 1892.) In the trilingual inscriptions of Ardashlr 
'at Naqsh-i Rustam (see Flandin et Coste, Voyage en Perse, 
» o1 - U, Plate LSI) and of Shapur I at Naqsh-i Rajab (see 
Mandin et Coste, op. cit., Plate 190) the equivalents ixy^ous 
in Greek and minO shihnr in Chaldieo-Pahlavl preclude our 

taking any other meaning of mind-chitri than " of spiritual 

• ' 


6 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XlX r 

On the reverse of the coins of the early Sasanian kings, is 
a legend in six letters with the name of the king. It was 
read iezdani by De Sacy and nnwazi by Dorn, Thomas and 
Mordtmann. De Sacy translated it by " the divine, 'MDorn 
and Mordtmann by u the adorer" and Thomas by "fire- 
temple." It was Noldeke (Z D3LG, 1877, p. 148 ; jind 
1879, p. 690) who determined the true reading nura zi 
€i the fire of. " Nur is the Aramaic word construed in 
nura ; and zl (Aramaic) is the Semitic particle employed in 
Sasanian Pahlavl to express the possessive. According to 
the German savant this expression should be pronounced 
ideographically with the izafat : atur-i Artakhshatr "the fire 
of Ardashir." In spite of this determination Mordtmann 
(Z.n.M.G., 1880, p. 7) persists in his reading and translation. 

///. A Binominal Drachm of Ardashlr I. 

Ardashlr I is said to have taken his son Shapur as partner 
s throne, and this ia confirmed by coins on which a youth- 

of his 

ful head appears along with that of Ardashlr. Firdausi (Mold, 
Le Livre des Rois, Vol. II, p. 302) remarks to the effect that this 
partnership took place when Ardashlr was sixty-eight years of 
age. Legendary tradition makes Shapur's mother an Arsacid 
princess taken at the capture of Ctesiphon ; but, according to a 
more probable account, Shapur was already able to bear arms 
in the decisive battle with Ardavan (Artabanus) in 224 (accord- 
ing to Noldeke, or 227, according to Gutschmid). Nor can he 
have been a mere stripling when his reign began, as his prow- 
ess against Rome shows ; for in Ardashlr's last years, in the 
reign of Maximin (236-238), the war had been renewed, and 
Nisibis and Carrhae (Haran), two fortresses which constantly 
reappear in this history, had been taken, and in 242 Shapur 
had penetrated to Antioch. (For the birth of Shapur, see Fir- 
dausi, Mohl, Le Livre des Bois. Vol. V, p. 268 sq. ; Taban, 
Zotenberg, Vol. II, p. 77; Tabari, Noldeke, p. 27; and 
Kamamak, Noldeke, p. 62.) Ardashlr died late in 241, or early 
in 242, and ghapiir was probably crowned on the 20th of 
March, 242. 

The drachm, described below, contributes numismatic 
testimony to this interesting historical incident— the associa- 
tion of ghapiir in the government with his father, Ardasljlr, 
during the life-time of the latter. Several of the copper coin* 
depicting this incident, are known ; but of silver there is only 
;> unique piece (weight, 645 grs.), in the British Museum, 
published by Thomas (Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. XV. O.S., 
p. ISO, Fig. 2; and Sassanians in Persia, Plate I, Fig- 12) and 
reproduced by Mordtmann {Z.D.M.O., 1854, Plate X. Fig- 6) 
in stamped facsimile. Unfortunatelv the legend on the obverse 
has not been properly deciphered. Thomas (in his latter 

1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 7 

work, op. (//., p. 23) describes the legend as imperfect and reads 
to the left, malkdn, and to the right, malka ; but Mordtmann 
{Z.D.M.G., 1880, p. 13) pronounces it, at least in the illustra- 
tion, as illegible. With the help of the other piece in my 
Cabinet I have been able to decipher it : — 

Commencing behind the bust of Shipilr, (Shah)puhrl 
mallca (Al)ran mind'chit(ri) , " Shapur, the king of Eran, of 

spiritual origin." The legend on the reverse is : — Nura (zi) 
Artakhshatrr' The tire of Ardaghir." 

The known copper coins of this type are unfortunately 
in a very bad state of preservation, consequently the legend 
on the obverse has not yet been read. But by a singular 
fate the reverse of the piece in the Bartholomaei Collection 
Plate I, Fig. 15) is in a good condition. The reading is : — 

Nurd zi Shahputri, "The tire of Shapur. ' 

I am supported in this reading by Drouin (Les Legendes 
des Monnaies Sassanides, p. 10), who mentions another piece 
with the name written as Shahpuhtn. These two archaic forms 
could be explained by the fact that these coins were struck in 
a distant province, where the dialect admits very often of the 
t- _(For the different forms of the name Shapur, see Noldeke. 
Kamdmak, p. 61 ; and Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, p. 284.) 

Some time about the middle of his reign, Ardaghir 
exchanged the Parthian helmet on his coins for a crown sur- 
mounted by a globe, and added also the words mino-chitri min 
yazdan u of spiritual origin from the sacred beings " at the end 
of the protocol. According to Mordtmann (Z.D.M.G., 1880 : 
p. 6) the coins with the Parthian helmet were issued till 232, 
when this innovation was introduced. The coins of Ardaghir 
with his son {Shapur, belong to the latter category. Therefore- 

it was at some time between 232 and 241 that these coins were 
-truck. From the style and epigraphy I am inclined to 
believe that the date is nearer 241 than 232, that is to say. 
bout 238-39. 

Description of the Drachm. 

Metal.— Silver. £we.— I'M in. Weight.— 56 grs. 

Obverse. — The bust of Ardaghir I to right with crown, sur- 
mounted by a globe, and fillets floating behind ; the hair 
and beard dressed in plaits. Facing him is his son, Shapur, 
with Parthian helmet and fillets floating behind. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing behind the "bust of Shapur. SJiah- 
pukri malka At ran mind (chiiri), "Shapur. the king of Eran, 
Oi spiritual origin." 

Reverse — The holy pyrenm on an altar with handles and 
illets a censer on each side. Grenetis. 

Legend.— Commencing from Ihe left of the tire, Xurd z% 
Artakhskatr, " The fire of Arcbshir." Plate I, 3. 

The title malka Alma strife - us a very typical. It was 

8 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 
this very title which Ardashlr I took previously to that of 

malkav malka Atran " king of the kings of Era,!/' We have 

tortu.mtely a numismatic document in the form of the unique 
gold coin (weight, 131 grs.) of Ardashlr I in the British 

oS fi w ^ published *~*^ SL225S 

facsimile i"- L '- a '*'-> L ^o4, Plate X, Fig. 5) in stamped 

1 V. A Drachm of Nurses. 
The inscription of Narses (293-303), in eleven lines, on the 

rocks of the city of Shapur (Flandin ct Coste, Voyage en Perse, 
\ ol. II. Plate 45), glV es his genealogv as son of Shapur I and 
grandson of Ardashlr I, whereas he is ordinarily held to have 
been the son of either Bahram I or Bahrain II. Tabari 
(Noldeke £ 50; Zotenberg. Vol. If, p. 90) and Masa'fidi 
(PraniesdOr, Vol. II, p. 174) make him the son of Bahram 1. 
Mirfchond (De Saey. p 3<>! > sav> that he was the bod oi 
, s 7 m " [ so also Moudjmel Altawarlkh (Journal Asiatique, 
:Sfr ?" d8 > and Hamza Isphani (Gottwaldt. p. 37). Noldeke 
li < 1' P ;° 0) and Mord tmann (Z.D.M.G., 1880. p. 45) remark 
that the Armenian author Sebeos is the only one who con- 

™"fi , . m8 ?"P tion - I And that this statement is also 
confirmed by the Arabian writer Abu Obeidah (see Macoudi, 
/ rairies d Or Vo IT n 9-*q\ t? .l i_ ^.^ j. t 

«^oK Q 1\ ' P - ■'- For tne above statement of 

rfvnc fr ^ the * rticle entitled " Essai d'une Histoire de la 
2„T ^s Saasanides " by Patkanian in the Journal 
fV«tme }***, p. 149; translated from the original Russian 

into French by Prudhom me. 

The genealogy of the first three Bahrams and Narses has 
been variously stated by different historians, but from the 
nscnptjon on rocks we are now in a position to assign their 
correct parentage. 

1. Ardashlr I (224-241) 

2. Shapur I (241-272) 

Hormazd I (272-273) 4. Bahram I (273-276) 7. Narses 

ft u k ' - T „ I (293-303) 

6. Bahram III (293) 5 . Bahram 1 1 (276-293) 

di^kl" ; n A eresti,l g to know that the first discovered coin, a 
, I v"' I Narses > fetc ^d the handsome price of 400 roubles 

I St r> *$ ac( P nred by • L'lnstitut des Ungues Orientals 

wl 1 / ete,s i bour g" (^e De Markoff, Catalogue des Monnaits 
oasmntdes, etc.. p i V ). 

beliinJi 1 ^ 116 ^ k . nown Coins of Narses the inscription commence- 
mp tne globe suimounting the crown, but here is a speci- 
men in which the legend commences in front of the bust. 

1923.] Numismatic Supplement So. XXXVII. N. 9 

Description of the Drachm. 

Metal. — Silver, Size. — 1 in. Weight. — 52 grs. 

Obverse. — The bust of Narses to right wearing a crown 

n — ~ — --.*q 

ornamented with foliated branches, projecting from three 
different points in the circlet ; with fillets floating behind and 
surmounted by the traditional globe. The hair is dresssd in 
plaits ; a moustache and a short curly beard terminating in a 
pendant jewel : an ear-ring and the bust draped. Grenetis. 
v Legend. — Commencing in front of the bust, {Mazdayasn) 

bagi Narsehi matkan malka Airan minO-chitri min yazdan, 
^ Mazda- worshipping divinity Narses, king of the kings of 

Eian, of spiritual origin from the sacred beings. 


i Reverse, — The fire altar supported, on the left side, by the 

king wearing crown and globe as on the obverse, and to the 
right, by the priest with the ordinary coronet; both have 
swords inclined towards the altar and are facing the fire. 
To the left of the fire, the jrohar symbol ; and to the right, 
the taunts symbol. Grenetis. No legend. Plate I, 4. 

A portion of the coin is broken in front of the bust. 

V. Another Drachm of the rare type of 

In describing a similar type of drachm of this king 
(Numismatic Supplement, XXX," p. 262) I remarked that while 
the Sasanian coins follow more or less fixed types, they 
exhibit a pronounced variety in legends, the study of which is 
a matter of continual interest. This remark is further sub- 
stantiated by the drachm described below. 

Hormazd II (303-310) was the first to take the epithet 
Whia "excellent " on his coins. His son, Shapiir II (.(10-379), 
and grandson, Shapiir III (383-388), took it only in their 
in- riptions at Taq-i Bostan (see De Sacv, Memoir*. 1703, 
P 5; and Flandin et Coste, Voyige en Perse. Vol. IV, Plate 6). 
But there is a solitary published exception in the case of a 
drachm of Shapiir 1 1, with this epithet, described by Mordtmann 
&-D.M.Q., 1880, p. 159, No. 554). Through the courtesy of 
Sir John Marshall. Director-General of Archaeology in India. I 
was able to examine in Bombav the Sasanian coins in the Lahore 
Museum, among which I found a drachm of Shapiir II exactly 
Similar in type and legend to the one describ? 1 by Mordtmann. 
The coins of this king, apart from sub-varieties, are of three 
main types. The above two coins are of the first type, having 
the fire-altar with two attendants, but without the b'^t of 
frdhnr issuing from the fire. The drachm, which is the 
subject of this article, is of the third type, having the fire- 
itar similar to that depicted on the coin- of Ardashlr 1. 
s o far as I know this is the onlv coin of the third typ- bearing 
f he t pithet vdhia " excellent." ' 

LO N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Description of the Drachm. 
UelaL— Silver. Size. — 9 in. Weight. — 64 grs. 

Obverse.— The bust of Shapur TI to right, wearing 


mural crown with three points embattled, surmounted 

by the traditional irlobe, with the fillets of the diadem floating 
behind the head. The hair is brought back and arranged in 
flowing curls : a moustache and a short curly beard tied at 
the end with a jewelled pendant : an ear-ring and bust draped. 

Legend. — Commencing behind the globe, Mazdayasn rdhia 
Shakpuhri malkan malka Airan, c * Mazda-worshipping excellent 
Shapur, king of the kings of Eran." 

Reverse. — The holy pyreum on an altar with handles and 
fillets : a censer on each side. Grenetis. 

Legend. — Commencing from the right, Nurd zi Shahpuhri 
" The fire of Shapur/' Plate I, 5. 

VI. A new Portrait of Shapur II. 

The drachm described below exhibits a portrait of 
Shapur II differing from those hitherto known to us. By the 
test of the form of the crown, the style, the epigraphy and 
the legend itself the coin can safely be assigned to this king. 

Description of the Drachm. 

Metal.— Silver. Size.— I in. Weight— 66*5 grs. 

Obverse.— The bust of Shapur II to left wearing his 
usual mural crown, surmounted by the globe, with the fillets 
of the diadem floating behind. The hair is arranged behind 
in flowing curls ; a moustache and a short curly beard tied at 

the point with a pendant jewel : an ear-ring and bust draped. 


Legend.— Commencing behind the crown, Mazdayasn bagi 

Shahpuhri, "Mazda-worshipping divinity Sliapur 

? * 

Reverse.— The tire-altar adorned with bands, having the 
bust of frohar issuing from the flames. The supporte ■ 
(coarsely defined) are facing the altar, with swords at guard. 


Xo legend. Plate I, 6. 

VII. A Xew Sasa titan Mint. 

(Not illustrated.) 

A drachm of Yezdegerd I (399-420) in the Bartholomaei 
Collection (Plate Xl ? Fig. 17) bears the mint-monogram KVN 
RIU. In the description of the coin Mordtmami (Z D.M [' 
1880, p. 90, Xo. 380) pronounces this monogram to be unin- 
telligible, though the reproduction is quite clear. 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVIL N. 11 

Another mint monogram RIU, which is the second part 
of the monogram under discussion, first appeared on the coins 
during the reign of Firoz I (459-484) and then is frequently 
seen on the coins of his successors till 629, 

Noldeke {Z.D.M.G., 1877, p. 150; and 1879, p. 141) con- 
siders it to represent Rew-Ardashir. 

Mordtmann {Z.D.M.G, 1879, p. 120, No. 21) identifies 
it as representing Ral (Rhages), in the vicinity of the modern 

Taharan, and compares it with the mint ^J\ Ar Ral, of the 
Khalifs on their dirhams. 

De Morgan {Revue Numismatique, 1913, p. 490, § 134) con- 
siders this identification as quite acceptable. 

The Arabs preserved this mint, as the monogram RIU 
is found on their drachms in the years A.H. 35 and 43. 

^c) Ral was one of the greatest and most celebrated cities 

of ancient Bran. It is the ' Payal of the Greeks. Various 
kings have been mentioned by different authors as founders of 
this city. The latest Sasanian founder was Firoz I (459-484), 

son of Yezdegerd II (438-457), who named it j^f r f ;, Ram- 

Firoz. There are still remains visible at Ral, but it is not 
certain whether they are those of the famous Rhages or not. 
That they arc those of the Arabian Ral there can be very 


little doubt ; but whether the latter occupied precisely the 

same site as the Parthian and the Achaemenian Rhages is not 

In describing another rare mint-monogram K.VN BBA 
{Numismatic Supplement, XXX, p 256 sq.), I explained the 
meaning of the word kavan as " royal. " It was at the time 
doubtful whether this word was applied as an honorary 
epithet to the city represented 1>\ the monogram B8A, or 
whether KVX BBA represented another city. Now it is 
possible to believe that karan was an honorific epithet, and 
that it was applied to the two cities represented bv the mono- 
grams BRA and RIU. 

VIII . A Drachm of Bahram Odr. 

It is curious to note that Thomas (Sassanian* in Persia, 
P- 77 sq. ; pi a t e VII. Fig. 10) has been led astray, by a legend 
engraved evidently by an ignorant die-sinker, into supposing a 
drachm of Bahram V Gor (320-438) to be one of Bahram VI 
Gbobfn (590-501). All the known coins of the latter are exact 
copies of those of Iformazd IV (579-590) and are of his first 
regnal year, displaying the indication of mint cities. Bahram 
who revolted n the ffeath of Hormazd IV in the late summer 
of 590, was defeated bv Khusrau II (590-628) in a decisive 
battle near the Zab in the summer of 591. (For the history 
of thi< rebel, see Noldeke, Tabari, p. 474 sq.) 

12 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

On the piece described by Thomas, the name of the 
king is Varahran, written inversely, followed by three letters 
written in the direct way, which he reads chup taking them to 
be also inverted. Hence his mistake. But these letters 
should read malk(a). It is evident on the face of it that this 
coin is of Bahrain V, from the style, the epigraphy, from the 
head of the king appearing on the upper part of the altar 
and from the absence of the date. In support of my state- 
ments I would mention that Mordtmann (Z.D.M.G., 1880. 
p. 98, No. 442) as well as Drouin (Les Lcgendes des Monnaie 
Sassavides, p. 45) attribute it to Bah ram V. 

Five additional specimens in Col. Guthrie's Collection are 
mentioned by Thomas, who remarks that it is important to 
note that none of these coins are from the same dies ; each ha^ 
a slightly varying bust of the king, and an independent 
rendering of the legend — which is ordinarily even less definite 
than that of Mr. Stewart's specimen. Col. Guthrie's five coins 
were found at Kiilu, in the Pan jab, by Major Hay. 

Another specimen is in the Line witch Collection (sne 
Tiesenhausen, Monnaies Orientates de M. Lin?witch, p. 3) and 
four more are in mv cabinet, 


In all my specimens the whole obverse legend is in inverted 
writing: Varahran mal{ka). This additional testimony lends 
support to my statement that the coin published by Thomas 
is of Bahrain V and not of Bahram VI, and that his reading of 
Varahran Qhup is not tenable, the correct reading should be 
Varahran malk(a). 

Description of the Drachm. 

Metal.— Silver. 'Size.— 115 in. Weight.— l>2-o grs. 

Obverse.— The bust of Bahram V to right, wearing a crown 
surmounted by a crescent and globe, with the fillets of the 
diadem floating behind. The hair is brought back and arranged 
in a mass of curls ; a moustache and a short curly beard ter- 
minating in a pendant Jewel, from which two cross-bars pro- 
ject : an ear-ring and a necklace of pearls: bust draped. 


Legend.— Behind the crown, a few illegible letters. Com- 
mencing in front of the crown, in inverted writing, Varahran 
mal{ka) " Bahram, the king." ' 

Reverse.— The fire-altar, adorned with bands, having the 
head of the king inserted in the upper section the pedestal, 
immediately below the fire, in the centre of the flames of which 
appear the crescent and globe of his tiara. On both side* i~ 
a figure of the king with sword raised and facing the altar. 

Strokes instead of the legend and mint-monogram 
Plate I, 7. 

1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 13 

t IX. Another Drachm of Bahrain Gor. 

Two other coins of Bahrain Gor have been wrongly ascribed 
to Bahram Chobln by Thomas (Sassanians in Persia, p. 81), 
the one in the possession of Col. Guthrie and the other in the 
Bartholomaei Collection (Plate XII. Fig. 16), though the latter 
has been correctly attributed in the Catalogue of that Collec- 
tion. No reason has been assigned save the similarity of the 
outline of the design on the coin with the legend in inverted 
writing just described. The two coins mentioned above and 
the one described below are much better in execution and 
design than the coin just described. Not only do these three 
coins present similar legends but also peculiarities similar to 
the coins of Bahram V. There is not the slightest reason 
whatsoever to assign them to any other king. In describing 
the coin in the Bartholomaei Collection Mordtmann (Z.D.M.G , 
1880, p. 97, No. 438) also attributes it to Bahram V as had 

been already done by the Russian soldier-savant. 

Description of the Drachm. 

Metal. — Silver. Size. — 1*25 in. Weight. — 64 grs. 

Obverse. — The bust of Bahram V to right, having a crown 
surmounted by a crescent and globe, with the fillets of the 
diadem floating behind. The hair is brought back and arranged 
in flowing curls : a moustache and a short curly beard ter- 
minating in a pendant jewel from which two cross-bars project : 
bust draped. Grenetis. 

_ Legend. — Commencing behind the crescent, Mazdayasn 
bagi rdmshat(ri) Varahran malkan malka, " Mazda-worshipping 
divinity rdmshatri Bahrain, king of the kings.'' 

Reverse. — The fire-altar adorned with bands, having the 
head of the king inserted in the upper section of the pedestal, 
immediately below the fire, in the centre of the flames of which 
appear the crescent and globe of his tiara. On both sides is 
a figure of the king with sword raised and facing the altar. 

legend.— To the left, Varahran; and to the right, the mint- 
monogram in three letters. Plate 1,8. 

In describing the coin in the Bartholomaei Collection 
(Plate XII, Fig. 16) Thomas (op. tit.) reads the mint-monogram 
p Kl, but Mordtmann (op. tit.) reads it MR. Thomas is doubt- 
ful about his reading, perhaps chiefly owing to the first 
tetter not being properlv formed. From my specimen as well 
as from that in the Bartholomaei Collection I have not been 
able to fix upon anv definite reading of the first letter. The 
second letter is R and the third is I. 

Rdmshatri is a compound of ram "delight, happiness" 
(Avesta ram) and shatri a a countrv, a realm " (old Persian 

14 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

khshathra), that is, ram ishalrl for ram-i khshathra meaning iC the 
delight of the realm " (Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, pp. 258 
and 500). Drouin (Les Leyendes des Monnaies Sassanides, 
p. 31) translates it by '* the prosperity of the empire." 

This epithet is taken only by Yezdegerd I (399-420) and 
Bahrain V (420-438) on their coins. On a drachm of Yezdegerd 
11 (438-457) Vincent Smith (Indian Museum Catalogue, Vol. I, 
p. 226) reads this epithet. As this coin is not illustrated I 
secured casts of it through the courtesy of Sir John Marshall ; 
and 1 have no hesitation in saying that the words are mat lean 
malka and not the epithet ramshatri. On the reverse of this 
coin he reads the regnal year nudah " nineteen " but it is the 
word navaki " the adorer," generally found on the reverse of 
the coins of this king. Although there were some exceptions 
during the reign of Firoz 1 (459-484), the usage of marking 
the regnal year on the coins was not established till the reign 
of Jftmasp (497-499) in 497. 

-X". A unique One-eighth of a Drachm of Jamasp. 


To arrive at the subdivisions of the Sasanian drachm 
very difficult, considering the scarcity and the worn state of the 
small pieces. The smaller the piece the more disturbing a factor 
wear becomes in our attempts to ascertain the normal weight.. 
From the recorded weights of pieces smaller than the hemi- 
drachm it will be seen that the following denominations are in 
existence. The weight of the obol (| drachm) ranges from 833 
to 11 grains ; the | drachm from 633 to 8 grains and the hemi- 
obol ( T V drachm) from 4*30 to 5 50 grains. Mordtmann 
{Z.D.M.Q., 1880, p. 149) also suspected the existence of the £ 
drachm, remarking at the same time that this supposition 
was based upon insufficient evidence to make it more than a 

To get a standard from known coins is difficult, for record- 
ed specimens are in every kind of condition. How often can 
we assert that a coin is in mint condition ? Take a good speci- 
men of any coin and almost always we shall find wear or 
clipping or sweating or boring. This means that we can very 
seldom know how far the actual coin is below the theoretical 
standard. Sometimes, on the other hand, the weight is higher 
than anything we are prepared to expect. But these are freak 
coins and they are by no means common. The weights of 
coins, cut from the bar by hand, never pretended to be more 
than approximate. It is unreasonable to expect agreement to 
a grain and the close approximation to an assumed standard is 
very remarkable, considering the conditions. Attempts were 
made at exactitude, but I do not believe that exactitude to a 
grain was ever obtained. The appliances available were scarce- 
ly delicate enough to admit of perfect exactitude in weighing. 

1923.1 Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 15 


so i believe that much reliance was placed on the principle of 
averages. The intention was not that coins should be struck 
of such and such a weight, but that so many coins should be 
struck out of sucli and such a quantity of metal. 

The known coins of Jamasp (497-499) are all drachms. 
The small piece of this king, described below, weighs only seven 
grains and is in a very good state of preservation. From the 
weight it could be classed as one-eighth of a drachm. Coins of 
denominations smaller than the hemidrachm are known up to 
the reign of Firoz I (459-484), but none after that period. The 
piece described below is unique in its way, being the last known 
small silver piece struck by the Sasanians and also the only 
known small piece of Jamasp. 

On all his coins, Jamasp is represented with a youth, who 
tends him a crown. The historians do not make any mention 
ot this particular person. The name of this king on coins is 
generally written Zam ; but on a drachm in the Bartholomaei 
Collection (Plate XVIII, Fig. 8) and on others described by 
Mordtmann(Z. J D.l/.G r .,1865,p. 440,No. 100 ; and 1880, p. 109) 
the name is written in full Zamasp. Drouin (Les Legendes 
des Mommies Sassanides, p. .39) seems to believe erroneously 
that this reading should be Zam af{zut). Thomas (Sassanians 
in Persia, p. 66 sq.) attributes the coins of Jamasp wrongly to 
Hormazd III (457-459) and Rapson (J.R.A.S., 1904, p. 679, 
hg. 10 of the Plate) assigns a drachm to Jamasp, which in 
reality is one of Kobad I (488-497 and 499-531). Vincent 
Smith (Indian Museum Catalogue, Vol. I, p. 226) aligns erro- 
neously a drachm of Jamasp to Firoz I (459-484). 

Description of the | Drachm. 

Metal— Silver. Size.— 45 in. Weight— 7 grs. 

Obverse.— The bust of Jamasp to right with crown, having 
a smaller crescent and globe in the centre surmounted by a 
larger crescent and globe. The hair is brought back and 
arranged in flowing curls, with the fillets of the diadem float- 
ing behind. Facing him is the bust of a youth with crown 
surmounted by a globe, who tends him a crown. Grenetis. 

Legend —Behind the crown. Zam. 

Reverse.— The fire-altar, adorned with bands, having the 
king on both sides facing the altar : on the right of the fire, a 
frescent, and on the left, a star. Grenetis. 

legend.— Left, the date ayo{kl), "one"; and right, fcbe 
mint-monogram AS. Plate I, 9. 

Two mint-monograms AS and ASP make their first appear- 
ance simultaneously during the reign of Bahrain IV (388-399 
and both cease to appear during the reign of Khu-rau 11 
(690-«28), in 626, after figuring on coins for forty-five different- 
years. The question is whether these monograms represent 

16 N Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

the same place or are distinct indications for different mints. 
Both these monograms have been considered as one by Mordt- 
mann {Z.D.M.G., 1854, p. 13, No. 11; 1865, p. 398, No. 4 ; 
and 1879, p. 115, No. 4 ; p. 125, No 50) ; and he has proposed 
the reading ASpahan. In the opinion of De Morgan (Revue 
Nwmismatique, 1913. p. 162. § 2) there is no strong reason for 
assimilating AS with ASP. He (p. 164) interprets them :— AS 
for ASfabur and ASP for ASPahan (Ispahan). 

jjiu*l Asfanabar is one of the seven towns of Irak, known 

as the towns of Kesra ; its ancient name was probably )y &*' 

Aafabur (see Barbier de Meynard, Dictionnaire Geographique, 
Historique et Li tier aire de la Perse, etc., p. 34). 

It possesses a grand royal portico, at present in ruins. It 

is rational to admit that this town having an ^Jy^ aivan had 
at the same time a mint. 

XL A rare type of Drachm of A r da shir III. 

Khusrau II (590-628) dispensed with the traditional globe 
surmounting the crown, and adopted a peculiar form of winged 
head-dress, which continued in use, with only two exceptions, 
to the end of the dynasty, and was copied by the Ispehbeds 
of Tabaristan and the Arab Governors of Persia, down to the 
closing years of the seventh century of the Christian era. But his 
son, Kobad II (628), surmounted his crown with a crescent and 
globe instead of the two wings ; and this style was adopted by 
his son Ardashlr III (628-630) in his first year and during part of 
his second, after which the head-dress of Khusrau II was again 
adopted. Only one coin of the early type of Ardashlr III of 
the first year has been published (see Thomas, Sassanians in 
Persia, Plate VII, Fig. 2), but none of the second. This coin 
bears the mint-monogram MR. 

I have in my cabinet 55 drachms of this rare type, 20 
of the first year and 35 of the second. 

For illustration I have selected only two specimens, one of 
the first year and one of the second. 

All coins of Ardashlr III have the legend Artakhshatr 
afzun. < Long live Ardashlr" and are dated the year ayOki, 
"one"' and taftn, "two," with the indication of the city of 
issue. Although the name of the king was correctly read so 
far back as 1854 by Mordtmann (Z.D.M.G., Vol. VIII, p. 142) 
and in 1858 by Dorn (Melanges Asiatiques, Vol. Ill, October, 
1858, p. 403), it is surprising to find Thomas (Sassanians in 
Persia, p. 02, Plate VII, Figs 2, 3 and 4) reading it Autahshat ; 
Drouin (Les Legendes its Monnaies Sassanides, p. 53) has also 
given the correct reading. 

This prince was seven years of age at the death of his 
father and reigned under the tutelage of M'ihr Adar Gushnasp 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 17 

from September, 628, to the 27th of April 630. With the 

consent of Heraclius, Shahrbaraz [Sapfiapos) murdered the 

young king and usurped the throne, to fall a victim to the envy 

of the peers and the spirit of legitimism on the 9th of June, 

Description of the Drachms. ' 

, Metal.— Silver. Size.— A: 1*25; B: 127. Weight— A: 

• 61*5 grs. ; B : 61*5 grs. 

[ Obverse. — The bust of Ardashir II [ to right, with crown 

surmounted by a crescent and globe. The hair is brought back 
and arranged in flowing curls : without moustache and beard : 
an ear-ring of a large pendant pearl, a pearl necklace having 
three large pendant pearls, and two strings of pearls reaching 
below the bust : the dress adorned with a crescent and star 
on each shoulder. In the field over both shoulders floats a 
fillet ; a crescent over the left shoulder near the chin. Behind 
the crown is a star, and in front, a crescent and star In the 
margin outside the grenetis are set three crescents and stars, to 
the left, right and at the bottom. 

Legend. —Commencing in front of the crown, Ariakhshatr, 

1 Ardashir " • and commencing behind the crown afzun, c; long 
ive. " 

Reverse. — The tire-altar adorned with bands : two person- 
ages facing fronton both sides, wearing tiaras, each surmounted 
by a crescent and a floating fillet : both hands resting on 
their swords. In the field to the left of the fire, a star ; to the 
right, a crescent ; a dot on each side of the upper base of the 
a 'tar. In the margin outside the grenetis are set four crescents 
and stars. 

Legend.— To the left, the date :— A : ayoki, "one"; B: 
tonn, "two"; and to the right, the mint-monogram :— A : 
AT: B: DA. A . Plate I, 10; B : Plate II, I. 

25*4 April, 1921. Furdoonjee D. J. Pa BUCK 

233. Unpublished Mughal Coins 
/. An Ujjain Muhar of Akbar. 

The Ujjain mint is not known to have issued gold coins 
during the time of Akbar, In his introductory mint note- 
(Punjab Museum Catalogue, Xo\ II, p. xxxi). Mr. Whitehead 
»ys with reference to this mint that i; no gold coins of Akbar 
have been found/' But now with the find of the muhar 
described below the status of this mint can be raised to that 
°* a gold issuing mint of Akbar. 

Mftal—Af m Mint.— Ujjain. Tear.— 988 A.H. Weight.— 

18/ gr*. Size.— -7 (square). 

18 N 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 


In diamond formed by 

elongating some of the letters 
in the marginal legends, the 
Kali ma. Mark 4 


1 A A la J 







C' l + k - LS 1 - 







Plate II, 2 

//. A Burhanpur Muhar of Jahan< y ir. 

Jahanglr issued from the Burhanpur mint rupees bearing 
a rare couplet ; but no similar muhar has hitherto been 
known. (See Mr. Whitehead, op. cit ., p. Hv. The muhar 
described below tills this gap. 

Metal.— AT. 


Size. — -7. 

Obverse. — On flowered field. 

Burhanpur. Weight.— 169 grs 

Reverse. — On flowered Held 






)£ 6 # , Ai^j 

er-: ^ ' & 


Plate II, 3. 

///. .4 Ten-rupee Piece of Sural. 

Hitherto, in the silver currency of the Mughals, no coin 
has been known intermediate in size between the double-rupee 
and, the gigantic piece at Dresden (B.M.C., Intro., Ixxxviii! 
A most interesting novelty, therefore, is the ten-rupee piece 
described below which has recently come into my possession- 

Metal— M. Mint.— Surat. Year.— AH. 1185; R.Y. 6. 

Weight.— 1.788 grs. Size.— Dia. 178: thick -28 


I I Ad 

Lc 8U 





ti uliol 






y &^C 


A Flower in 


i lmJ m Of 

Plate Hi 4. 

Note. — in the Plate the obverse and reverse of this coin have been 

transpoa <L 



Numismatic Supplement So. XXXV! I. 

X. 19 

IV. New Mii^al Rupees. 

'Alamglr II, alone of the Mughal Emperors of India is 
known to have taken the laqab of 'Azlzu-d-dln on coins but 
here are two rupees of Shah 'Alam II bearing this laqab. The 
legends are also otherwise unusual. The obverse one appears 
to be mainly a reversion to that adopted by Jahandar Shah 
Jioth these coins are illustrated as they bear legends which 
are complementary to each other. 

M etal . 



Shah jahana bad. 

Year.— II si 

Weight.— A, 174 grs. ; B. 1745 grs. Size.— A, -935; K 875. 


Reverse . 

y ±s 

I lAt A 

• •■ 




>t* li ttXdJIjb 


^ n * J jV° J- 



JLc ^_^\ 

* * 




The top line invites study. 
Plate II, 5 (A) ; 6 (B) 

"he tentative reading of the couplet is : 




*U ^ .^c ^L [ G J.3W4 ] vJjl^c <^ 



" The blessed coin is like the shining Sun and Moon. 
[The coin of] Shah 'Alam c AzIzu-d din, champion of the 

faith, the Emperor." 

V. Unpublished Silver Half -Anno*. 

The later Mughals in their monetary dealings with the 
^outh appear to have imitated its currency. This is evidenced 
from their minute gold coins and further supported by 
silver half -anna pieces described below. These coins number 
^ne hundred and thirty-three and are of five different kings: 
uuhammad Shah, Ahmad Shah. 'Alamgir II, Shah 'Alam II 
and Akbar II. Unfortunately the dies are too big for the flans 
01 these minute coins, consequently several specimens have had 
to be put together to reconstruct the legends. Only three 
aunts have been found. But there are different arrangements 
°f the legends which suggest that the coins may have been 

tnick in different places. 

The three mints are: Khujista Bunvad, Haidarabad and 
Azabad. It is curious to note that *Uu aI^p^ is written 
ttjfcf U~*^k. Codrington in his " Musalman Numismatics/' 

20 N. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

p. 132, quotes the mint ab'^ 1 A'zabad from Tychsen but doe* 

not indicate its situation. Now I think we are in a position to 
assign it at least to Southern India, if not to indicate its exact 
position on the map 

These coins were found at Hyderabad (Deccan). They 

1 / i 

vary in size from "25 to *32 inch and range in weight from 4*5 
to 5 grains. 

For illustration only eight specimens ha ye been -elected 
representing the different types. 






This legend is reconstructed from four different specimens. 

Plate II, 7. 







Plate II. 8. 






r Li 





Li r 





I t 

Re ve rse . 




Ob vet 


I ill 




U joJ 


l''i'oni four specimen-. 

Plate II, 9. 


Numismatic Supplement Xo. XX XVII. 

N. 21 


I Ivl 




From five specimens. 

Other dates are • ivr and t ' vr # 

Plate II. 10. 











b JL 






t r I 


[ibl] ;>a 

Plate II, 11 

R ever s> <■ . 


C * 1 '; 

> r 


From two specimens 

Plate IK 12. 

Note.— In the Plate the obverse and reverse of this and No. 9 

coin have been transposed. 




£- - 


Plate EI, 13 




.'L ?u 




From three specimens. 


22 X. .Journal of the Asiatic Society oj Bengal. [N 8., XIX, 









l^lc -a.) ' ^S 

X f 

i -r-y% 




From seven specimens. 

Plate II, 14. 

I'lth May, 1921. 


Note. — All the coins described in this article are in Mr Paruck a 
collection. —Editor . 

234. The Coins of the BahmaM Kings of Kulbarga 

The following 

o is an attempt to collect in one paper all 
available information regarding the known monetary issues of 
the BahmanI Kings of Kulbarga. The list had its origin in a 
previous one drawn up by Mr. C. J. Brown who, while com- 
piling it, had the advantage of inspecting personally the line 
collection of the late Mr. Framjee Jamasjee Thanawala. The 
list has been revised and extended by me ; and I now publish it 
in the hope that numismatists in India will assist by adding, 
in notes in subsequent issues of the Numismatic Supplement., 
information they have available of coins not included in the 
present list. The information so obtained will prove useful in 
the compilation, at some future time, of a full illustrated 
history of the coinage of the dynasty. 

In addition to the catalogue of coins a bibliography of the 
coinage is appended. This, with the exception of the omission 
of auction sale catalogues is, I believe, exhaustive of the 
literature bearing on the subject. 


Numismatic Supplement Xo. XXX VII. 

\. 2:\ 



Xasiru-d-dtn Isma'il Shah. 



AH. 748. 






^L£ (JL 



Wet^A*, 58 grs., cf. Rodgers, J.A.S.B., 1895, and Codrina- 

ton : pi. 17, fig. l. 


sJ\j Lis) \ j* 

In a double circle. 




Marginal legend illegible 

Weight, 58 grs. ; cf. Codrington, No. 2. 


//. ' Alau-d-din Bothnia n Shah I. 

(Hasan Gangu.) 

AH, 748-760 







> 1 



In a square inscribed in a 
circle : top and right side 
of square consisting of two 
lines } lower side a single line 
and left side missing : in 
top and right segments, 3 
dots : date in lower seg- 





Marginal legend 


• • • * • 

Weight, about i7() m*. 

Dates known :— A.H 57, Thanawala Collection. 

A H. 758 (v»a and -6A), (Collection H. M 

A.H. 750, Thanawala Collection. 
A H. 760, el. Whittell J.A.S.B., 1918. 

24 N. Journal of the A«>ftltc Society of ftengal. j N.S . XIX, 

4. JkUl 


jJULc JLcW tLS, . 

♦ . 

#Stae 1. Weight, 26 grs., Codrington, pi. 17, fig:. -. 
Size 2. Weight, 15 grs., Codrington. 

5. LJjJf !U 

» » 


Size I. Wetgftf, 27 grs., Codrington, pi. 17. fig. 4 
Size 2. Weight, 15 grs., Thanawala Collection. 

///. Muhammad Shah 1. (bin Bahman Shah). 

A.H. 760-777 


Obverse. Reverse. 

^LkLs j n a c j rc i e> 



Margin : 

•>U IL^J o^ L J j&aJI tout irt-i 

»• i • * 

mJ*£P*' I97 * 5 grs., Brit, Mus. from Da Cunha Coll.. cf. 
Oibbs Num. Chr., 1885. 

*. In square area. In square area. 

^'^' JkUi 


Weigh! . about 170 grs. 
Dates known :— .A.H. 763. Brit. Mus. from Da Cunha Coll. 

A.H. 775. Thanawala Coll.. of. Gibbs 

Nona*. Chr.. 1885 No. 2. 

A.H. 776. White Kind Coll. 



Numismatic Supplement No XXX VI 1 

X. 25 



As on No. 6 



In a square in a circle 

ii >u e 

Margins : 



•* • -r" -*n * 


right ^b ti~^J 

lower Date. 
IV eight, about 170 grs. 
Dates known:— A.H. 760 to 762, 765, 77 J ; 772. 774 to 777 




<*-' ' c,^° 

A-t-'f J 

*u .>. 

fig. 5. 

^'J'ze 1. Weight, 24 grs. Size -55, ci. Codrington, pi. 17, 

Sue 2. ire/r////, 16 grs. Size -45. British Museum. 



a.- ~J » 




Weight, 11 grs., British Museum. 





In a circle 


Margin :- 

• • 



Weight, about 55 grs., Codrington. pi. 17. fig. 7. 




Weight, about 56 grs 
13. As above. 

. .. * 

\V fight. 45 grs.. British Museum. 



[idLJ f 

26 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

14. In a circle. In a circle 





Weight 37 grs. j cn R M WM ^ 

Weight, 32 grs. J 

IV. Mujahid Shah (bin Muhammad Shah). 

AH, 776-780. 

Obi< rse. Reverse. 

In a circle 

UJjJI lb 

1 5. ^lU-Jf 

Jit ^ HI 

JJbLJt »U 


*»•-» (sic.) Jbt IW o^i^h. ^jUjaJI ^ > r y* 


!~° J i^**** - i Cr* 

ITeiflr/t/. 192 grs , Brit. Mus., cf. Codrington, pi. 17, fig. 8. 


16. jjir 3)f ^IkUt j n a .sq Uar e within a circle. 

• ' 

**■** UEjUJIj.1 ^U .uiJiJ I ^^ 

..IfcLJf *u 

cr^V ^' 

„, . , , Margins as on No. 8 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :-A.H. 778, British Museum. 

A.H. 779, Gibbs, No. 5. 

17. In an irregular hexagon. 



fi J Vei 9to, 54 grs., British Museum, cf. Codrington, pi. 17, 

P. Da'Sd iSAaft / (bin Mahmud Khan). 

No coins known. 


•923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 27 

VI. Muhammad Shah II. 

-AH. 780-799. 


r8€ ' Reverse. 

18. ^bjiftjl S [^Jl ] ^UJi 

Ob vt 



>W *! ^U. * 

!iW *U b ...IfaJLJI *U 


*«**«. 168-7 grs., British Mus 


eu m . 

]q f . Silver. 

&£*{?* w ' Jn a square in a circle 

M r . t , , Margins as on No. 8 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 791 to 799 * 

20.3 Copper. 

In a circle 



.Margin : 



Weight, about 80 grs., Codrington, pi 17, fig. 11 

VI I. Ghiyasu-d-din Bahman Shah 

No coins known. 

fine 8rJ» faaVe beet l favour «cl with a cast of this coin which is evidently a 
exn^l^ Clm ? n ' Til e inscription is very plain and complete with the 
^caption of the top line of the reverse/ 

than a V 8 .n° tinvorth y that no coin of Muhammad Shah II. dated earlier 

Shah II i% "° we ^ Codrington in attributing this issue to Muhammad 
m» na i ' attribution, however, must remain doubtful until speci 

118 he * r,n * fegible raai^in* come to hand. 


28 N. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., MX, 

VIII. Shamsu d-dhi Da'ud Shah II {bin Muhammad Shah II) 


21. tJJb&ji-Jt 


A.H. 799. 



In a square in a circle. 

HPeigftt, about 170 grs. 

Date :— A.H. 799, cf. Gibbs, No. 7 ' 

Margins as on No. 8 

9-> i 






In a circle 

Weight, about 82 grs. 

Date:— A.H. (7)99, British Museum. 

* Li- 

Margin : 

• • 


Ui*~J ^ £-* 


/X. Firoz Shah (Roz Afzun). 

>*£' . a! J^ ii 

A.H. 800-825. 




^; ^ 

In a circle 

joMi , iitJI 



j>> y^ 



IkJLJf *l& 


•srin : 

wXU' >fc »^-u >Li,^' to-» ^r^ 



iFet^&i, 196 grs., British Museum from Da Cunha Coll.. 

cf. Gihbs. No 8. 

1 Other specimens were in the White King and Thanawala Collec- 


1 Codrington, in the absence of a legible margi 
tributed this; issue to Da'ud Shah I. 

in on a specimen. 


Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII 

X 20 










In a square in a circle. 

• ! 

IkJU ' 

Margins :- 

ib LL 




A • £ 

HVr/A/, 139 grs, Thanawala, J.A.S.R. I90», Xo. 7. 

In a square in a circle 




u jiV' 

,flfc t t< -i 

Margins as on Xo. 8. 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 800 to 825 (except A. II 809). 




u !*•> 



Weight, about 80 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 



J EaJ I 




H ' /'r/A/. about 40 grs 

In a circle 



Margin : 



and date in -Arabic. 

* w^ 

. . 1, cf. Burn, J.A.S.B,, 1907. 
. . .1. c f. Burn. J.A.S.B.. 1907 

There are two varieties of this issue. Jn the earlier issues (A.H. 

y>0 to 804) the loop on the T on the reverse is short : on the later issue 
tne loop is closed. ^ 

This reading is not certain. On a coin in rny collection the words 

' ; ^ li 



» • * • 

are verv clear. 


30 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XTX, 

X Ahmad Shah 1 l (Walt Bahmani). 

A.H. 825-838. 


Obverse. Reverse. 

28. ^IkLJt In oval area. 

UJI JiLH Ji>UI ^*)tj Li All V U- 

above (inverted), o^-imj wyo 

with m.m. 

<s> ; 

below, jIjLLv.^.' and date. 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— AH. 826, Gibbs, No. 13 

A.H. 827, Coll. H. M Whittell. 
AH. 828. White King Coll. 
A.H. 829. British Museum. 

„ •• 



«^ c 


Weight, about 250 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 832. British Museum. 

A.H. 833, Burn. J. A S.I*., 1907. 

A.H. 838, Burn, J.A.S.B., 1907. 

30. &j *Jt S„*isu (inverted) 

^iL=Ji wjajf ^ LkLJI ** ^' 


Date and >ib' 

Dates known:— A.H. 827 (?), Burn, J.A.S.B., 1907 (but 

mint not legible). 
A.H. 832. Burn, J A SB.. 1907.* 

7 3 3 

A.H. 83: . Thanawala Collection. 

A.H. 835, British Museum. 

A.H. 836, Codrineton. Xo. I. p. 267 

(pl 17,% 12). 

1 Ahmad Shah I made BTdar (Muhammadabad) hid capital in 
AH, 826 

• * Therefore, although BIdar was made the capital in A.H. 826, the 
earliest known date for a coin bearing this mint name is A.H. 882. 


1923. j 

Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII 

N. 31 





Li J' 

A.H. 837.. Coll. H. M. Whittell 
AH 838, British Museum. 


lUJl cJ 

^IkJUf *U 



Weight, about 80 grs. 

Dates known :— A H. 825 to 831, 834, 835 and 837 

XI. ' Alau-d-din Ahmad Shah 1 ] 

A.H. 838-862. 




SU ill „J>)t 


Re re rse . 
Tn a square in a circle. 

5ix JifeJ« tJ l 

J«y*.M ^ JLaiJI -jc 

w Ux HI , 


'I ?u 

Margins as on No. 8 but mint 
name probably ^Ij' 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 853. British Museum, of. Pelmeriek. 



fi/* <* 



J.A.S.B., 1876. 
A.H. 855. Tnd. Mus. Cat., No. 18. 

In a square in a circle. 

Mx .ifcjl ...» 



Wet>^., 171 grs. ; Gibbs, No. 14. 

Lower margin »Al 


As on No. 32. 


As on No. 32 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known:— A.H. 844, 845, 847, 850, 852 and 86( 

to 861. 

32 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [,\ T .S .XIX, 



, JUJI *JL« b ,.,U=JUI *l£ 



Weiqht. about 250 grs. 

Dates known :— A. FT. 8:58, 842 to 847. 849 to 854 and 


36. In a circle. 


»L& j,*^ 

8U >*^ l ^ 

Margin : — Date 

?) dUA^^k i*Lf JS+SP^C &yi*2BC wyi 

Weigh/, about 170 grs. 

Date< known :— A.H. 849, 850. 852 to 857 and 8(50. 

37. .wUf 


sic) UJD ^U! a*SlL j><^J ,.y *U 


WctgrAt. about 124 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 838 to 85fi, 850 to S60. 

3s. Ai* L >U, >*^» 

• .. 

J» »U ^*^» ^ 




Siw 1. Weight, about 80 grs., Codrington, pi. 17, fig. ' 4 

Dates known :— A.H. 839 to 841. 843. 844. 847. 8t8 

850, 853. 
Size 2 U >ight, about 52 grs 

1 Since receiving Major Whittell's monograph. I have had a commu- 
nication from Ch Muhammad Ismail of the Prince of Wales' Museum. 
Bombay, in which he also gives the hitherto unread word in the top 



liffers in one respect from that of Major Whittell : for *W* in the third 
line he would read aL". — Editor. 


102.3.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 33 

XI I. ' Aldu-d-din Humayun Shah (Zalim). 

A.H. S02-86f>. 

Gold . 

Obverse. . tie verse. 

39. J? JJ\ itfS^'j l V^ M ** 

jj^aJI ai> I Jx ~ v *^' ^- 8U d* 1 ** 

vX' 1 **'' '-*' LS 

I Weight, 170 grs., British Museum 



40. As above. As above hut 

ill LL^t 
in right margin. 

Weight, about 170 grs. 
Bates known:— A.H. 862 (?), Bleazby Collection (Sale 

Catalogue, No. 444). 

A.H. 863, Ind. Mus. Cat., No. 32. 
A.H. 864.. Cod ring ton. 

41. As above. As above but no mint 

Size 1. Weight, about 245 grs. 
Dates known :— A.H. 863 to 866. 

Size 2. Weight, about 160 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 863. British Museum. 

A.H. 86r, Coll. H. M. Whittell. 

Size 3. Weight, about 1 1 5 grs., Codrington. 
Size 4. Weight, about 77 grs.. Codrinaton. 

42. . JrJL)| 


U >rp/^. about 12o grs., Ind. Mus. Cat., No. 33. 

43. ;' ; b 

tULj vU-J 

i r 


Weight 80 grs., British Museum, of. Codrirgton, pi. 18, 
hg. 1. 

34 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XI X . 

XIII. Nizam Shah (bin Humayun Shah). 

A H. 865-867. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

44. In a circle. ? L£ ^-♦^l 


*UJ*fL4 ,. 


Wl <_>aH Date. 

Weight, about 250 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 866, 1 British Museum. 

A.H. 867, British Museum, Cocking ton, 
pi. 18, fig. 2. 






Weight, about 165 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 866. British Museum. 

46/ gkjl 

A.H. 867, British Museum, Codrington, 
pi. 18, fig. 3. 

As above 


aJLIf yd, date below. 

Weight, about 125 sjrs 

Dates known:— A.H. 866. Codrington, pi. 18, fig. 4 

A.H. 867. 

47 - t^V' As on No. 45. 



Ifet^M, about 75 grs., Codrington, pi. 18. fig. 5. 

1 There is one in my collection with date AT r (=860). 

i A specimen in my collection of 127 grs. wt. has the obverse •» 
reverse legends in circles and does not appear to bear n date. 





4923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXV 1L N. 35 

XIV. Shamsu-d-din Muhammad Shah III 

A.H. 867 to 887. 

Obverse, Reverse. 

48. aJJIj In a square within a circle. 



Margins as on No. 8 but mint 

Weight, about 170 grs., Gibbs, No. 18. 
Dates known :— A.H. 868, 873, 877 to 879. 


49. As above. As above 

Weight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 876 to 880 886. 


-50. iiib 

Copper . 


" ?L£J^I«j» ^ 





«S'i2e 1. Weight, about 250 grs. 

Dates known:— A.H. 868 (ata and ata), 869 (aii and 

ST a), 870 to 872, 874 to 878, 879, 

880, 882, 883 (ArA), 884, 885. 

Some of these liave the m.m. «=£■ on obverse after ^a". 

*ize 2. I If ight, about 170 grs. 

Dates known :— A.H. 870 (a-vj. 871, 873,874,877, 878. 

882, 886. 

^■me of these have m.m. y on reverse and ^j=> on obverse. 

•Size 3. Weight, about 120 grs. 
Dates known :^A.H. 871 and 882. 

-e 4. H-e/r/A/. about 80 grs. 
Dat.- -A.H. 87| * ). Thanawala Collection. 

36 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.8., XIX, 

XV. Mahmud Shah (bin Muhammad Shah 111), 

AH. 887 to 024. 


Obverse. Reverse. 

51. ^Is Ji'yijt In a square within a circle. 


Jl .JJ! 

Margins as No. 8. 
Mint aUI ±+=^ ? 

Weighty about 170 grs. 

Dates :— A.H. 889, Bleazby Coll. (Sale Cat.. No. 445). 

A.H. 891, Da Cunha Coll. 

A.H. 895, British Museum. 

A.H. 898, British Museum. 

The mm. n^a occurs on the obverse of some specimens 
(cf. Delmerick. J.A.S.B . 1876). 

52. As above. As above. 

Weight, about 170 grs. 
Dates :— A.H. 887, Thanawala Collection. 

A.H. [8]88, Thanawala. Collection. (This coin 


has dU s^s^o in right margin.) 


53. ^JL: JSyjt »U dj 

£i*e 1. Weight, about 250 grs., Codrington. pi. 18, fig. 6 
Dates known :— AH. 887 to 890. 

Size 2. Weight, about 200 grs. 

Size 3. Weight, about 120 grs. 

Date :— A.H. 889, Coll. Bombay Br. R.A.S. 



54. aJUt , u 


Jf^ 1 ! c w rt- 

Weight. 78 grs., British Museum. 


V 1923. j Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 37 


55. J* JS jU ! ? U i 

UJ ' ^J I 


Weight, about 165 grs. 

Date: -A.H. 887, British Museum, Corlrington, pi. 18, 

fig. 7. 

56. ^ J/yj' As above 

i r it i* H in but no date. 

Weight, about 165 grs. 
57. As on No. 55. *li> 

Weight, about 165 grs, 


c ,tUJf 

Sjc'f AiJ 


IJWite, 152 grs. and 128 grs., Coll. H. M. Whittell 

XVI. Ahmad Shah III 

No coins known. 

XVII. 'Alau-d-dhiShah. 
No coins known. 

X VIII. WaU-ullah Shah (bin Mahmud Shah) 

A.H. 92>.>-9:*2. 


jd)f ^ 


.xw'f cH c; 


UJ I ,Jl 



H'ei^/. about 2.30 grs. ; Thanauala Coll., Codrington, 

P». 18, 6e. 8 

38 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

60. *!'» 




Stee 1. Weight, about 1 65 grs., Codrington, pi. 18, fig. 9 
Size 2. Weight, about 125 grs. 

61. As above but As above but 

without JjAI. d ate in place 

Of , . A +frJL 

Weight, 84 grs. 

Date :— A.H. 930, cf. Codrington, pi. 18, fig. 10. 

Kalim-ullah Shah (bin Mahmud Shah). 

A.H. 932 to (?). 

Obverse. Reverse. 

62. <d't 




£tse 1. Weights, 166 to 176 grs. 
Date:— A.H. 942, Codrington. 

Size 2. Weights, 118 to 146 grs. 
Size 3. Weight, 85 grs. 

63. *JUI ^ aDI *^T 

^' ***»« yi », 



^iAil ^^flJf yU ,3 




Weight, about 250 grs., Codrington, pi. 18, fig. 11 
Date :— AH [93]3, Coll. C. J. Brown. 

A.H. 950, Thanawala Collection. 

64. aU! ^ 

U tight, about 250 grs. 


1923.1 Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 39 

65. aL" 



■wJ' ,.,UsJLJl 

■v \ZJ 

Weight, about 90 grs., Codrington, pi 18, fig. 12 
66. -sdLM 



Weight, 45 grs.. cf. Codrington. No. 5 


List of Rare Muhammadan Coins, No. IT. Coins of Kings of 

Dehli, Bengal, Malua, Kulbarga and Kashmir, J. G. 

Delmerick. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

Gold and Silver Coins of the Rahmani Dynasty, J. Gibbs. 

Numismatic Chronicle, 1881. 
The Copper Coins of the Bahmani Dynasty, 0. Codrington. 

Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 

Society.. 1883. 
Coins of the Muhammadan States of India in the British 

\ Museum, S. Lane-Poole, 1885. 

Coins of the Bahmani Dynasty, O. Codrington! Numismatic 

Chronicle, 1898. 
Catalogue of Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Vol.11. Part I. The Sultans of Dehli. 

Part II. Contemporary Dynasties in India, 

H. N, Wright, 1907. 

The Bahmani Kings (A report on 869 Copper Coins found in 
the Betul District, C.P.) R. Burn. Journal of the Asiati 
Society of Bengal. 1007, Num. Supp. VII. 
* Some Rare Silver and Copper Coins of the Bahmani Kings of 

Gulbarga or Ahsanabad, F. J. Thanawala. Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1009. N.S., XI. 

On Two Finds of Bahmani Coins, C. J Brown. Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1014. N S., XXII. 

The Reign of 'Alau-d-dln Bahmani Shah, H. M. Whittell. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1018. N.S., 


Pe«haioar,N.'W.F.P. t India. H. ML Whittell. Major. 

2<kh September, 1922. Indian Army 

tO N. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Hen (/ah [N.S., XIX, 

235, An Unidentified Coin of Gujarat. 

- ; . 

The coin which is the subject of this note is of good silver 
of the ordinary Gujarat! Sultan type. Its weight is 1 10 grains, 
its diameter about "68 inch and it is round in shape. Plate 
III, 1. [Pandit Ratilal Antanfs coin, see Note (2)] On the 
reverse the inscription is clear beyond all dispute. 


WX *J 


; i 

On the obverse *±$U o^x and the date 963 are also certain. 
The intervening letters have not been read. The word v^> 
appears indicated as one would expect — but then something 


and fttt vide the plate illustration A. 1 It is in 
very good condition and the letters are clearly struck. The 

^ or j^> 

1 This paper has unfortunately been held up for a considerable time 
during which a good deal of criticism has gathered round it. As some of 
this may help towards the solution of the problem presented by this 
puzzling coin, a summary of it is given here : 

(1) Pandit Ratilal Antani sent in a paper entitled "A Coin in conflict 
with History " on a coin similar to the above but dated 964, wt. 109 grs., 
size, -<>6: but he was unable to throw any further light on the problem. 

(2) Mr. R. B. Whitehead suggested the following reading for the 
reverse •• 963 ahd zarbat l urf Mandu." "This is the clear reft ding" he 
says, *• in spite of the facts that we are not given the 'url of Mandu, that 
the word zarhat is archaic and the word ahd somewhat previous. " 

(3) Mr. H. N. Wright says : " These silver coins were almost certainly 
issued by the same king as those in B.M.C.. Muhammadan States. No» 
437-439. . . My own view is that 963 is certain and that what has been taken 


I °r ,>JL=J is connected with the mint-name, of which . jJL 

c IS 


alias: jJiJ is untenable, as the copper coins have the full <\£JU *i" *"■ 

on the obverse. The coins are 'Malwa' not < Gujarat ' as indicated by in© 
mint marks (2 or 3) on the CO peer coin*. The king's name is " Muhammad 
bin MuzafTar" nor "Muzaflar bin Muhammad." But who he was and 
how he came to issue coins we have vet to learn." 

(4) Professor S. H. Hodivala drew attention to the silver com 
(No. 4511) and the copper piece (No 4512), both dated 904 AH., recorded 
in the White King Sale Catalogue, and also to the fact that B.M.C. 
Muhammadan states, Xo. 430. a copper piece dated 903, is -quare. 




1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVIL N. 41 

legends on the reverse of Gujarat! coins are read from the 
bottom upwards. All the specimens shown in the Indian 
Museum Catalogue and Dr. Taylor's article in the Journal of 
the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1904. p. 278, 
agree in this. We know then that the ruler who struck this 
coin was Muzaffar. the son of Muhammad, and that the coin was 
struck in Mandii in the year 963 Hijri. The ruler of Gujarat 
from 961 to 968 Hijri was Ghiyasu-d-dunyS wa-d-dln Ahmad 
Shah III. "Earlv in this rei^n, a party headed bv Ikhtivaru- 
i-Mulk espoused the cause of another aspirant to the throne, a 
person named Shahu, the Sultan's paternal uncle; but in a 
battle fought near Ma hm (Ida bad this Shahu and his supporters 

were defeated." The Mir'at-i-Ahmadl from which Dr Taylor's 

sentence above quoted is mainly derived, calls Ahmad 111 son 
of Latlf Khan, who was grandson of Shukar Khan, son of 
Sultan Ahmad I. But this does not give the name of the 
grandfather of Ahmad I IT. In the genealogy given by Dr. 
Taylor. Ahmad III is put down conjeeturally as the son of 
Mahmiid III, who was son of Latlf Khan. In this case if the 
word ' uncle' were used strictly Shahu would have been son of 
Latlf Khan. Shahu is a priori the person whom one might 
suppose to have issued this coin. Numismatists have debated 
about a Muhammad Shah, pretender, who is supposed to have 
struck coin in 963 Hijri. Mr. Oliver, in his article on Gujarat 
coins in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1889), 
attributed a billon coin to this Muhammad and the British 
Museum Catalogue assigns copper coins to him. Dr. Taylor. 
m his article, disbelieves in this alleged ruler Muhammad. 
There seems no reason to read downward- the reverse of 
the coin now under consideration — if this were done, it might 
be argued that it was the pretender Muhammad re appearing. 
I>r. Taylor points out that the Mir'at-i-Ahmadl specifically 
asserts that during the reign of Mahmud III, (who died in 961), 
a grandson of Ahmad Shah II was set op as Sultan. Coin was 
struck in his name and he took the title of Muzaffar Shah It 
ia possible that this coin mav belong to him. No specimen of 

this alleged coinage ha> yet been found. But as MuzatTar- 
rebellion was crushed about 950 it is most unlikely that this 
coin can be his. 

In Malwa Shuja k Khan whojaad ruled the country for twelve 
year* died in 962 A.M. His tin e soirf Malik Bayazld. Daulat 
Khan and Mustafa Khan at first divided the country between 
them. Daulat Khan had the districts contiguous to Ujjain 
*&d Hindu. Malik Bayazld, however, treacherously killed 
daulat Khan and was crowned king of M dwa under the title of 
^ulfcan Baz Bahadur in 963 A.H. He m>ou after defeated his 
remaining brother Mustafa Khan and also several rebellious 
officers. Baz Bahadur s coins are well known in copper hut 
follow the Malwa type and are quite unlike this coin 

42 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX 

Dr. Taylor offered two alternative explanations, on the 
supposition that 963 is a mistake for 923. The first hypothesis 
is that the coin was struck by Muzaffar II of Gujarat: In 923 
he was helping to restore Mahmud III of Malwa to his throne 
and he actually captured .Mandu in 924 A.H. and the date is 
given by the hemistich U ^IkU ^LJt f v, tf Qad lath cd Mandu 

Sultan na L But he at once restored the sovereignty of Malwa 
to Mahmud although he might easily have kept it for himself; 
and moreover Muzaffar II of Gujarat was bin Mahmud and not 
bin Muhammad. 

« s u^??u hei ' L gUe ; SS is this " From 916 AH until 921 A.H. 
Sahib K.ian. brother of Mahmud II of Malwa. assumed the title 

of Sultan Muhammad (White King, Num. Chron., 1903). It is 

possible that ,n the year 923, a son of Sahib &hln called himself 
Sultan Mu/affar and struck coin in Mandu. perhaps even while 
A uzattar II of Gujarat was besieging it. This is perhaps more 
plausible a though there ->vas no reason for this pretender to 
adopt the Gujarat! type of coin. 

l«* I? conclusion I must express my grateful thanks to the 
late Ur Taylor who kindly corresponded with me about this 
com and from whose letters or article nearly every fact in this 
note has been derived. 

T. B. Horwooi). 

236. An Unpublished Copper Coin of Jahangir of 


\ Posse SS two coins of Jahangir apparently hitherto unpub- 
lished. I bey may be of two different types. Both are 

rectangular in shape. ' 

W'ight*: each about 100 grains 

8%ze : B. 55 x 52 ;C/6x 56 inch. 

Legend: Obverse. Reverse _ 

► • • • • 

— i. aL*. 



Provenance, V'jjain. in a batch with other copper coins 
of Ujjaui of Akbar and Shah Jahan. 

T. B. Hobwoop 

2:>7. Ox Som-b Malava Coins. 

The coins described in this paper are commonly known 
as the Malava coins. They were, like all other similar coin- 
hitherto collected, found at Nfigar in the Jaipur State and 

were given to me by Mr. Nelson Wright. 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVIL N. 4:\ 

The site of the ancient cit} 7 of Nagar lies within the 
territories of the Raja of Uniara, a feudatory of Jaipur. 
Uniara is situated just south of Tonk. 

Vincent Smith writes n this connection : " Here Carl ley le 
found the remains of a city of high antiquity with a multitude 

of old temples and great embankments The Malava coins 

occurred in large numbers in many spots, and he ■ found the 
small green old coins in some places lying as thick as shells on 
the seashore. ' Altogether he and the people employed by him 
gathered more than six thousand; out of which not more than 
about 35 coins were of outside origin or derived from a foreign 


source. With the exception of these few, the whole of the 
v. coins found at Nagar were exclusively of Xagar mintage and 

belonged to Nagar alone/' 

The coins described by Vincent Smith in his Indian Museum 
Catalogue are a part of that find. A large proportion of fchfc 
find has been lost. 

The date of these coins is disputed. Carlleyle and Cun- 
ningham put the date at 250 B.C. to 250 A.D. Vincent Smith 
* and Prof. Rapson are agreed that the initial date for the 

coins is about 1£0 B.C. But they are not agreed as to the 
respective dates of the various types or the date of the 
cessation of these local issues. Vincent Smith is probably 
right in attributing the cessation of this local coinage to 
Samudra Gupta's conquest of North India, According to his 
latest history this will fix the date of the latest issue at about 
350 A.D. But I think that Vincent Smith is wrong when he 


aya that the larger coins, specimens 1-11 in his Catalogue. 
are among the earliest. I am inclined to think that Prof. 
Kapson is nearer the mark when he puts them among the 
Jater Malava issues, owing to their similarity to the coins of 
the Xagas of Padmavati. My reasons for agreeing with Prof. 
Pvapson are 

(1) In the 2nd century B.C. (the date aligned for thesr 
types by Vincent Smith) Prakrit inscriptions were the order 
of the day. None of the inscriptions known to date from 
that period are in pure Sanskrit. The legend read on these 

oins is Malava nam J ayah. This is pure Sanskrit. The term- 
ination commonly used for the genitive plural in Prakrit is 
-ana. sometimes -anam, never -anam. 

(2) I am of the opinion that Malaya is the older form 
of the tribal name. This is a form found on some of the coins. 
Now, there is a people mentioned in Sanskrit literature M 
living in the east of the Panjab, called variously the Malaya 
'he Malava. or the Malava tribe. They were the people who 
P'*t up the stoutest resistance to Alexander during Ins campaign 
i* the Pan jab. The Greeks called them the Malloi. Had the 
name Malava been in common use at that time, I feel sun- 
that the Greeks would have transliterated the word as the 

44 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX* 

Malluoi. This seems to me to show that the commoner form 
of Hie tribal name at the time of the Greek invasions was 


There seems to me to be little doubt that these mysterious 
Ma lavas of the coins were the descendants of the people who 

faced Alexander 150-200 years before, driven away by con- 
tinual pressure from the Xoi th-West from their prosperous settle- 
ments along the valleys of the Ravi and the Boas to the more 
rugged and barren, but less accessible country to the south 
of Tonk. This view is supported by the fact that some of 
the coins have inscriptions reading from right to left. This 
would seem to betoken an origin from further North-West, 
where, under the influence of the Kharosthl script. Brahmi 
inscriptions are found reading from light to left. 

I, therefore, conclude that the earlier coins are those on 
which Malaya or Malaya is read or on which there are inscrip- 
tions reading from right to left. This would put Nos. 1, 2. 3 
and 16 of those described as among the earliest 

There seems to be a great variety of tvpes among the^e 
Malava coins. Both Carlleyle and Vincent Smith recognize 
a good many difTereut types. Among the collection described 
here none of those with anything at all distinguishable on them 
are duplicates. As in Carlleyle's collection there are few coins 
among them of obviously foreign origin. Thanks to the un- 
pleasant climate and the inaccessibility of their home, the 
Malavas were left undisturbed by fresh invasions from the 
North -West or by the formation of fresh empires in India. The 
fact that very few coins of outside origin are found at Nagar 
shows that the Malavas were more or less out of touch with 

the rest of the world. It is obvious too that these coins would 

have been of little use in dealings with merchants living at 
\ distance from Nagar. Their onlv use could have been in 
minor transactions in the local markets, and it must have 
been a poor community that could find a use, even in local 
dealings, for such low- valued coins. 

The only coins among this collection which I can definitely 
recognize as foreign coins appear to be specimens of the coin- 
of Maharaja Deva, one of the Naga kings of Narwar. It has 
been clearly established before that there was some sort of 
connection between these two small communities. I am inclin- 
ed to think that specimens 58. 59 6Q and 72 (a) in Vincent 
Smiths Catalogue are Naga coins and that the correct reading 
on all these specimens is Maha-janasa jam. There are distinct 
points of similarity in design 'between "them and the coins of 
Malta iaia Ganapati of Xaga. 

It is possible that Xo. 29 is an Avanti coin, bur I • W 
find no parallel coin to it in Vincent Smith's Catalogue. 

All the other coins eiven in the attached list are, I think, 

Numismatic Supplement No. XXXV 1 1. N. 45 


List of Coins. 

(1) Obverse. — Malaya Reverse — Obscure markings in the 
shape of irregular dots. 1 cannot find this in either Rodders' ' 
or Vincent Smith's Catalogue. If the theory put forward above 
is correct. This should be one of the earlier coins, it is 
t flicker and of coarser workmanship than many of the coins. 

(2) Obverse. — Mala in clear letters written twice On 
top from left to right, below from right to left. Inscription 

T have mentioned this coin above. 1 consider it one of 
the older types. It too like Xo. 1 is rather thicker than the 
majority of the coins for its size. Mala may be the name of 
>ome king named after the original founder of the tribe. 
Malaya is probably a derivative from " mala ,? meaning simply 
• the tribe of Mala." 

(3) Obverse. — Mala in the centre of the coin ; very faint. 
Probably the complete inscription. Reverse. — Defaced. This 
is probably a kindred coin to Xo. 2, but a later ksue. 

(4) Jama pa on obverse. Reverse. — Obscure. This is pro- 
bably the same coin as No. 12455 in Kodgers' Catalogue 
and No. 99 in Vincent Smith's Catalogue. Possibly Vincent 
Smith is mistaken in reading a ' ya' endwise, and this mark 
is only a defect in the coin. 

(5) Obverse. — Yama on left and tree in railing on right. 
Reverse. — Defaced. This coin seems to be connected with 
No. 69 in Vincent Smith's Catalogue, where Yama and a 
tree in a railing are found on the obverse. But it is differ- 
ently arranged. 

(5A) Obverse.— (Ma)?— Gaja. Reverse. — Elephant facing 
right. This is probably the same as Xos. 82 and SIS in 
Vincent Smith's book. Gaja is Sanskrit for an elephant. 
So the device on the reverse seems to have some connection 
with the name The prefix ; ma' in these coins may possibly 
be an abbreviation for 4 Ma ha ' meaning ' great ' or it may be 
the mysterious name 
Trimurti. Magaja 
elephant of Vishnu/' etc. 

(6) Obverse.— Tree and Na Jaya. Malava ol-cured. 
Reverse.— Obscure, but probably animal with horns facing 
'eft. Similar to Nos. 49 to 58 in Vincent Smith's Catalogs 
and 12411 in Rodgers' Catalogue. But I can find no exact 

(7) Obverse.— Malava only, in bold characters set in an 

le ' Ma ' applied to the three gods^ of 
would then mean r< elephant of Siva" 


incuse circle. Reverse— Humped bull facing left in standing 
Position. I can find no parallel to this coin in either Badgers 1 

* C J. Rodgers, Catalogue of the Coins of the Indian Museum, P„rr 
Hi) Calcutta, 1895, p. 15. 

46 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

or Vincent Smith's, though it belongs to the circular ' Bull 

(8) Obverse. — Malava only, across the centre. Reverse. — 
Humped bull facing left. Somewhat similar to No. 7. 

(9) Obverse. — Palm-branch with Malava on one side and 
Na Jaya on the other. Reverse. —Animal facing right in dotted 
border. This is possibly the same as No 28 or 30 in Vincent 
Smith's Catalogue. 

(10) Obverse. — Malava; NaJaya. Reverse. — Humped bull 
facing left, recumbent. Rectangular shape. I can find no 
parallel to this in Vincent Smith's Catalogue, though it is 
somewhat similar to No. 37. 

(11) Obverse. — Malava only in the centre of the coin. 
Reverse. — Bull facing left. I can find no exact parallel to this 
Possibly same as 12456 of Rodgers' Catalogue. 

(12) Obverse. — Malava sujaya. Reverse. — Humped bull 
facing right This coin is fairly large and square. I can find 
no parallel in the catalogues. The letters are fairly distinct 
and I am convinced that the first letter in the second line is 
not 'na.' I read ■ su ' which gives good sense. The inscrip- 

tion then reads ' The well-conquering Malava." 

( 1 3) Obverse. — Malava in incuse square. Reverse. — Animal 
facing left. This coin is cylindrical in shape. I can find no 
exact parallel to it. 

(14) Obverse. — Malava and tree. The part obscured is 
probably ' na jaya. 7 Reverse. — Lion facing left. Probably 
similar to No. 28 in Vincent Smith's Catalogue. 

(15) Obverse. — Malava ; Na Jaya ; very faint. Reverse. 
Lion facing right. This coin does not appear to resemble any 
of the : Lion type' coins in Vincent Smith's Catalogue. 

(16) Obverse.— Malaya or Malava in bold letters across 
the middle. The last letter is very badly formed if it is 
meant for a ' va.' It looks very much like a ' cha.' Per- 
haps we should read Malacha. I see in Rodgers' Catalogue 
a coin of about the same size on which he reads Mapaeha 
It is possible that this is the same coin. The middle letter 
however looks to me more like a Ma' as the second stroke 
is longer than the first On the whole I am inclined to think 
it is a - ya' turned sidewise asin No. 73 of Vincent Smith's Cata- 
logue. Under a magnifying glass there are distinct traces of 

- & 

the upper part of the letter being turned back like the lower 
part. The whole coin has a distinct similarity to No. 73 of 
Vincent Smith's Catalogue. In that coin too the middle letter 
looks to me more like a ' la.' If Malaya is the correct 
reading, this coin should be placed among the earlier coin- 
It is certainly like them in construction. 

(17) Obverse. — Malava in centre Reverse. — Elephant. ' 
an find no parallel to this coin. It i> in fairly good con- 


Numismatic Supplement No. XXXV II 

N. 47 

dition. and by the formation of the letters and general appear- 
ance I judge it to be one of the later types. 

(18) Obverse. — Malum on] v. Reverse.— Defaced. 

(19) Ditto. 

(20) Malava on top and traces of ya heiou. Reverse. 

(21) Obverse. — Malava and tree. Reverse. — Defaced. 

(22) Obverse. — Tree and %—jaya. Reverse. — Defaced. 

Tree in railing. 

(23) Obverse. — Mala — ? (va). Reverse.- 

(24) Obverse. — Tree in railing on left : right, letters ob- 
scured. Reverse. — Animal in dotted border. I can find no 
parallel to this in the catalogues. 

(25) Obverse. — Tree with traces of inscription on each 
side. Reverse. — Small vase in dotted border. Similar in 
type to Nos. 14-22 in Vincent Smith's Catalogue, and Nos. 
12426-12429 of Rodgers' Catalogue 

(26) Obverse.—Tr 


legend jay a 

Reverse. — In- 

distinct. Possibly a figure between two sacrafieial posts in a 
dotted square. 1 cannot find anything with a similar reverse 
to this in the catalogues. 

(27) Obverse. — Mala — ? (va) Reverse.— Vase with handles. 
There appears to be nothing exactly like this in the catalogues. 

two lines somewhat obscure. This i 
No. 12 in Vincent Smith's Catalogue, 
Malava and jaya. Reverse. — Lota in dotted 

(28) Legend in 
possibly the same 
i.e.. Obverse. 

(29) Obverse. — Ujjain symbol. Reverse — Obscure mark- 
ings on one edge, one of which resembles conventional sign 
for a lotus flower. 

(30) Open lotus flower on one side. Other side defaced 
Possibly the same as No. 12425 in Rodger*'. 

(31) Obverse. — Malava. Reverse. — Lotus flower. 

30/// December. 1921. 

\{. O. Douglas- 



238. Notes on the Coinage of Tifpmba. 


Rajadhara, 1608 8. 

Fig. 1 . 



■ I <: 


' &T ; * v ■ Tim 





% ?»> » B 3 

'-*;■ r, 



S I gfeftra. 15228 

Fig. 2. 

48 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S.. XIX, 



Kalyana, 1548 B 
Fi". 3. 

Ratna, 1607 S. 
Fig. 4. 

J. An alleged Coin of iiawla Govinda of Sylhet. 

I have to thank Mr. H. E. Stapleton, I.E.S., for drawing my 
Attention to an article which deals with a coin of unknown 
provenance belonging to the cabinet of the Indian Museum, 
published bv Mr. R, D. Banerji, M.A., in Numismatic Sup- 
plement No. XXXUI (J.A.S.B., No. 3, 1920, pp. 86 and 87). 
Dr. Smith, in his Indian Museum Catalogue, Vol. I. p 314, 
read the obverse legend on this coin thus: 

1 . Sasaka 


c h i 


3. 1 1 a D e v a h. 
coin is illustrated as No. 6 of Plate 

of the 

Catalogue. Mr. Banerji first read the legend as 
govinda Devah " ; but Pandit B. B. Vidvavinoda, Asst. Curator. 
Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, corrected the reading 
to ; ' Gurugovinda Devah," which Mr. Banerji now accepts. 
On the strength of this reading he proceeds to identify this 
Gurugovinda asGaudagovinda, the king who is said by tradition 
to have been ruling at the time of the conquest of Sylhet by 
the Muhammadans. Mr. Banerji reads the date on this coin as 
140(1)2 Sakabda, and then enters into some speculations as 
to the date of the first conquest of Sylhet. He also attempts to 
explain how Gurugovinda, the correct form of the name came 
to be misspelt in Bengali books as Gauragovinda, by assuming 
that the Bcribes, in their carelessness, left out the final 3 in 

writing y ^'i , and thus <J came to be transliterated in Bengali 

as Gaura. He apparently overlooks the fact that the name was 
always written in Bengali as Gaucla and not Gaura. 

1 would first draw attention to the fact that the date of 
the fi r - st conquest of Sylhet ceased to be an object of speculation, 
when Air. Stapleton published an inscription from Sylhet in the 
August number of the Dacca Review for 1913, p. 154. 

The inscription clearly states that the first conquest of 
Sylhet was accomplished by Sikandar Khan GhazI in the time of 
Shamsu-d-din Firoz Shall in 703 H = 1303 A.D. 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No XXX VI I. N. 49 

^LLL; «S*£ ^ ^S}^ ^A^ ;^lx^c O^s ^ >-^4:V^ **M y*« /•5LJ -JJ J 

«* c . , • - 

'' The first conquest by Islam of the town Arsat Srlhafc was 
by the hand of Sikandar Khan Ghazi in the time of Sultan Viro/ 
Shah Dehlavi in the vear 70:) H." l 

As regards the coin itself, strangely enough, Mr. Banerji 
himself described some time ago in the Annual Report of the 
Archaeological Survey of India for 1913-14, pp. 249-53, no less 
than nine coins of Tippera of this type, two of them with pre- 
cisely similar phraseology of legend. The photograph of the 
alleged coin of Gurugovinda published with Sir. Banerji's note 
in the J A.S.B. is much les* distinct than the one published in 
the I.M.C. 

The following appears to be the correct reading of the coin : 


Obverse. — S lisrivu 

t a G o v i 
i n d a D e v a h. 

Reverse. — Lion running to proper right; a b/ mark on his 
back. Between the two fore -legs *pF ; between the two hind legs 
^<* ; between the hindmost leg and the upturned tail -f- ^>. 

N.B. A small cross or four-pointed star stands for \r. 
This form of eight may be seen on the first page of leaf 
• 3 of the manuscript of Sri Krishna Kirtana in the Variglya 

Sahit>a Parisat -edition of the book. The unit I believe is 1. 
But it may be a cramped 2 with the lower limb very short. 
It is difficult to understand how Messrs. Banerji and Vidya- 
vinoda read the ta at the beginning of the obverse second line 
as na or ru, as exactly similar ta's appear on two of the coins 
described by Mr. Banerjee in the report of the Archaeological. 
Survey, referred to above. 

There is a dagger-like perpendicular stroke between the 
second An and yu, which is very probably the trident of 
^iva. Govinda Manikva was a renowned Saiva (RftjamSla, 
by Kailasa Chandra Simha, p. 93.) The trident, it may be 
noted, is very clear in the same position in the coin of 
Hatnarnanikya described below. 

The coin is, therefore, one of Govinda manikva of Tippera, 
dated in the Saka year 1581. 

The omission of the term Manikva, the title of the 
Tippera Rajas, in the obverse legend, is rather unusual. But 
we must remember that it is a quarter-rupee and the space 
available for writing is rather meagre. Fortunately, we can 
support the reading bv an exact! v similar coin of Kaiyana- 
manikya. father of Govinda-manikva. 

1 The inscription is now in the Dacca Museum. Mr. Stapleton 
na* recently republished the complete inscription. J A.S.B. , 1922, Xo. 7. 


50 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. |'N.S . XTX, 

2. A Quarter-Rupee of Kalyana-manikya. 

This coin, along with a set of three other Tippera coins, 
was obtained through the exertions of Babu Narendranarayana 
Chakravartl. M.A., Sub- Deputy Magistrate, Comilla, from 
Babu Brajendra Kuinara Chatarjl, M.A.. B.L., Asst. Manager 
of the Tippera Raj Estates, and tlie latter gentleman ha- 
kindly presented these coins to the Dacca Museum. 

(1) Coin of Kalyana-manikya Fig. J. 

Silver. Size, -66, Weight, 39 grs. Date 1548 S. 

Obverse. — In a square, the margins outside it being 
•cupied by decorative curves, as in the coin of Govinda- 

manikva described above 

« • 

• * 


• • • ■ 


i era; . 

Reverse. — In a circle within a circle of dots, grotesque 
lion running to proper right, with the right fore-paw raised. 
A v mark at the top. 

Between the two fore-legs 

Between the two hind -legs 

Between the hind -most leg and the upturned tail . . 8* 

The last figure of the date has a cross-like appearance, 
but the two lines of the cross do not cut each other at right 
angles. This figure, as already pointed out, should be taken 
^as 8. 

T should like to draw attention to certain other points 
referred to in Mr. Banerji's note on the Coinage of Tippera in 
the Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 

(n) The inexplicable syllables on the coins of Ratna- 
manikya which Mr. Banerji reads a^ ddi. dm, dda are in all 
probability Sri Durgga. The reading of Sri Durgga, however, 
is not altogether free from objection. 

(b) The date on the coins of Krisna-manikya (A.S.Bj 
1912-14, Plate LXVII. Nos. 11 and 12) with his queen-consort 
Jahnavl are read bv Mr. Banerji as 1682 S. The figures on 

i 1 « 1 . * V ill 

the .silver coin are not very clear, but the second figure. aHea>| 
seems to be 5. In the case, however, of the gold coin jN'o 12) 

the succeeding figures appear to be 62. The Rajamala does 
not mention any Krisna-manikya on the throne of Tippera in 
or about 1562 S., but one significant fact needs to be considered 
in this connection. The coin of Kalvana- manikva in the 
Dacca Museum cabinet is dated in 1542 Sakabda. The next 
reliable date appears to be 1573 8.. in a copper plate grant of 
Kalyana-manikya, published in the Rajamala, p. 592. The 

1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 51 


next date is 1581 S., on the coin of Govinda-manikya discussed 
above There is also 1582 S., on a coin of Chhatra-manikva, 
second son of Kalyana-manikya, noticed on page 39 of the 


The history of the period is confused and very little 
known. Yasodhara-manikya came to the throne of Tippera 
in 1535 8., according to the Rajamala ; but his coin of 1522 S. 
in the Dacca Museum cabinet (to be described below) shows 
that he must have come to the throne at least thirteen years 
earlier. He is safd 
the Mughal Kmper< 

merit which is shown to be very probable by the recent dis- 
coveries by Prof. Jadunath Sarkar in the M Bahar-i-Stan," 
about Islam Khan's wars in Bengal. It is said that in his 
contest with the Mughal army, Yasodhara was taken prisoner 
and sent to Dehll. The whole of Tippera was overrun by 
the Mughal army. Yasodhara was offered peace on easy 
terms, provided he acknowledged the Mughal Emperor 


suzerain; but he preferred abdication and died in Yrindavana. 
a religious recluse, worshipping Yisnu. 

The throne according to Yasodhara's desire went to one 
Kalyana-manikya, about whose parentage nothing is known, 
but who is said to have been a distant cousin of Yasodhara. 

Kalyana-manikva, as we have already seen, reigned 
probably from 1548 S. to 1581 S. The 1562 S., which 1 propose 
to read on the coins of Krisna-manikya, falls exactly between 
the two limits of Kalyana-manikya's reign. The only sugges- 
tion I can make is, that during the long reign of Kaiyana- 
manikya, who did not belong to the direct royal line, "his 
authority was disputed by a relation who thought he had better 
claims to the throne and who styled himself Krisna-manikva 
°n his coins. 


Coins of Rajadhara, YaSodJiara and Raina-manikya in 

the cabinet of the Dacca Museum. 

The coin of Kalyana-manikya in the cabinet ot the Dacca 
Museum has already been described. I take this opportunity 
of putting on record three other ancient Tippera coins in the 
-cabinet of the Dacca Museum. 

(2) Coin of Rajadhara-manikya. Fig. 1. 

Silver. Weight, 161 grs. Size, 92. Date 1608 S. 

Obverse.— In a square 

^5 3TS 

ft qttWCTJl . 

52 N. Journal &f the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

The margins are occupied by scrolls. 

Reverse. — In a circle, within a ring of small circles, with 
centres marked by points; grotesque lion running to proper 
right, with a trident fixed on its back, and a mark like an 
inverted comma appearing near its bent tail 

Between the fore paws 

• • 


Between the hind paws . . "> £ 

Between the tail and the hindmost paw . . oV . 

The date is written ><?o--f- and the first figures are 
without doubt one, five and zero. Next is a solid cipher and 
then a cross. If the cross is 8, the solid cipher does not count 
and the date is 1508 S. But if the cross in not a figure, then 
the date is 1.300 S. 

(3) Coin of Yaso-manikya, son of Rajarihara-manikya. 

Fig. 2. 

Silver. Weight, 163 grs. Size, 94. Date, 1522 S. 

Obverse — As in the previous coin, in a square ; the margins* 
outside being occupied by scroll-work 

nfaTfa^I C* 


ft ^tPfC^fl . 

Reverse. — Tn a circle, within a ring of small circles, with 
centres marked by points, as in the previous coin. 

The rampant lion running to proper right is much smaller 
than usual, while the upper portion of the circle is occupied by 

the figure of Krisna playing on a flute ; two females stand on 

I * 1 % * . A * ■- __ _ _ — m 

^ ^m 

^ ... x •/- o J 

either side each with a hand raised towards Krisna. 

• ft • 

Between the circumference of the circle and 
the female figure to the proper right . . "I 

Between the fore paws of the lion . . f ^ 

Between the hind paws . . . • **. • 

The appearance of Krisna, with female figures, on the 
oin bespeaks Yaso-manikya's devotion to Krisna and agrees 
well with the statement of the Rajamala (p. 76),'that he died in 
Vrindabana. worshipping Vishnu. 1 

(4) Coin of Ratna-manikya, grandson of Govinda- 
manikya. Fig. 4. 

Silver. Weight, 163 grs. Size, 94. Date, 1607 S. 

06rer*6.— Within a square, open at the top, the space there 

» Five more coins of YaSo-manikya have recently been presented to 
the Dacca Museum Cabinet by Brajendra Babu. Each of them hasshgnt 
variations in the obverse and reverse legends. The date ifi the same 
on all of them, viz., 1522 &aka. 







Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. 

N. o)5 

being occupied by the letters f*:<U, with the representation of a 

trident between the two letters 

^ 3* 

The margins are occupied by scroll-work. 

Reverse. — In a circle, within a ring of small circles, with 
centres marked by points, grotesque lion running to proper 
right, with a trident fixed on its back — 

Between the fore paws 
Between the hind paws 

• « 

• • 



O . 

Between the tail and the hindmost paw 

1 annex a pedigree, showing the relationship and the dates 
of the kings dealt with. 

Name of king. 

Date given in 

Date from coins 

• • 


Yajtodhara, son of Raja- 


Kalyana, distant cousin 

of Ya>'odhara. 
Govinda, son of Kalyana 
1 hhatra, 2nd son of 

Govinda (2nd time) 



Uatna, son ol Ramadeva 

Narendra, son 

Govinda (usurper). 
Ratna (2nd time) 

1533-35 S. 

— w 

1535-4- 8. 

• • 

1508 8. 
1522 S. 

1547-1581 S. . . 

1548 S. 

1581-82 S. 

1 582 -87 S. 

• • 

1581 S. 

1582 S. 

I Rajamala. |» 86) 




1587-1591 S. 
1501-1604 S. 

1604-1605 8. 
1605-1606 S. 
I (106-1634 S. 

» • 

• • 

• • 

. * • 

1607 S 

Coins were usually struck in Tipper* on the accession of a 
new sovereign and this custom is still followed. Some of the 
dates found on the coins mav, therefore, represent the initial 

years of each sovereign. 1 

Dacca Museum : 
Th< mth Jan.. 1021. 

N T . K. Hfiattasaij. 

1 I have received some valuable suggestions 

of dates on the coins from Mr. R. Bum, T.C.S., 

grateful appreciation of his assistance. 

regarding the reading 
and T record here my 

54 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX,. 

230. Notes on the Gupta and Later Gupta Coinage. 

1. Coins of Samachara Deva. 

A copper-plate inscription of a king of Eastern India, 
who is called Samachara Deva on the plate, was discovered in 
1909 in the village of Ghugrahati. under the Kotalipada Police 
Station of the Farldpur district of Bengal. It was edited by 
Mr. R. D. Banerji, M.A , of the Archaeological Survey in 
J.A.S.B., August 1910. Mr. Banerji tried to prove that the 
grant was spurious, while Mr. Pargiter contended that it was a 
perfectly genuine one (J.A.S.B., 1911, June and August). The 
late Dr. Bloch ridiculed the idea of a king with such a curious 
name as Samachara,— " Mr. Decency." (A.S.R., 1907-8, p. 266.) 
As a result, Samachara Deva's existence and identity can 
hardly be said to have yet been satisfactorily established, and 
any new light on the subject may be welcome. Now, did 
Samachara Deva actually live and reign ? Mr. Pargiter has 
already answered this question. " Even if the grant were 
spurious, no forger would be so foolish as to date it in the 
reign of a king who never existed." (J.A.S.B., August 1911, 
p. 499.) Fortunately, we can adduce stronger proofs of his 
existence than mere reasons — proofs which have been actually 
in the hands of previous writers, though no one has ever 
suspected their existence hitherto. I refer to the two coins, 
described as 'uncertain' on pp. 120 and 122 of the I.M.C., 
Vol. I, and illustrated as Nos. 11 and 13 on Plate XVI. They 
are both of gokl (considerably alloyed with silver). One of 
them, of the Rajalila or the ' throned king ' type, was found 
on the banks of the Arunkhali river, near Muhammadpur, in 
the Jessore district of Bengal. It was found along with a 
eold coin of Sasahka and another gold coin of the light-weight 
Imitation Gupta " type, as well as silver coins of Chandra - 
gupta, Skandagupta, 'and Kumaragupta. (Allan, Catalogue 
of Gupta Coins, Introduction, Section 171 ; and J.A.S.B., 
1852, Plate XII.) The provenance of the other coin is un- 
known. It is of the common « archer type ' of the Gupta coins. 
The king's name occurs below the right arm of the king, but 
Dr. V. A. Smith did not venture on a reading. A letter ocean 
between the feet of the king which Dr Smith recognised as 
Cha. The reverse legend he recognised as Narendra-itnata. 
with some hesitation. Of the Rajalila coin, he read the name 
of the king on the obverse as Yamadha, written in characters 
of the close of the sixth century, and the reverse legend as 
Narendraditya. Mr. Allan in his " Catalogue of Gupta Coins 
attributes the ' archer tvpe ' coin to a period earlier than that 
of Sasahka (Introd., p.lxi) ; and from the supplanting of W 
Garuda standard of the Guptas by the Bull standard on th«> 
coin, surmises that the coin was that of a devout Saiva. J he 
king's name he reads hesitatingly (Section 165) as Sohn or 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXX VII. N. 55 

Samdcha or Yamacha, and thus desires to connect it with the 
Rajalila coin, on which he reads the king's name as Ymnadha 
The reverse legend he reads on both the coins as Narendra- 


In the Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 
1913-14. Mr. R. D. Bauer ji discusses these two coins again : 
and after a careful study he conies to the conclusion that the 
, name of the kino- on the obverse of both the coins is the 


same, viz. Ynma. The reverse legend is read as Narendra- 

A careful study of the two coins will, I believe, convince 
any scholar, that the name of the king is the same on both 
the coins, and that it cannot be read as anything else than 
Samacha ; and the reading is confirmed now that we know of 
the existence of a contemporary king, Samachara Deva by 
name, whose copper-plate inscription was discovered not far' 
from the find spot of one of these coins (the Rajalila coin), 
and the lettering of whose name, as written on his copper- 
plate, closely agrees with the lettering on these coins. The 
coins may therefore le assigned to the Samachara Deva of the 
Ghugrahati plate ; and they in their turn furnish proofs, 
i hitherto wanting, of his existence and reign, and of the 

genuineness of the Ghugrahati plate These coins may be 
described thus : 

(1) Coin of Samachara Deva. 

Metal, alloyed gold. Weight, 148-2 grs. Size, 9. Pro- 
venance unknown. 

Obverse.— The King, a powerful figure in traditional Gupta 
dress, standing in Tribhanga pose. A halo is seen round the 
head and he looks to his own right ; to the left of the head 
curls are shown, A necklace of pearls or golden beads is 
prominent round the king's neck. A bow is shown in the left 
hand, while the right hand is offering incense at the altar. 
Below the left hand, in characters of the close of the sixth 
century A.D. Sama. between the feet eha and above the bull 
of the standard, probably ra. The first a in ma is a super- 
script angular stroke, and the second 5 in cha i« a fchoii 
perpendicular stroke to the proper left, exactly as found on 
the Ghugrahati plate of Samachara Deva: but in this plate 
Jja has the angular stroke and ma the perpendicular one. 
These methods of marking a appear to have been indis- 

To the right of the king Appears a standard firmly planted 
on the ground surmounted by a bull. The Bull standard 
unmistakably shows that the king was a devout Saiva. 

Reverse : — A goddess, nimbate, seated on a full blown 

The <liatanr*e between Muhammadpiir anJ Ghugrahati is ahout 
80 miles. t ) )*tt»v being to the &E.& of the former. 

56 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

lotus. She has a lotus bud with a stalk in her left hand, and a 
noose in the right hand. To the right of the head of fche 
goddess, what appears to be an indistinct monogram is seen, 
and on the left margin occurs the legend X nrendravinata, in 
blurred characters 

(2) Coin of Samachara Deva 

Metal, alloyed gold, slightly purer than Xo. 1. Weight. 
149 grs. Size, *8. 

Obverse. — The king, nimbate, sits on a couch in (for coins) 
unique rajalila pose, and looks to his right. His left hand is 
raised, apparently touching the chin of the female figure 
standing to the left, or pointing to the lettering above, compos- 
ing the first two letters of his name. The right hand is placed 
on the hip in a manner which, taken with the pose of the 
Shead. seems to express indifference or defiance to the female 
figure standing to the right, though the meaning of the pose is 
not very clear. Above the pointing left hand occurs Sama . 
below the couch cha, and beneath the feet of the female figure 
to the right of the king, ra. 

Reverse. — ThegoddessSarasvatl. 1 nimbate, stands in a lotu- 
bed in Tribhanga pose, looking to her right, the left hand resting 
on a lotus with a bent stalk, while the goddess draws another 
lotus to her face (as if to smell it) with her right hand. A lotus 
bud is on a stalk below the bend of the right hand ; below 
which again is a hamsa (swan), with neck stretched upwards. 
Two fan-like lotus leaves are visible on the two edges of the 
coin. On the left margin occurs the legend Narendravmata. 
The reverse type is also unique. 

Some conclusions force themselves upon the careful observer 
of these two coins : 

(1) The King was certainly not of the Gupta lineage, though 
he may well have been a successor of the Guptas, in the 
dominions where the Guptas had once held sway. 

(2) Samachara must, on palaeographic grounds, be placed 

earlier than Sasarika in chronology ; also there is no place for 
Samachara in chronology after Sasarika, whose immediate 
successors in Eastern India weie Aditya Sena and his descen- 
dants in the west and the Khudgas in the east. 

(3) He was a devout Saiva. The continuance of the Bull 

symbol by Sasarika, as well as the facts : (a) that the Rajalila coin 
was found with a coin of Sasarika and (b) that Sasarika's linkage 
and parentage have never yet been satisfactorily established, 
make it almost certain that Samachara was a predecessor of 
Sasarika in the kingdom of Gauda, and of the same lineage, 
possiblv his father. 

1 Allan calls the figure Laksmt, but Hamsa. the swan, is ordinarily 
associated only with the goddess of learning, Sarasvatl. 

1923.] Numismatic Suppl.ment No. XXXVII. X. f>7 


(4) The RajaUla coin may be later than the other coin, as 
it shows a distinct change from the almost conventional type 
of the latter. 

2. Gupta and Later Gupta Gold Coins from East Bengal. 

A large number of these coins have been found in different 
parts of East Bengal, notably in Kotaltpada in the Fa rid pur 
district and in Sabhar in the Dacca district. The Dacca Museum 
may now claim to have the Largest collection of later Cup* t 
gold coins, there being as many as eight of these coins in its 

The coins are described below : 

(1) Gold coin of Chandra Gupta 11. discovered at the 
village of Guakhola, about three quarters of a mile west of the 
» south-west corner of the fort at Kotalipada, in a field locally 

I known as Sonakanduri. Weiqhl. 127 5 grains. Size, '8. N©w 

m the Dacca Museum. Presented by Babu Nibaran Chandra 

Obverse — King nimbate, looking to his right, a bow in the 
left hand and an arrow held near its head in the right. Standard 

surmounted by Garuda visible on the back-ground between the 
arrow and the king. Below the left arm, Chandra, written 

Reverse. — Goddess, nimbate, seated on a lotus throne, 
within a circle of dots. A flower with a long stalk in her 
left hand and a noose in her right. On the left margin of 
the coin, in a straight line, Srlvikntmah. 

(^) Gold coin of Skanda Gupta : found in the same place 
as No, I, Weight. 142 3. Size, '86 

Obverse. — King nimbate, looking to his right ; a bow hang- 
ing from the left wrist, right hand placed over the point of an 
arrow, the fingers slightlv raised as if assuring abhapa (protec- 

tion). The Garuda standard on his right, from which a pennon 
^ floating in the air. Below the left arm. Skanda. To thi 

right of the face the y of tea visible. On the left margin (pa) 


Reverse.— Goddess nimbate, sitting on a lotus seat, stalked 

flower in left hand, noose in the right. Legend on the margin, 


Belonging to Babu Ramesh Chandra Sen. Head Clerk, 
Madaripur Municipality. 

(3) Gold coin of Skanda Gupta. Weight. 141-5. Size, -86. 
round in the same place as Xos. 1 and 2. 

Obverse.— Same as No. 2: iyah visible to the right of the 
Mug's face. Legend in the left margin (pa) rakitaka 

Reverse. —Same n< No. 2. 

Belonging to Honble Sj. Ambiea Charan M i/umdar of 
V<\ rid pur. 

58 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

Another coin of Skanda Gupta, found in the company of 
the above two, was bought by Mr. H. E. Stapleton and is now 
in his possession. 

(4) Gold coin of a king, unknown. From Kayekha, 
about a mile east from the Kotalipada police station at 
Ghagar Presented to the Dacca Museum by Babu Ma-dan 
Mohan Shaha of TarasL Metal, gold much alloyed. Weight, 

Obverse. — A circle of dots on the margin. King, nimbate, 
looking to his right, bow in left-hand and an arrow head or 
dagger in right. (A slanting line on the extreme right of the 
coin represents the arrow.) The standard in the usual place, 
rises from a thick pedestal, surmounted by a spiral pennon, 1 
with a hood like an elephant's trunk to the right. Below the 
left arm of the king, letters very distinct which look like ^. 
It is difficult to say what these curious letters stand for. The 
top letter appears to be undoubtedly ^ (sa) but the addition 
below complicates the reading. It may be read *£rf, ^*, ^? 
^rf 5 *TO, but it is difficult to propose a definite reading. The 
letters *m, ^, *g ??, ^ ^ or ^ seem fairly certain, but that 
does not help us much. 

The type is a degraded form of the Archer type, but the 
outlines of the king's figure are remarkably distinct. Some 
wavy lines denoting the underclothing of the king, and the 
dots forming the halo round his head are noteworthy. 

Reverse. — Within a circle, surrounded by a circle of dots, a 
goddess standing with right side to the spectator, looking to her 
front: eight-armed; holding a tapering fruit on the plam of 
the proper right hand, as if offering it to someone in front: 
dots on the two sides of the legs suggestive of a long garland 
(of skulls?) falling below the knee. On the left margin a 
badly preserved legend which appears to read Sudhanya. Only 
half of the middle letter dim appears to have been preserved and 
it looks like a ta. 

In J. AS B. f 1910, p. 143, foot-note, Mr. Stapleton notices 
thi* very coin or one like it, as having a clear * beneath the 
king's left arm. 

The following coins are from Sabhfir in the Dacca district 

of Bengal . — 

(5) Unattributed gold coin of degraded Archer type- 
Metal, gold much alloyed. Weight, 87 gre. Size, 84. Found 

at Furana Bhatpara near Sahhar. 

Obverse.— Yew crude execution of the figure of a king 
looking right: vestiges of a bow in the left hand. The right 
hand appears to rest on the hilt of a sword (point of an arrow . 
planted on the ground. An ill-formed standard in the usual 

1 Not, as Allan -'»ppe*e*, by a horse's head. 

1923.J Numismatic Supplement No. XXXV II. N. 59 

place. Circle of dots round the edge. Below the left arm, 
in very small and rude letters, what appears to be Srlkrama. 

Reverse. — The same goddess as in No. 4 above, but very 
rude. Appears to have been struck twice. (The obverse, 
however, has the look of being cast.) On the left margin, letter- 
like scrawls. 

(6) Unattributed gold coin of very debased Gupta 
Archer type. Metal, gold very base, perhaps baser than the 

foregoing one. Weight, 869/ Size, 93. Found at Rajasan 
near Sabhar in the mound to the south-east of Kataganga. 

Nothing is distinct on the obverse which appears to have 
been cast. The reverse shows the same type of goddess as 
the above two, but she seems to be only six-armed. The 
garland (of skulls ?) very prominent and hangs just above the 
ankle. Circle of large dots on the edges of both sides. 

(7) Unattributed gold coin of very debased Gupta 

Archer type, but superior in design to No. 6 and like No. 5 ; 
Metal, Gold much alloyed. Weight, 75 grs. Size, 74 (smaller 
and lighter than any hitherto met with). Found at Bhatpara 
to the north of Sabhar. 

Obverse. — King nimbate looking to proper right. The bow 
hardly touches the left hand. The right hand seems to be 
offering incense on an altar. The standard,, surmounted by 
curious S-shaped head from which floats a banner. Beneath the 

right arm, there is a letter which appears to be Sri. Cf. Sti 
in No. 5. 

Reverse. — Six-armed goddess with garland, the two sides of 

which descend straight to the earth. The feet of the goddes< 

point to her left. Legend on the left margin, of which only 

the middle letter dim is recognisable. Circle of dots on both 

(S) Unattributed gold coin of debased Gupta Archer type. 
] Ietal 9 gold much alloyed. Weight. 87 5. Size, -78. Found 
at Sabhar. 

Obverse. — King looking to right, as in the above coin. The 
standard has the same S-shaped head. Below the left arm, 
Sri. Between the legs of the king appears a cross-shaped 
mark, which is a Gupta ma, if it is a letter. It may, however, 
*>e an altar, as above it is represented a tiny tapering figure 
resembling a flame. The bow hardly touches the king's left 
hand. Circle of large dots or undulations on the edges. 

Reverse — The same six-armed goddess, as in the above 


Won. The garland is very prominent. 

(9) Another coin of the same type and perhaps of baa r 
gold. Weight, 86*5. Size, -82, Found at Sabhar. 

Obverse. — Very crude, but like the above. Sri to the 
proper right of the king's head. The same undulated border, 

Ri vt rse.— The sam* six-armed god«less ? but erud*\ 

60 X. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, i X.S., XIX, 

(10) Another coin of the same type and material, but 
better executed. Weight, 84. Size, 76. Found at Sabhar. 

Ft resembles Xo. 5 in having what appears to be Sri 
Krama below the left arm of the king The find of a second 
specimen of this cla>s confirms the supposition that these ar> 
actual letters, though the reading is still doubtful. A mono- 
gram resembling a four-bladed fan appears to the proper right 
•f the king's head. The goddess on the reverse appears to be 
eight -armed which is perhaps her correct appearance, the 
debasement of the later coins being responsible for her appear- 
ance with six arms. 

(11) Another coin of the same type Metal, alloyed gold 
II eight, 86-8. Size, -It. Found in a village under the LSksam 
police station of the Tippera district. 

Obverse.— Sharply executed. Standard S-shaped. A very 

prominent Sri below the left arm of the king and another les- 
prominent to the proper right of his head. 

Reverse. — The same goddess, six-armed : garland promi- 

o. The Origin of the < 1 mil, it ion Gup' a ' Coins. 

In order to attempt an attribution of these light-weight 
coins in imitation of Gupta tvpes. it will be well to take note of 
other coins of this class noticed elsewhere. 

(12) B.M.C.. Gupta Dynasties. J. Allan, p. 154, No. 620. 
Metal, base gold. Weight, 86 5 grs. Size, -85. 


A dagger- like thing in the right hand of the king ; standard, 
spiral-headed like our No. 4. But a distinct Sri to the right 
of king's face and a horse below his left arm. Eight-armed 
godde-s on the reverse like No. 4, holding a tapering fruit in 
proper right hand : rude legend on the left margin. Sudhanya. 
1 he norse suggests a claim on the part of the king who issued 
the coin to universal sovereignty bv the performance of a 

(13) Ibid, No 621. Metal, base gold. Weight, 925. 

Size, 85. 

Standard the same as in above; king's right hand 
plucking at the arrow (or sword-hilt ?) on his right. The same 
eight-armed goddess on the reverse, with the fruit in proper 

right hand. The legend on the left margin more distinct, and 
appear- to read Sri Sudhanyaditya. 

(14) Ibid. No. 622. Metal, base gold. Weight. Si 7. 
o»a . 85. 

Similar to the above. Crescent between king and standard. 
Legend on the reverse Sudhanya. 

(15) Archaeological Survev Report, 1913-14, Notes on 
Indian Numismatics.. H. 1). Banerji. p 258. Imitation Gupta 

coin of base gold. Weight. 83 3. Size, 9. Found, with a 
coin of Sasarika and another coin of samachara Deva (the 



1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. X. 61 

Bajalila coin, already described), as well as some silver coins 
of the Imperial Guptas, near Muhammadpur in Jessore. 

Exactly like No. 12 above. Legend on the reverse the 
same : suggestive of a horse-sacrifice. 

(16) Ibid. Imitation Gupta coin of base gold. Weight, 
'85. Size, -9. Found in the Bogra district (in Mahasthan ?), 
and now in the possession of Babu Mrityunjay Ray Chan- 
dhuri, Zamindar of Sadya puskarini in the Bangpur district 
of Bengal. 

The outline of the king's figure rather distinct, th< 
execution of the bow in the king's left hand very good. A 
letter or monogram appears between the standard and the 
king's face. Mr. Banerji reads it as pa. A stroke like ra 
appears between the bow and the king's waist The figure of 
the eight-armed goddess in a circle within the circle of dots. 
Legend the same, Sudhanya. 

(17) J.A.S.B., April, 1910, pp. 142-143, History and 
Ethnology of North-eastern India, by Mr. H. E. Stapleton. 
Imitation Gupta coin of base gold. Weight, 87-6. Size, 8. 
Found in Manesvar, in the western suburbs of Dacca. 

No lettering on the obverse. The same eight-armed 
goddess on the reverse and apparently the same legend. 

(18) Ibid. Imitation Gupta coin of base gold. Weight, 
883. Size, "88. Provenance unknown, but probablv some- 
where in the Dacca district. 

Exactly like No. 12 above. Sri between the king's face 
and standard, and horse below his left arm as in Nos 14 and 
15. The same eight-armed goddess on the reverse and appar- 
ently the same legend. 

(19) History of Vikramapura (in Bengali), by Babu Jogen- 
dra Xath Gupta, First edition, p. 69. Imitation Gupta coin of 
base gold. Weight and Size, not recorded. Appears to be 
like our No. 6. I have seen two more coin> of this class, one 
in the Nahar collection at 4>, Indian Minor Street, Calcutta, 
and the other in the possession of Rai Mani Lai Nahar Bahadur 
of 5, Indian Mirror Street, Calcutta. I was told that these 
two coins were procured by purchase from Lurknow. 

m Allan (ibid, § 127) is of opinion that these are undoubtedly 
ancient coins. u These coins are connected by weight and by 
the border of large dots with the coin of Sasanka illustrated 
2 n Plate XXIV, 2, and must be dated about the middle of the 
~th century A.D. We have considerable evidence that these 
are actual coins which circulated in Eastern Bengal, probably 
about the 7th century AD." Mr. Stapleton also is of opinion 
that they were Bengal coins of a somewhat later date than 
^kandagupta (J.A.S.B., April, 1910, p. 143, foot-note.) 

The following comparative study of the weights of the 
coins is interesting : 


62 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XfX, 





? J 

5 * 


854 grains 


87 ,, 


. . 86-9 


• ■ 75 ,, 


. . 87-5 


. . 86-5 „ 


. . 84 »• 

Xo. 12 

* y 

* > 

» 9 

9 9 

• * 

• • 

■ * 

• • 

• • 

865 grains 





8 8 • 3 


? I 

9 ' 

• » 




It appears pretty clear from the above that these coins were 
struck on the 50 rati or half Suvarna standard, of a rati of 
about lf% grain, i.e. an original weight of about 95 grains. 
From Sasanka's coin referred to by Allan above, which weighs 
85 grains, and from a coin of Kacha (Samudragupta ?) of 
debased gold (I.M.C., Vol I, p. 102, Kacha No. 2 , foot-note 
Xo. 2), which weighs 87*4, it appears that the standard was 
not unknown, but very seldom used. The coin of Sasanka 

seems to have been the immediate prototyp 

of these 


The following 




these coins may be 

emphasised : 

(a) These were undoubtedly East Indian coins, and had 
circulation only in Eastern India. 

(6) They are inter-connected by weight, by the border of 
large dots on the two sides, and the figure of the eight-armed 
standing goddess looking to her left, on the reverse; con- 
sequently, they were issued by the same family or in the same 

(c) They cannot be attributed to any of the Imperial 
Guptas, even to the last kings of the line, or to Samachara 
Deva or Sasanka. The crude execution and the figure of the 
goddess on the reverse, the uniform light weight, — all tell 
against this. 

(rf) They imitate Gupta coins and were probably issued 
by a family, who had veneration for Gupta traditions, and 
meant to keep them up. The spiral standard in place of the 
Garnda standard and the substitution of the eight-armed 
goddess on the reverse show, however, that the family was not 
connected with the Imperial Guptas. 

(e) They were not issued by the Palas or the Senas ot 
Bengal, as, apart from the fact^ that no coin* that can be 
attributed to them are known, no one of these coins, except 
the one illustrated in the History of Vikramapura (found in 
EampaL the ancient capital of the Senas), was found near the 
ancient seats of the Palas or Sena- Moreover it is not 
probable that these coins are so late. The few letters that 
appear on them, here and there, appear to be older in form 
than the letters on the earliest Pala inscriptions. 

(/) They cannot be attributed to Harsavardhana, as his 
coins are known, and these coins do not resemble them in any 

m y. 


1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXV 11. N\ 63 

(g) The horse-sacrifice class of these coins was evidently 

issued by a king, who claimed paramount power and had 
i celebrated a horse-sacrifice. 

(h) One of these horse sacrifice coins was found with both 
a coin of Sasarika and one of the Samaehara Deva. Jndffinc 


from the debased character of these coins, it would appear 
that they were issued by a king, who claimed paramount 
power and who had celebrated a horse-sacrifice after the dis- 
appearance of Harsavardhana and Sasarika from the political 


The only reasonable conclusion that can be deduced from 
the above points is, that the dynasty that satisfies all these 
conditions i^the Gupta dvnastv of Masadha. wdiose first kins;, 
Aditya Sena Deva. rose to paramount power in Eastern India 
immediately after the death of Harsavardhana and celebrated 
a horse-sacrifice The Deoghar inscription which mention- 
this king (Fleet, p. 213), though much later in date, is evident- 
ly based on a contemporary inscription, and appears to record 
I a genuine tradition about him. It says that Aditva Sena was 

the performer of the Asvaniedha and other sacrifices: that 
he. having returned from the Chola country, performed three 
Asvamedha sacrifices and consecrated a temple at the expense 
of three lakhs of tankakas of gold. 

The origin cf the Gupta kings of Magadha is traced from 
one Krisna Gupta in the Apshad inscription of Aditya Sena 
(Fleet. No. 42) This line had matrimonial alliances with the 
Vardhana and the Maukhari kings, Prahhakara Vardhana 
being son of Mahasena Gupta, sister of Mahasena Gupta. 
Mahasena's son was Madhava, who threw in his Jot with his 
nephew Harsavardhana, and Madhava's son was Aditya Sena 
Krisna Gupta, eighth in ascent from Aditya Sena, it has been 
suggested, was identical with Govinda Gupta (R, D. Banerji 
History of Bengal, Part 1, p. 76), second son of Chandra 
Gupta II; but except that the name Krisna and Govinda are 
synonymous, and the fact that the time of Krishna Gupta may 
•»e pushed back to the time of Govinda Gupta, there is no 
"ther ground for the identification. 

The Deoghar inscription says that Aditya Sena spent 
hree lakhs of gold tankakas in consecrating a temple. The 
meaning of the word tankaka is given in the Dictionary as 
"a stamped coin, especially of silver" ; "a weight of silvei 
equal to four masha-s." Four mashas are equal to only 
32 rails, or about 56 grains, the standard weight of the punch - 
marked silver coins of India. The gold coins of the Imitation 
Gupta type are of course heavier, but the use of the word 
tankaka, ordinarily emploved for silver coins, in the statement 
that three lakhs of gold tankaka* were expended, possibly 
show* that the writer meant to denote these light-weight l'oM 
ooins, current during the time of the Guptas of Mijradha. and 


t>4 N. Journal of (he Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

it was perhaps by this name that these coins were known in 
contemporary times. 

The fall of the Guptas of Magadha was followed by a 
century-long anarchy in Eastern India, during which the 
debasement of the type went on until it finally became 
extinct. In the long drawn agony, all civilised arts and crafts 
were forgotten, including* the art of striking coins, and, in 
consequence, we meet with the unique spectacle of a country 
doing without any minted money whatever for four long 
centuries ; for it has yet to be proved that the Palas and the 
.Senas struck coins. We have the evidence of the Tabaqat-i- 
Nasiri that the Muhammadans, on their first entry into Bengal, 

no other currency in the country except cowrie shells, 
which they found sufficing for all transactions of life. The 
contemporary Tibetan account of the adventures of the 
Tibetan scholar, who was sent by the king of Tibet to take 
Atlsa Dlpankara to Tibet, translated by the late Rai Sarat 
Chandra Das Bahadur, in his w Indian Pandits in the Land 
of Snow," records an interesting picture of monastic life 
during the rule of Xayapala in 1040 AD. It shows that all 
monetary transactions were made in gold measured out in 
small quantities and in cowries, Xo minted money is referred 
to anywhere in the narrative. 

N. K. Bhattasali. 

3 • 

240. Persian Couplets on the Mughal and Subsequent 


The couplets inscribed on the coins of the Mughal Einpei- 
ors are often the merest trash when considered as poetry bat 
they are not, for all that, altogether devoid of interest or 
utility. They illustrate the overweening conceit and self- 
esteem of these rulers and the servility and adulation of the 
court poets. At the same time, the metrical arrangement and 
rhythm often makes it easy for us to supply on worn, crudely 
executed or otherwise defective specimens, letters and even 
words which are but partially visible. But though the metric- 
al nature of the legends is universally acknowledged, and the 
individual words have in almost all eases been deciphered 
correctly, they have not always been ordered in our catalogues 
as the rules of Persian prosody require. 

It is now more than fifty years since Blochmann drew 
attention to this shortcoming in Marsden's Numismata, and 
-howed how " necessary it was even for numismaticians to 
take care of the Ars Poetica. when describing the coins of the 
Moghul dynasty of India and the Cafawis of Persia'' (Pro- 
ceedings A. SB., 1869, p. 260). More recently, Mr. John Allan 

has laid stress on the same point in connection with the 
metrical inscriptions on the coins of the Guptas. He has not 



1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII N. 65 

only stated in each case whether the line is an Upagiti, Prthvi 
or a Vamshasthavila verse, but employed the metre as the 
clue to the determination of many doubtful questions, and 
constituted it the ultima ratio for judging the soundness of 
emendations and proposals for the restoration of the text 
(Catalogue of the Coins of the Gupta Dynasties, 1914, In trod., 
f pp. cvii-cxxiv). 

C. J. Kodgers was on his, guard against this pitfall, and 

thought it necessary to consult two competent Maulavls of 
the Calcutta Madrassa (J.A.S.B., 1888, pp. 18. 27, Notes), who 
would appear to have furnished him with the true order, as 
well as the correct renderings of the distichs. Mr. Stanley Lane- 
Poole also admits having availed himself of the assistance of 
Dr. Rieu in regard to this matter (B.M.C., Introd., cxix). It is 
to be regretted that there are no traces of this punctilious 
regard for metrical correctness in the three latest catalogues of 
Mughal coins, and that the ordering of the words in them leaves 
considerable room for improvement. I shall, for the sake of 
brevity, take only the most recent one — the excellent compila- 
tion of Mr. Brown — to whose industry we are indebted for an 
exhaustive list of all such ' Baits' as have been discovered. 
They are just eighty in number, but the order of the words in 
the first hemistichs of at least fifteen of them is demonstrably 
erroneous, and the second line also of one distich is metrically 
unsatisfactory. About seven of them (N T os. 47, 60, 66, 69, 71, 
75 and 79) which are correctlv given in Rodgers' article 
(J.A.S.B., 1888. pp. 18-31), and the rectification of which offers 
no difficulty, 1 shall say nothing. I will deal only with the 
eight or nine couplets which have been discovered since he 

For instance, No. 20 should be : 

jS I sU ^jf rtfctf* »l£ JL*j *LiJ^i- 

M usa mma n - i-Salim . 


In the second line of No. 40, the insertion of fche word 
*t£ before c - *-hy auc * the substitution of *UoL for *l& is 
obviously required to make the line conform to the rules of 

scan -ion. 

The metre of No. 51 is exactly the game as that of No. 20, 
as is obvious from the fact that the second hemistich of both 
are absolutely identical. It consists ol four -^^-s and the 

couplet therefore must read 

"y 5 jmi ti ij ^i Ji fc- , dJ Uj 

jS\ |U ^1 jJS^ «U ^U. ?L^ 

6<> N . J<m rn a I of Ih e A < iat k Soc it ly of Be ngal . [ X . S . , X I X . 

J have said that the metrical arrangement of the legend 

^ v . — i% 

is often helpful in enabling us to reconstruct or restore the 
couplet, when all the words have not come on the coin. This 
is well exemplified by No. 61. The second hemistich which is 
complete shows, the metre is Hajaz-i-Musaddas i-Maqsur or 

Mahzuf JUiUu ^jJU^Ux c J.>xU^. The first line, therefore, cannot 
possibly be Jy ^U ; ^ y, ax^. It is not difficult to say what it 
ought to he. as the second line of No. 61 is ^Jb JZ JL *U oI^j 
That of No 6:i is 

and that of No. 75 

^U jJ JU »U i 

^ jb* Jk ifi^M y - 

Every word of the first line is inscribed clearly and may be 
read by any one on the obverse of P.M.C., 2839 There is, 
therefore, no room whatever for hesitation on the question, and 
it may be said with confidence that the first lines of Nos. 61 
63 and 75 must be identical. But the order of the words as 
given in Mr. Whitehead's catalogue (P.M.C , Nos. 2091 and 
2766) and followed by Mr. Brown, 

• • 

:r- ;, T-* u^.a.Lo 

must be rejected for metrical reasons. The line will scan only 
if it is read 

s? j y — ^ u ci>^ M- *j yy. 

The variant given bv Beale (Miftahu-t-Taivarikh, Lucknow 
Lifch., 1867 A.C., p. 341. 1.2) 

• 4 ** - fi 


equally correct, but J^. is distinctly viable on P.M.C. 
No. 2839, and must consequently be accepted as part of the 
original verse. Similarly, the rules of Persian prosody enable 
us to assert without fear of challenge, that the first lines 
of Nos. 62 and 64 must he identi d. although the word Mtdtan 
has not come off on the Multan rupee in Mr Nelson 
Wri hts' cabinet. The metre is Ramal-i-Mtisamman-i-Mah&it 

olW, yylUU ^ , ^lUtras is proved by the second lines. The 
word iJjk* therefore has to be supplied. Here again, the 

ordering of the words of the first line is metrically false. It 
should he — 

Lastly the metre of No. 77 is Mnjta^Mm imtnan MaQbttn-i 
M«f>zuf JL-*i JuiAx Jui JaLc 

Vto ^ w w- v* 

1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 67 

The second line, which is correctly given, leaves no room for 
doul.t on that head. The first line, therefore, should re;»d 

The initial v is not visible hut the exigencies of metre demand 
its restoration. The line will scan only with an izafat after 


In this list of coin couplets, Mr. Brown says that there i- 
a variant of No. <»9 " on a gold coin of Mu'azzamabad (B.M.C., 
No. 937 a) which has not yet been elucidated," and Mr. White- 
head has made a similar remark (P.M.C., Introd., p. c). I 
venture to say that the difficulty is but apparent, and has 
arisen only on account of the words of the first line of the 
usual, couplet having been ordered wrongly. When this 
primary error in regard to the ordinary type is corrected, the 
halt in the variant is not so easily perceptible. The matter 
stands thus : This ordinary line was read 

This is wrong, though it does not sound false to the untrained 
[ ear. But 

clearly does, and hence the doubt. If the ordinary hemistich 
had been read rightly in the first instance, as 

the variant would-have automaticallv taken the form 

There would then have been no obvious dissonance and 
consequently no difficulty. 

Mr. Brown appears to have entertained doubt> M to the 
correctness of No IVJ also, — the distich inscribed on an un- 
published ruj p in his own cabinet, and say- that the reading 
J tentative. [ may assure him that it is metrically unexcep 
fcionable. The metre is Smra-i-M usaddai-i-Matwi-i-Matiquf. 1 

Kod^ers admitted his inabilitv to arrange properly the 
Mandu gold-couplet (Xo. 50). The first line, a- he has ordered 

This coin was read for me by Maulvi «Ali Asghar of Canning Col 
lege, Lucknow. He re ognised the metre and constructed the legend 
accordingly. But the reading was wrong nevertheless : >r the won! he 

* k to be Sij (not clear in my coin) is actually Aft, which appears quite 
hfttinctly on a coin now in the possession of Mr. H. Nelson Wright. 

NO th.l firat lir^ ^f ^..^l^ j„ 

Bo tb^ first line of couplet now read- 

*l£ jJitt*. Ji f >-•! I 

0. J. I 

68 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XIX, 

it, yields sense, but it will not scan and he appears to have 
known it. The truth is that the measure is one of those 

rarely used, viz., <o^^ JU^liu> oJbli J^aAx 

and the metre that which is known in books on Persian 
prosody as Muzar t a4-Akhrab-i-Maq$ur. In the circumstances, 
the correct reading of the distich must be 

^JJt^c^Jt^V ^ ^ J - J 

No. 70 is another difficult couplet, and I am unwilling to 
say anything positive about it, as the coin itself has not been 
figured. But as the metre is 5 in all probability, Ramal-i 

UU. the true order of the 
words must be as follows : 

cr" 15 i^ 3 

^^> v ^; ^Lcl ^ ^yc! b AC* 

I a *l£ ..J J ^.^U Ju 

o' 1 — ^ >lm c»y 


Before leaving the subject, it may be as well to point out 
some minor mistakes or oversights. In No. 10, ^>) is a typo- 
graphical or clerical error for i_u-, . The first word of the first 

line of Nos. 8 and 41 is \ } j> J^. (not j 3J ? J^ ) ; and should, 

in both cases, be rendered by some such phrase as " world- 
illuminating." In the second hemistich of No. 18, the alif of 
the initial word \\ is redundant and should be deleted, and the 
word »U should be added, so that the line would read, like the 
closely parallel verse (No. 35) 

lii No. 47, kJJU is a misprint for wiJU and the words are best 

ordered as 

jxi\ *U ^t .jCt^a. *U ^O ^SLc t\x> 

Permit me to give one more instance. On the muhrs and 
rupees of Tlpu Sulfcan, the following words have been deci- 
phered : 

•4 * 

f uA«; Jt+)~ ^ f &* 

and the rendering offered by Dr. Taylor is, 'The religion of 
Ahmad is illumined in the world bv'the victory of Haidar 
(Coins of Tlpu Sultan, p. 24). This is an improvement of the 
old Latin version of Marsden as well as the more recent 
English paraphrase of Capt. Tufnell (Catalogue of Mysore 

the way of accuracy. 




1923.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 09 

In the first place, the legend is metrical, and the words 
I should be ordered on the measure 

^Hxb ^ILeb ^ylLcL* ^JIUU 

the metre being Ramnhi-Musamman-i-Maqsur. The true 

f reading therefore must be 

In the second, the translation also is not quite correct. 
ji* here is not a common noun governing j«H^ but a part of - 

the name of Haidar 'All himself, to whom his son appears to 
have been desirous to pay a compliment after death. 

Mr. Bowring informs us that the name of Haidar's father 


1 T 

uas Path Muhammad (Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, p. 12). 
We are further told that the Peshvva Balajl Rao invaded 
Mysore in 1757 A.C. and sent in 1759, a force under Gopal Harl 
to annex the districts, surrendered in pledge, for the ransom of 
thirty-two lakhs, which had been promised, but the payment of 
which was subsequently evaded. Haidar was now placed in 
command of the Mysore army, and his energetic and skilful 
strategy compelled Gopal not only " to abandon the blockade 
of Bangalore but to withdraw his troops from the pledged 
districts and come to terms/' On the departure of the Mara- 
thas, '« Haidar * * * received from the grateful Raja the title 
of Fatah Haidar Bahadur in recognition of his services on this 
occasion. This style be invariably used afterwards on all 
grants made bv him. Previously he had been known simply 
a- Haidar Nayak." (Ibid, 30.) 

This is not all. The legend itself is an imitation or re- 
nuniseenee of the first line of the couplet inscribed on Haidar's 
public or "Great Seal." According to the contemporary 
biographer Mir Husain 'All KirmanI, this was as under : 

— ■ — 

" Futteh Hydur was manifested or born to conquer the world. 
There is no man equal to Ali and no sword like his (recte, like 

^ul(iqar)." ' His pocket seal bore the words, >>*». J» (History 

of Hydur Naik, Tr. W. Miles, Orient. Trans. Fund, 1*42. 
P 491). 

Now there is no room, here at least, for doubt or amphi- 
bology. It would he impossible to take the ^ on thifl 

: The inscription on the Seal is also given bv Beale, Miftahu-t 
1 au "rikh, (K ihnpfir Lithograph, It's* A.H.) p. 370. 

70 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

inscription as a common noun, and absurd to translate it as 
"the victory of Haidar was manifested or born to conquer 
the world." This clinches the question and it is quite clear 
that the coin-legend should be translated thus : " The Faith of 
Ahmad (i.e. Muhammad) has received lustre from (or been 
illumined or glorified by) Fath Haidar in the world." 

But if the building up of these metrical legends is often 

difficult, their correct interpretation is at times no easy task. 
To give an instance, the rendering of the Jammu rupee-couplet 
which was first given by Pxodgers (J. A SB., 1885. p. 66 ; also 
J.A.S.B., 1888, p. 33), and which has been transcribed into his 
own catalogue by Mr. Whitehead is, to my mind, absolute!) 

indefensible. The Persian distich is 

*J abf 

* * * 

dy ^Li Jd ^* r :'r> 

and Rodgers translates it thus : — 


< : 

Ranjit Deo peopled this part, 
Lachmi Narain made glad its heart." 

The English words hardly yield any sense, and are at best 

only " sounds signifying nothing." But if thev mean that 

o •/ o O 

the city or district of Jammu was first peopled by Ranjit Deo. 
it is historically false. The antiquity of Jammu" and its long 


line of kings is matter of common knowledge. Their in- 
digenous chronicles are summarised and can be read in Major 
Smyth's " History of the Reigning Family of Lahore 
(pp. 219-263) by any one who cares to do so. Vide also Elliot 
and Dowson, [II, 467, 471. 517, 510 ; IV, 56, 58, 415. 

f 1 

Again ^/ Mt1 aJLL does not mean to people a part. 
d( aJLl is a common exclamation or mode of salutation and 

means according to Steingass, '* May you nourish" (Dictionary. 
8.V.). It seems to me that the order of the lines must be 
reversed and that the following would be a fairly faithful 
version in English of the Bait : 

Lachhml Narain gladdened hearts, 

And made the family (lit. house) of Han jit Deo pros- 
perous (or flourishing). 
I have elsewhere (Num. Sup. XXXV. p. 57) adduced reasons 
for holding that Ranjit Deo died in 1781 A.O. His known 
coins bear the dates 1841 Sambat and XXVflR. Now the 
28th year of Shah 'Alam II lasted from 5 V-1200 to 4-V-120I 
A.H. i.e., from 6th March. 1786. to 22nd February, 178*3 A.< 
[Mr. Whitehead has 1199-1200 A.H.. but this is an error.] 

Vikram Samvat 1841 commenced on 14th October. 1 <*-* «- h ■• 
and ended on 1st November, 1785 N.s. The discrepancy cannot 
be explained except on the supposition that 28 is an error, for 

1923.J Numismatic Supplement No. XXXVII. N. 71 

26 Julus i.e., 1198-1190 A.H., 26-11 [-1784 to 15-IIM785, Mr. 

Whitehead has 28 in one column, but M in another. Rodeers 
has figured three coins, the dates on which are 1811-27 ; 1841-28; 
and 1841-28. Can it be that the Samvat date on the 28th Julus 
issues has been wrongly read, 1841 for 1843 ? (Rodgers. 
J A. SB.. 1885, PL T, Figs. 2-3-4.) In any case these coins 
supposed to have been " struck by Ranjlt; Deo," must be 
held to have been issued in his name by his son Brij Raj Deo 
or some one else. 1 But this has little or no bearing on the 
general purport or significance of the verse. The crux of the 
matter is ' who was this ' Lachhml Narain ' and why is he said 
to have " gladdened hearts etc." I have not been able to dis- 
cover the name in the list of Ranjlt Deo's ancestors and 
descendants given by Major Smyth (Op. Cit. p. 18) or quoted 
by Rodger* from the Urdu Tan^'i-Ma^kzan-i-Panjab^ 
J.A.S.B., 1885 ? pp. 63, 66 

The only conjecture T can offer is that * LacchhimI Narain ' 

was the patron deity of Ranjit Deo's family, and that the 
object of the striker (whoever he might have been) was to 
avow his devotion and publicly make his grateful acknowledg- 
ments to the god, for the favours bestowed on the Dogra 
prince during his chequered and eventful career. It is hardly 
necessary to labour this point, and the little that is known of 
the history of Ranjlt Deo will be found in the Num. Supp. 
article referred to. See also Smyth, loc. cit , 239-247; 
Journal Punjab Historical Society, Vol. Ill, 1914, pp. 117-8 
It may be pertinent to observe that Vishnu and his consort, 
Lakshmi, when jointly worshipped, as they very commonly are, 
in temples specially consecrated to them, receive the name of 
Lakshmi Narayan. The rationale of this adoration is thus 
stated in the Vishnu Purana : ' Lakshmi. or very commonly 
Sri. is the wife of Vishnu, and under various name- appears in 
j this relation in his various incarnations • As the lord of the 

1 worlds, the god of gods, Janarddana descend- amongst man- 

( kind in various shapes : so does his coadjutor Sri. Thus, when 

Hari was born a dwarf, the son of Aditi. Lakshmi appeared 
j from the lotus as Padma, or Kamala ; when he waa bom a> 

Rama (Parasurama) of the race of Bhrigu, she was Dharani ; 
when he was Raghava (Ramchandra), she was Sita : and when 
he was Krishna, she was Rukmini In the other descents of 
Vishnu she was his associate. If he takes a celestial form, 
she appears as divine : if a mortal, she becomes a mortal too. 

1 Major Smyth savs that Brij Raj Deo died in 1786 AC. and was 
succeeded by his son •- Sefurin Dehu. a young boy, who after a reign of 
seventeen or eighteen months died ** * and Jey Sing, t e only son of 
pejele Sing (the second son of Ranjlt Deo) was creat i Rajah, " Op. Cit, 
r*?~8. Later authorities, however, declare that Brij Raj was « killed in 
battle in 17^7. and was succeeded by his son Sarnpnran Deo" (Hutchison 
and Yoge), Journal Punjab Historical Society, Vol. Ill, 19!*, p 118.) 

72 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX. 

transforming her own person agreeably to whatever character it 

pleases Vishnu to assume/' (H. H. Wilson. ; - Vishnu Purana." 
p. 80). 

We learn from the Imperial Gazetteer that the town of 
Chamba (the capital of a state which was in old times depen 
dent on Kashmir and connected closely with Jammu) contains 
a temple of !i Lakshmi Narayan dating possibly from the 
tenth century" (X ; 134): see also Journal Punjab Historical 
Society, 1915, pp. 93 and 88). Kashtwar also, another of the 
Punjab hill states boasts of a Lakshmi-Narain temple which is- 
as old at least as the time of Shah Jahan, and is now the site 
of the Ziarat or tomb of a famous Muhammadan saint 

— w „_. „, w ._ w***i^ -.-I t. huiiuuk^ iuuiirtuiiiiaudu saint 

(Hutchison and Vogel, History of Kashtwar State in Journal 

— >> 

Punjab Historical Society, Vol. IV, 1915, p. 42). 

In a word, it would appear that Lakshmi Narayan was 
one of the favourite deities of the Dogra Rajputs and this fact 
would go far towards explaining the allusion in the couplet. 

P.S.— Mr. Brown's rendering of the ^/('.'inscribed on some 
rare rupees of Bandhu (No. 5) also leaves considerable room for 
improvement. The words themselves are : 

yS\ AIM &C* tjj 

and the translation offered is : 

" May the current coin of Akbar the Divine 
Be equal to (the name of) the fort of Bandhu 

I venture to say that this cannot be accepted and that it 
is very far from representing the real meaning of the couplet 
which seems to be : 

"May the Coin [stamped with the words! ' Allaha 


Be current as long as the fortress of Bandhu " 

Bandhu was one of the most formidable strongholds in 
Hindustan, and Abul Fazl devotes more th in half a page to its 
description. It was taken only after a siege which lasted for 
more than eight months in the 42nd vear of the reizn. 1005 
A.H. (Akbarnama, Text, III, 72s), and the point of the lines 
lies in the prayer that the mintages of Akbar might continue 

to circulate among men as Ions: as the fortress should stand 
upon earth. 

10th Dec 1922. ' S H HowvaLA. 

241 Thk Mint Name SITpCr (SffBAT). 

One of the most tantalizinglv obscure of the problem- 
connected with the study of the Mughal mint system is th 



1923.] Numismatic Supplement Xo. XXXVI I. X. 73 

determination of the atelier which has been variously located 
atSltpur, Sifcapiir, Peshawar and even Sinor. It is now Dearly 

* _ * 

six years since I suggested to the late Dr. Taylor that th 

puzzling issues were the products of the Surat mint; and I am 

still inclined to believe that this decipherment (which he ex- 

i pressed his readiness at the time to accept) has more to be said 

for it than any other that has been suggested, although it may 
not be incontrovertible or even sueceptible of proof. 

All the coins of the alleged mint of f Sftpur, in our Mu - 
>eums are round, the years being 47. 48 and 49 R. and the 
month Mihr. I do not think that the curious coincidence of 
everyone of them having been uttered in one and the same 
I la hi month — Mihr — has received the attention that it deserves. 
The late Mr. Framji Thanawala had several round Rupees of 
"Sltpur", of two other types, illustrations of four of which 
^are through the kindness of Mr. Vicaji D. Taraporewala repro- 
duced in this supplement. I may observe that on the undoubt- 
ed issues of the Surat mint of 38 R , the terminal letter of the 

place-name is disjoined or separated from the jj-* and written 

above it My submission is that the symbol, which is inscribed 
just below the letters that have been taken to stand for Sit pur 

w not the w of v-^i (as has been supposed), but the o of ^;j^- 

The only difference between the square rupees of 38 R. and the 
round rupees of 47-49 B. is that, in the former this final & 
is written above, in the latter below the j^. The foundation 

of the error lies in the supposition that this symbol is the v of 

vy<5. The untenable character of this assumption is shown by 

two of the coins illustrated. Plate 111, 2, 4. In them the 
can be distinctly seen in the lowest part of the field, in the 

immediate proximity of the ^>. This _ is visible on only two 

out of these four rupees — on the two of which the larger 
diameter permits its coming off on the flan. 

It may be also noticed that the decoration of these 
rupees is unequal. The omission of the superimposed squares 
*nd other ornamental features has made it possible for the en- 
graver to add some letters and it has been suppose* I that the 

word v/>— the denominational epithet especially devised by 
Akbar for the hah rupee — was stamped by error on these whole 

rupees for two years (47 and 48 R.) by the Mint master. 

<>»ie error always begets another. If we take it for granted 

that the symbol below )r * is the —■ of *yi lt is impossible to 

read the other v except as the terminal letter of w,o. But 
there is no necessity whatever of postulating any such thing. 

The true reading of the coins on which the additional 

letters j* are inscribed is &xy* o w.^. I renture to Wf that 

74 N. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIX, 

this simple solution removes all difficulties. There is nothing 
irregular or incorrect in this interposition of o between ^yi 

and the mintname ; cf. the Anhirwala Pattan rupee of 984 
A.H.. Num. Supp. XXVI, 493. Briefly,, the admittedly ques- 

• 1 * mm _ _ 

tionable reading ,_•;- is the inevitable result or corollarv of a 

fundamentally erroneous postulate. The corollarv is, on the 
face of it. startling and incompatible with tacts. If we deny 
the postulate, it falls of itself and our minds are disabused of a 
louble error. 

I am aware that there is still one difficulty and as I have 
no desire to ignore or even slur over it. I will set it out as 
clearly as 1 can. The total number of the coins of this mint 
registered in the catalogues of the British. Indian, Panjab 
and Lucknow Museums is 14 Thev are all of one and the 
ame type and of the 48th or 49th Regnal year (Plate III, 
3,5). They all show the same month — Mihr. Mr. Tarapore- 
wala possesses four more of two other types. On two of them 
the month and year are identical (Mihr— 49) (Plate III, 6) but 
the flans are smaller and the ornamentation less elaborate. 
Besides these, there are two specimens of a distinctly different 
or third type. The flans are as large as tho>e of B.M.C. 177 
or I.M.C 250, but there aie three ^additionalletters. One of 
them is of Mihr 48 R. (Plate III, 4) and apparentlv a dupli- 
cate of the coin in the White King Cabinet (Catalogue, Pt, III. 
Xo. 3527). The other is a sub-varietv of this tvpe. The mys- 
terious or mystifying additional letters can be clearly read, but 
the date is 47 Mihr (Plate III, 2). 

It is in regard to the last coin that the difficulty arises. 
On it, the third or last tooth of the Sin is given a turn or twist 
so as to form the head of what looks like a Mhn. and make tin 

letters read Samur or Simur. The tens figure also is written 
somewhat peculiarly and is so like the usual symbol for 5, 
that had ifc not been for the other issues the date might have 
been read as 57. | But this is a minor matter.) 

It cannot be denied that this coin lends no support to my 
•suggestion and even runs counter to it. but then it runs 
counter to all the other proposed de •ipherments also, and the 
difficulty is far from being so formidable as it appears. 

The matter stands thus: We have altogether nineteen 
rupee, of tj is class. On all of them, except this one,, the head 

of the Htm is conspicuouslv absent. On everyone of th* 

eighteen others, the name, whatever it may be. i< written in 
one and the same way, and in <uch a manlier as to render the 
reading Sam&r or